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1.
J Control Release ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582337

RESUMO

Corneal stromal fibrosis is a common cause of visual impairment resulting from corneal injury, inflammation and surgery. Therefore, there is an unmet need for inhibiting corneal stromal fibrosis. However, bioavailability of topical eye drops is very low due to the tear and corneal barriers. In situ delivery offers a unique alternative to improve efficacy and minimize systemic toxicity. Herein, a drug delivery platform based on thermoresponsive injectable hydrogel/nano-micelles composite with in situ drug-controlled release and long-acting features is developed to prevent corneal scarring and reduce corneal stromal fibrosis in lamellar keratoplasty. The in-situ gelation hydrogels enabled direct delivery of celastrol to the corneal stroma. In vivo evaluation with a rabbit anterior lamellar keratoplasty model showed that hydrogel/micelles platform could effectively inhibit corneal stromal fibrosis. This strategy achieves controlled and prolonged release of celastrol in the corneal stroma of rabbit. Following a single corneal interlamellar injection, celastrol effectively alleviated fibrosis via mTORC1 signal promoting autophagy and inhibiting TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Overall, this strategy demonstrates promise for the clinical application of celastrol in preventing corneal scarring and reducing corneal stromal fibrosis post-lamellar keratoplasty, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted drug delivery systems in ocular therapeutics.

2.
ACS Omega ; 9(13): 15590-15602, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585091

RESUMO

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors for which there is no effective treatment. There are an increasing number of studies on herbal medicine for treating malignant tumors, and the classic botanical medicine Digitalis and its active ingredients for treating heart failure and arrhythmias have been revealed to have significant antitumor efficacy against a wide range of malignant tumors. However, the main components of Digitalis and the molecular mechanisms of its anti-ATC effects have not been extensively studied. Here, we screened the main components and core targets of Digitalis and verified the relationship between the active components and targets through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experimental validation. These experiments showed that the active ingredients of Digitalis inhibit ATC cell activity and lead to ATC cell death through the apoptotic pathway.

3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557027

RESUMO

The intricate electrophysiological functions and anatomical structures of spinal cord tissue render the establishment of in vitro models for spinal cord-related diseases highly challenging. Currently, both in vivo and in vitro models for spinal cord-related diseases are still underdeveloped, complicating the exploration and development of effective therapeutic drugs or strategies. Organoids cultured from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold promise as suitable in vitro models for spinal cord-related diseases. However, the cultivation of spinal cord organoids predominantly relies on Matrigel, a matrix derived from murine sarcoma tissue. Tissue-specific extracellular matrices are key drivers of complex organ development, thus underscoring the urgent need to research safer and more physiologically relevant organoid culture materials. Herein, we have prepared a rat decellularized brain extracellular matrix hydrogel (DBECMH), which supports the formation of hiPSC-derived spinal cord organoids. Compared with Matrigel, organoids cultured in DBECMH exhibited higher expression levels of markers from multiple compartments of the natural spinal cord, facilitating the development and maturation of spinal cord organoid tissues. Our study suggests that DBECMH holds potential to replace Matrigel as the standard culture medium for human spinal cord organoids, thereby advancing the development of spinal cord organoid culture protocols and their application in in vitro modeling of spinal cord-related diseases.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2313328, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561634

RESUMO

Whether intentionally generating acoustic waves or attempting to mitigate unwanted noise, sound control is an area of challenge and opportunity. This study investigates traditional fabrics as emitters and suppressors of sound. When attached to a single strand of a piezoelectric fiber actuator, a silk fabric emits up to 70 dB of sound. Despite the complex fabric structure, vibrometer measurements reveal behavior reminiscent of a classical thin plate. Fabric pore size relative to the viscous boundary layer thickness was found-through comparative fabric analysis-to influence acoustic-emission efficiency. Sound suppression is demonstrated using two distinct mechanisms. In the first, direct acoustic interference is shown to reduce sound by up to 37 dB. The second relies on pacifying the fabric vibrations by the piezoelectric fiber, reducing the amplitude of vibration waves by 95% and attenuating the transmitted sound by up to 75%. Interestingly, this vibration-mediated suppression in principle reduces sound in an unlimited volume. It also allows the acoustic reflectivity of the fabric to be dynamically controlled, increasing by up to 68%. The sound emission and suppression efficiency of a 130-µm silk fabric presents opportunities for sound control in a variety of applications ranging from apparel to transportation to architecture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Virus Erad ; 10(1): 100365, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590730

RESUMO

This study is a single-arm, single-center phase IV clinical trial on a rabies vaccine that has been marketed in China. The Vero cells and CTN-1V strain are used in the rabies vaccine product. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety, immunogenicity and immune persistence of this product. One hundred and forty-nine participants were enrolled to the study, all of whom were included in the safety analysis set (SS), among which 116 participants were included in the protocol analysis set (PPS), One hundred and fifteen participants were included in the 6-month immune persistence analysis set (IPS6) and 111 in the 12-month immune persistence analysis set IPS12. Results showed that: 1) In the SS analysis set, adverse reactions were mainly pyrexia and pain at the vaccination site, the severity of which were mostly grade 1, and concentrated in 0-3 days after vaccination. No grade 3 or above adverse events and serious adverse events (SAE) related to the experimental vaccine were observed. 2) In the PPS analysis set, the antibody positive conversion rate reached 100% at 14 days after full immunization of the pre-immunized negative population; The antibody geometric mean titer (GMT) (95% CI) was 14.82 (13.00, 16.90). 3) The positive rate of serum neutralizing antibody was 93.91 % and the GMT at 1.58 IU/ml at 6 months after full immunization. The positive rate of neutralizing antibody was 85.59 % and GMT at 1.30 IU/ml at 12 months after immunization. Our results show that the human rabies vaccine with the CTN-1V strain and Vero cells as matrix had good safety, immunogenicity and immune persistence in our study.

6.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593429

RESUMO

Spinal cord organoids are of significant value in the research of spinal cord-related diseases by simulating disease states, thereby facilitating the development of novel therapies. However, the complexity of spinal cord structure and physiological functions, along with the lack of human-derived inducing components, presents challenges in the in vitro construction of human spinal cord organoids. Here, we introduce a novel human decellularized placenta-derived extracellular matrix hydrogel (DPECMH) and, combined with a new induction protocol, successfully construct human spinal cord organoids. The human placenta-sourced decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM), verified through hematoxylin and eosin staining, DNA quantification, and immunofluorescence staining, retained essential ECM components such as elastin, fibronectin, type I collagen, laminin, and so forth. The temperature-sensitive hydrogel made from human placenta dECM demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSCs)-derived spinal cord organoids into neurons. It displayed enhanced expression of laminar markers in comparison to Matrigel and showed higher expression of laminar markers compared to Matrigel, accelerating the maturation process of spinal cord organoids and demonstrating its potential as an organoid culture substrate. DPECMH has the potential to replace Matrigel as the standard additive for human spinal cord organoids, thus advancing the development of spinal cord organoid culture protocols and their application in the in vitro modeling of spinal cord-related diseases.

7.
FEBS Lett ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589226

RESUMO

Overactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is critical for the development of multiple cancers. Previous studies have shown that the cell membrane is a key regulator of EGFR kinase activity through its interaction with the EGFR juxtamembrane domain (JM). However, the lipid recognition specificity of EGFR-JM and its interaction details remain unclear. Using lipid strip and liposome pulldown assays, we showed that EGFR-JM could specifically interact with PI(4,5)P2-or phosphatidylserine-containing membranes. We further characterized the JM-membrane interaction using NMR-titration-based chemical shift perturbation and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement analyses, and found that residues I649 - L659 comprised the membrane-binding site. Furthermore, the membrane-binding region contains the predicted dimerization motif of JM, 655LRRLL659, suggesting that membrane binding may affect JM dimerization and, therefore, regulate kinase activation.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602183

RESUMO

Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) poses a serious threat to the environmental quality and public health. Satellite NO2 observations have been continuously used to monitor NO2 variations and improve model performances. However, the accuracy of satellite NO2 retrieval depends on the knowledge of aerosol optical properties, in particular for urban agglomerations accompanied by significant changes in aerosol characteristics. In this study, we investigate the impacts of aerosol composition on tropospheric NO2 retrieval for an 18 year global data set from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)-series satellite sensors. With a focus on cloud-free scenes dominated by the presence of aerosols, individual aerosol composition affects the uncertainties of tropospheric NO2 columns through impacts on the aerosol loading amount, relative vertical distribution of aerosol and NO2, aerosol absorption properties, and surface albedo determination. Among aerosol compositions, secondary inorganic aerosol mostly dominates the NO2 uncertainty by up to 43.5% in urban agglomerations, while organic aerosols contribute significantly to the NO2 uncertainty by -8.9 to 37.3% during biomass burning seasons. The possible contrary influences from different aerosol species highlight the importance and complexity of aerosol correction on tropospheric NO2 retrieval and indicate the need for a full picture of aerosol properties. This is of particular importance for interpreting seasonal variations or long-term trends of tropospheric NO2 columns as well as for mitigating ozone and fine particulate matter pollution.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(6)2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592782

RESUMO

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a valuable horticultural crop of the Cucurbitaceae family. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a significant inhibitor of the production and quality of melon. Brassinolide (BR) is a new type of phytohormone widely used in cultivation for its broad spectrum of resistance- and defense-mechanism-improving activity. In this study, we applied various exogenous treatments (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg·L-1) of BR at four distinct time periods (6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h) and explored the impact of BR on physiological indices and the genetic regulation of melon seedling leaves infected by downy-mildew-induced stress. It was mainly observed that a 2.0 mg·L-1 BR concentration effectively promoted the enhanced photosynthetic activity of seedling leaves, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis similarly exhibited an upregulated expression of the predicted regulatory genes of photosystem II (PSII) CmHCF136 (MELO3C023596.2) and CmPsbY (MELO3C010708.2), thus indicating the stability of the PSII reaction center. Furthermore, 2.0 mg·L-1 BR resulted in more photosynthetic pigments (nearly three times more than the chlorophyll contents (264.52%)) as compared to the control and other treatment groups and similarly upregulated the expression trend of the predicted key enzyme genes CmLHCP (MELO3C004214.2) and CmCHLP (MELO3C017176.2) involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Meanwhile, the maximum contents of soluble sugars and starch (186.95% and 164.28%) were also maintained, which were similarly triggered by the upregulated expression of the predicted genes CmGlgC (MELO3C006552.2), CmSPS (MELO3C020357.2), and CmPEPC (MELO3C018724.2), thereby maintaining osmotic adjustment and efficiency in eliminating reactive oxygen species. Overall, the exogenous 2.0 mg·L-1 BR exhibited maintained antioxidant activities, plastid membranal stability, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter values of F0 (42.23%) and Fv/Fm (36.67%) were also noticed to be higher; however, nearly three times higher levels of NPQ (375.86%) and Y (NPQ) (287.10%) were observed at 48 h of treatment as compared to all other group treatments. Increased Rubisco activity was also observed (62.89%), which suggested a significant role for elevated carbon fixation and assimilation and the upregulated expression of regulatory genes linked with Rubisco activity and the PSII reaction process. In short, we deduced that the 2.0 mg·L-1 BR application has an enhancing effect on the genetic modulation of physiological indices of melon plants against downy mildew disease stress.

10.
Oncol Lett ; 27(5): 199, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516689

RESUMO

The novel long non-coding RNA, EGFR-AS1, is expressed in various types of solid tumour, and its oncogenic role has been fully identified. In the present study, several articles were screened following an electronic search of the PubMed database. In total, 8 studies were included in the present systematic review. For each analysis indicator risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with standard errors and 95% CIs were estimated using Review Manager 5.3. The pooled RR of high EGFR-AS1 expression among patients with or without vascular invasion was 1.81 with a 95% CI of 1.22-2.69; the pooled HR of high EGFR-AS1 expression for patient overall survival rate was 1.74 with a 95% CI of 1.39-2.18. Therefore, EGFR-AS1 was identified as an oncogene and the upregulated EGFR-AS1 expression was significantly associated with advanced tumour progression and poor prognosis.

12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 971: 176519, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522641

RESUMO

Aberrant lipid metabolism impacts intratumoral T cell-mediated immune response and tumor growth. Fatostatin functions as an inhibitor of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) activation. However, the complex effects of fatostatin on cholesterol metabolism in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its influence on T cell anti-tumor immunity remain unclear. In this study, fatostatin effectively suppressed B16 melanoma, MC38 colon cancer, and Lewis lung cancer (LLC) transplanted tumor growth in immunocompetent mice by reducing SREBPs-mediated lipid metabolism, especially cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, fatostatin decreased intracellular cholesterol accumulation and inhibited X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1)-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, reducing Treg cells and alleviating CD8+ T cell exhaustion in the TME, exerting anti-tumor activity. Nevertheless, this effect was impaired in immunodeficient nude mice, suggesting fatostatin's anti-tumor efficacy in transplanted tumors partly relies on T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Our study highlights SREBP2-mediated cholesterol metabolism as a potential strategy for anti-tumor immunotherapy, and confirms fatostatin's promise in tumor immunotherapy.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(14): 10892-10903, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525791

RESUMO

Alkaline Al-air batteries (AABs) are gaining increasing attention for large-scale energy storage systems due to their attractive intrinsic safety and cost-effectiveness. Nonetheless, the future development of AABs is substantially hampered by water-induced self-corrosion processes on the Al anode. In this work, we introduce an amino acid derivative, namely Nα-Boc-N1-formyl-L-tryptophan (NBLT), into a 4 M NaOH electrolyte to construct a unique layer that can effectively regulate the surface microstructure of the Al anode. The findings of the experiments show that NBLT can be used as a reliable corrosion inhibitor. The effectiveness of such inhibitors increases with NBLT concentration, reaching a maximum of 73.9% at 1.5 mM. In comparison to the pristine condition, there is a significant increase in anode utilization from 31.8% to 82.9%, capacity density from 947.9 to 2469.1 mA h g-1, and energy density from 1261.6 to 3384.6 W h kg-1. Theoretical calculations indicate that the carboxyl moieties present in the NBLT molecule establish coordination bonds with the Al atoms, thereby exerting a dominant role in the formation of the self-assembled barrier. The present investigation paves an effective strategy to inhibit reactions between anodes and electrolytes for advanced AABs.

14.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 45: 101032, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440130

RESUMO

Background: Dry eye disease has a high prevalence and exerts a significant negative effect on quality of life. In China, there are currently no available nasal sprays to promote natural tear production in patients with dry eye disease. We therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of OC-01 (varenicline solution) nasal spray versus vehicle in Chinese patients with dry eye disease. Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial conducted at ophthalmology departments in 20 hospitals across China (NCT05378945). Eligible patients had a diagnosis of dry eye disease based on patient symptoms, Eye Dryness Score (EDS), Schirmer's Test (with topical anesthesia) Score (STS), and corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 using an Interactive Web Response System (IWRS) to receive OC-01 0.6 mg/mL twice daily (BID) or vehicle nasal spray. Participants, investigators, and sponsor were all masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the percentage of subjects in the intention-to-treat population achieving ≥10 mm improvement in STS from baseline at week 4. Findings: In total, 340 patients were randomized from 21 July 2022 to 04 April 2023, 78.8% were female. Patients in the OC-01 group (n = 176) had significantly higher achievement of ≥10 mm improvement in STS (35.8% [n = 63] versus 17.7% [n = 29], stratified odds ratio: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.570-4.533, p = 0.0002) and a significantly greater increase from baseline STS (least-squares mean difference [SE]: 3.87 [0.794], p < 0.0001) at week 4 versus the vehicle group (n = 164). In addition, OC-01 led to a numerically greater reduction in mean EDS from baseline at week 4 compared to the vehicle group (LS mean [SE] difference: -1.3 [2.20]; 95% CI: -5.64 to 2.99, p = 0.5467). The most common adverse event was mild, transient sneezing (78% of OC-01 administrations). No serious adverse events related to nasal administration occurred. Interpretation: OC-01 (varenicline solution) nasal spray BID has clinically meaningful efficacy for reducing the signs (as measured by STS) and may improve the symptoms (as measured by EDS) of dry eye disease, with an excellent safety and tolerability profile, in the Chinese population. Funding: Jixing Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

15.
Environ Res ; 251(Pt 1): 118566, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447606

RESUMO

Both g-C3N4 and Bi2O2CO3 are good photocatalysts for the removal of antibiotic pollutants, but their morphological modulation and catalytic performance need to be further improved. In this study, the calcination-hydrothermal method is used to prepare a O-g-C3N4@Bi2O2CO3 (CN@BCO) composite photocatalyst from dicyandiamide and bismuth nitrate. The prepared catalyst is characterized through various methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the effects of different parameters, such as catalyst concentration and initial pH of the reaction solution, on its photocatalytic activity are investigated. The results show that the CN@BCO sample achieves an optimal degradation rate of 98.1% for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) with a concentration of 20 mg/L and a removal rate of 69.4% for total organic carbon (TOC) at 40 min. The quenching experiments show that ·O2-, h+, and ·OH participate in the photocatalytic process, with ·O2- being the most dominant active species. The toxicity of the predicted TCH degradation intermediates is analyzed using Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST). Overall, the CN@BCO composite exhibits excellent photocatalytic performance, making it a promising candidate for environmental purification and wastewater treatment.

16.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 33: 2558-2571, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530729

RESUMO

Despite remarkable successes in unimodal learning tasks, backdoor attacks against cross-modal learning are still underexplored due to the limited generalization and inferior stealthiness when involving multiple modalities. Notably, since works in this area mainly inherit ideas from unimodal visual attacks, they struggle with dealing with diverse cross-modal attack circumstances and manipulating imperceptible trigger samples, which hinders their practicability in real-world applications. In this paper, we introduce a novel bilateral backdoor to fill in the missing pieces of the puzzle in the cross-modal backdoor and propose a generalized invisible backdoor framework against cross-modal learning (BadCM). Specifically, a cross-modal mining scheme is developed to capture the modality-invariant components as target poisoning areas, where well-designed trigger patterns injected into these regions can be efficiently recognized by the victim models. This strategy is adapted to different image-text cross-modal models, making our framework available to various attack scenarios. Furthermore, for generating poisoned samples of high stealthiness, we conceive modality-specific generators for visual and linguistic modalities that facilitate hiding explicit trigger patterns in modality-invariant regions. To the best of our knowledge, BadCM is the first invisible backdoor method deliberately designed for diverse cross-modal attacks within one unified framework. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on two typical applications, i.e., cross-modal retrieval and VQA, demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization of our method under multiple kinds of attack scenarios. Moreover, we show that BadCM can robustly evade existing backdoor defenses. Our code is available at https://github.com/xandery-geek/BadCM.

17.
Plant Cell ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526222

RESUMO

Histo-specification and morphogenesis of anthers during development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are well understood. However, the regulatory mechanism of microsporocyte generation at the pre-meiotic stage remains unclear, especially how archesporial cells are specified and differentiate into two cell lineages with distinct developmental fates. SPOROCYTELESS (SPL) is a key reproductive gene that is activated during early anther development and remains active. In this study, we demonstrated that the EAR motif-containing adaptor protein (ECAP) interacts with the Gro/Tup1 family co-repressor LEUNIG (LUG) and the BES1/BZR1 HOMOLOG3 (BEH3) transcription factor to form a transcription activator complex, epigenetically regulating SPL transcription. SPL participates in microsporocyte generation by modulating the specification of archesporial cells and the archesporial cell-derived differentiation of somatic and reproductive cell layers. This study illustrates the regulation of SPL expression by the ECAP-LUG-BEH3 complex, which is essential for the generation of microsporocytes. Moreover, our findings identified ECAP as a key transcription regulator that can combine with different partners to regulate gene expression in distinct ways, thereby facilitating diverse processes in various aspects of plant development.

18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6341, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491143

RESUMO

The conservative treatment for Kohler's disease will take several months, but some patients still have flatfoot and persistent pain. From October 2013 to July 2015, 3 children with Kohler's disease underwent navicular decompression and micro-circulation reconstruction surgery in our hospital. All the patients have received conservative treatment for more than 3 months and the effect was poor. X-ray showed the bone density of navicular increased significantly. All patients were followed up over 1 year. The 3 patients recovered well. VAS score decreased from 7.0 to 2.6 at 1 month after the operation. The pain symptom disappeared completely on 3 months after surgery. The density of navicular bone recovered to normal. Navicular decompression and micro-circulation reconstruction surgery may quickly improve the ischemic status of navicular bone, alleviate pain symptom and enable patients to resume normal activity as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Pé Chato , Osteocondrite , Osteocondrose , Ossos do Tarso , Criança , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/cirurgia
19.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497551

RESUMO

Root hairs (RHs), extensive structures of root epidermal cells, are important for plant nutrient acquisition, soil anchorage, and environmental interactions. Excessive production of the phytohormone ethylene (ET) leads to substantial root hair growth, manifested as tolerance to plant nutrient deficiencies. However, the molecular basis of ET production during root hair growth in response to nutrient starvation remains unknown. Herein, we found that a critical transcription factor, GLABRA 2 (GL2), inhibits ET production during root hair growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GL2 directly binds to the promoter of the gene encoding ET OVERPRODUCER 1 (ETO1), one of the most important ET-production-regulation factors, in vitro and in vivo, and then regulates the accumulation and function of ETO1 in root hair growth. The GL2-regulated-ETO1 module is required for promoting root hair growth under nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium deficiency. Genome-wide analysis revealed numerous genes, such as ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 6-LIKE 4, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3-LIKE 2, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 13, are involved in the GL2-regulated-ETO1 module. Our work reveals a key transcription mechanism in the control of ET production during root hair growth under three major nutrient deficiencies.

20.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(3): 18, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512284

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) and choroidal structural changes in children with nephrotic syndrome. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 45 children with primary nephrotic syndrome and 40 normal controls. All participants underwent enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography examinations. An automatic segmentation method based on deep learning was used to segment the choroidal vessels and stroma, and the choroidal volume (CV), vascular volume (VV), and CVI within a 4.5 mm diameter circular area centered around the macular fovea were obtained. Clinical data, including blood lipids, serum proteins, renal function, and renal injury indicators, were collected from the patients. Results: Compared with normal controls, children with nephrotic syndrome had a significant increase in CV (nephrotic syndrome: 4.132 ± 0.464 vs. normal controls: 3.873 ± 0.574; P = 0.024); no significant change in VV (nephrotic syndrome: 1.276 ± 0.173 vs. normal controls: 1.277 ± 0.165; P = 0.971); and a significant decrease in the CVI (nephrotic syndrome: 0.308 [range, 0.270-0.386] vs. normal controls: 0.330 [range, 0.288-0.387]; P < 0.001). In the correlation analysis, the CVI was positively correlated with serum total protein, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, ratio of serum albumin to globulin, and 24-hour urine volume and was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, urinary protein concentration, and ratio of urinary transferrin to creatinine (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CVI is significantly reduced in children with nephrotic syndrome, and the decrease in the CVI parallels the severity of kidney disease, indicating choroidal involvement in the process of nephrotic syndrome. Translational Relevance: Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of how nephrotic syndrome affects the choroid.


Assuntos
Síndrome Nefrótica , Criança , Humanos , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Fóvea Central , Colesterol
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