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1.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670289

RESUMO

Objective: This study is to explore the determining factors for testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion after subtyping by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using samples obtained from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Materials and Methods: Patients suspected with advanced lung cancer were performed EBUS-TBNA without rapid on-site evaluation(ROSE) from January 2015 to March 2016 in Shanghai Chest Hospital. All samples diagnosed as lung cancer by histopathology underwent IHC to identify subtypes. EGFR mutation and ALK fusion were tested in adenocarcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer-not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) using remnant tissue samples. Results: A total of 453 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer, including 44.15% (200/453) with adenocarcinoma and 11.04% (50/453) with NSCLC-NOS. With the average passes of 3.41 ± 0.68, samples obtained from EBUS-TBNA were adequate for performing EGFR mutation and ALK fusion gene analysis in 80.4% (201/250) of specimens after routine IHC. On univariate analysis, successful molecular testing was associated with passes per lesion (P = 3.80E-05), long-axis diameters (P = 6.00E-06) and short-axis diameters (P = 4.77E-04), and pathology subtypes of lesions (P = 3.00E-03). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that passes per lesion (P = 1.00E-03), long-axis diameters (P = 3.50E-02), and pathology subtypes (P = 8.00E-03) were independent risk factors associated with successful molecular testing. Conclusions: With at least three passes of per lesion, EBUS-TBNA is an efficient method to provide adequate samples for testing of EGFR mutation and ALK gene arrangement following routine histopathology and IHC subtyping. Determining factors associated with successful pathology subtyping and molecular testing using samples obtained by EBUS-TBNA are passes of per lesion, long-axis diameter, and pathology subtypes. During the process of EBUS-TBNA, selecting larger lymph nodes and the puncturing at least 3 passes per lesion may result in higher success rate in lung cancer subtyping and molecular testing.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(47): 18825-18835, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703165

RESUMO

The catalytic asymmetric functionalization of readily available 1,3-dienes is highly important, but current examples are mostly limited to the construction of tertiary chiral centers. The asymmetric generation of acyclic products containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters from substituted 1,3-dienes represents a more challenging, but highly desirable, synthetic process for which there are very few examples. Herein, we report the highly selective copper-catalyzed generation of chiral all-carbon acyclic quaternary stereocenters via functionalization of 1,3-dienes with CO2. A variety of readily available 1,1-disubstituted 1,3-dienes, as well as a 1,3,5-triene, undergo reductive hydroxymethylation with high chemo-, regio-, E/Z-, and enantioselectivities. The reported method features good functional group tolerance, is readily scaled up to at least 5 mmol of starting diene, and generates chiral products that are useful building blocks for further derivatization. Systemic mechanistic investigations using density functional theory calculations were performed and provided the first theoretical investigation for an asymmetric transformation involving CO2. These computational results indicate that the 1,2-hydrocupration of 1,3-diene proceeds with high π-facial selectivity to generate an (S)-allylcopper intermediate, which further induces the chirality of the quaternary carbon center in the final product. The 1,4-addition of an internal allylcopper complex, which differs from previous reports involving terminal allylmetallic intermediates, to CO2 kinetically determines the E/Z- and regioselectivity. The rapid reduction of a copper carboxylate intermediate to the corresponding silyl-ether in the presence of Me(MeO)2SiH provides the exergonic impetus and leads to chemoselective hydroxymethylation rather than carboxylation. These results provide new insights for guiding further development of asymmetric C-C bond formations with CO2.

3.
Eur J Radiol ; 121: 108735, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study is to explore potential features and develop classification models for distinguishing benign and malignant lung lesions based on CT-radiomics features and PET metabolic parameters extracted from PET/CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in baseline 18 F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) images of 135 patients. The dataset was utilized for feature extraction of CT-radiomics features and PET metabolic parameters based on volume of interest, then went through feature selection and model development with strategy of five-fold cross-validation. Specifically, model development used support vector machine, PET metabolic parameters selection used Akaike's information criterion, and CT-radiomics were reduced by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method then forward selection approach. The diagnostic performances of CT-radiomics, PET metabolic parameters and combination of both were illustrated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and compared by Delong test. Five groups of selected PET metabolic parameters and CT-radiomics were counted, and potential features were found and analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The CT-radiomics, PET metabolic parameters, and combination of both among five subsets showed mean area under the curve (AUC) of 0.820 ±â€¯0.053, 0.874 ±â€¯0.081, and 0.887 ±â€¯0.046, respectively. No significant differences in ROC among models were observed through pairwise comparison in each fold (P-value from 0.09 to 0.81, Delong test). The potential features were found to be SurfaceVolumeRatio and SUVpeak (P < 0.001 of both, U test). CONCLUSION: The classification models developed by CT-radiomics features and PET metabolic parameters based on PET/CT images have substantial diagnostic capacity on lung lesions.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5182, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729388

RESUMO

The development of enantiodivergent catalysis for the preparation of both enantiomers of a chiral compound is of importance in pharmaceutical and bioorganic chemistry. With the design of a class of reactive and stereoselective organocatalysts, acyclic chiral secondary amines, a method for achieving the enantiodivergence is developed simply by changing the secondary N-i-Bu- to N-Me-group within the catalyst architecture while maintaining the same absolute configuration of the catalysts, which modulates the catalyst conformation. This catalyst-controlled enantiodivergent method not only enables challenging asymmetric transformations to occur in an enantiodivergent manner but also features a high level of stereocontrol and broad scope that is demonstrated in eight different reactions (90 examples), all delivering both enantiomers of a range of structurally diverse products including hitherto less accessible, yet important, compounds in good yields with high stereoselectivities.

5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739564

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is highly toxic to animals and humans, but pigs are most sensitive to it. The porcine mucosal injury related mechanism of DON is not yet fully clarified. Here, we investigated DON-induced injury in the intestinal tissues of piglet. Thirty weanling piglets [(Duroc × Landrace) × Yorkshire] were randomly divided into three groups according to single factor experimental design (10 piglets each group). Piglets were fed a basal diet in the control group, while low and high dose groups were fed a DON diet (1300 and 2200 µg/kg, respectively) for 60 days. Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the ultrastructure of intestinal epithelial cells in the DON-treated group was damaged. The distribution and optical density (OD) values of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) protein in the intestinal tissues of DON-treated groups were decreased. At higher DON dosage, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels were elevated in the intestinal tissues. The mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB p65, IκB-α, IKKα/ß, iNOS, and COX-2 in the small intestinal mucosa were abnormally altered with an increase in DON concentration. These results indicate that DON can persuade intestinal damage and inflammatory responses in piglets via the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.

6.
J Gen Psychol ; : 1-17, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739766

RESUMO

A power-space interaction, which denotes the phenomenon that people responded faster to powerful words with up cursor keys and faster to powerless words with down cursor keys, has been repeatedly found. In the present study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate how the power-space interaction is modulated by the spatial cognition. First, we found that the amplitude of power-space interaction was relatively stable within individuals across different stimuli. And, this individual difference in power-space interaction was correlated with the individual's spatial cognition, in such a way that participants with faster speed of mental rotation showed stronger power-space interactions. Our results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms of the power-space associations by suggesting that spatial codes play an important role in the expression of such effect.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(22)2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744144

RESUMO

To ensure that the shaft boring machine (SBM) runs along the pre-designed axis steadily, the role of the attitude measurement system is essential, but its accuracy and reliability cannot be guaranteed. Currently, there is no effective technology to meet the actual requirements, and there is a lack of relevant theoretical research in this field. Through further study of the attitude analysis method and multi-sensor fusion technology, this paper presents a dual coordinate method, which can be used to describe the attitude characteristics of the SBM. Moreover, this paper discusses the relationships between the attitude changes and the values of the angle as well as displacement and analyzes the implementation complexity and computational efficiency of related algorithms in software and hardware. According to the working characteristics of the SBM, the hardware design and the reasonable layout of the attitude measurement system are provided. Based on multi-sensor data, this paper puts forward an improved method combining a complementary filter with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for attitude estimation and error compensation. The simulation experiments of different working processes verify the steady-state response and dynamic response performance of the method. Experimental results show that the dual coordinate method and the proposed filter are more suitable for attitude estimation of the SBM compared to other methods.

8.
Immunol Res ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713831

RESUMO

The association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis and immune-mediated tissue damage and insulin resistance suggests that T2D patients might benefit from the suppression of pathogenic inflammation. Foxp3+ Treg cells are crucial suppressors of inflammation, but the differentiation of Foxp3+ Treg cells is not static and is subject to conversion into IL-17-producing Th17-like cells upon receiving external signals. In this study, we examined the production of IL-17 by Treg cells. Compared to non-T2D controls, T2D patients presented significantly higher levels of IL-17-expressing cells in both Foxp3- CD4 T cells and Foxp3+ Treg cells. The frequencies of IL-17-nonexpressing Foxp3+ Treg cells, on the other hand, were not changed. Interestingly, IL-17-expressing Foxp3+ Treg cells were mutually exclusive from IL-10-expressing and TGF-ß-expressing Foxp3+ Treg cells, suggesting that multiple subpopulations exist within the Foxp3+ Treg cells from T2D patients. In T2D patients, the frequencies of IL-17-expressing Foxp3+ Treg cells were positively correlated with the body mass index (BMI) and the HbA1c levels of T2D patients. The frequencies of IL-10-expressing Treg cells, on the other hand, were inversely associated with the BMI of both non-T2D controls and T2D patients. In addition, the suppressive activity of Treg cells was significantly lower in T2D patients than in non-T2D controls. Together, our study uncovered a dysregulation in Foxp3+ Treg cells from T2D patients, characterized by high IL-17 expression and low suppression activity.

9.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696605

RESUMO

Plant height is an important agronomic trait in maize since it can significantly affect planting density and lodging resistance and it is highly correlated with grain yield. Plant height of maize largely results from stem elongation driven by cell division and cell expansion within the internodes. Therefore, reduction of plant height can be achieved by appropriate control of cell elongation. The microtubule cytoskeleton plays essential roles in cellular organization, cell division and guiding plant cell polar growth, which is dependent on its organization and dynamics regulated by a suit of diverse microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). In this study, we identified a novel MAP, Reducing Plant Height 1 (ZmRPH1), in maize. We found that ZmRPH1 bound to microtubules in vitro and in vivo and ZmRPH1 overexpression significantly led to randomly oriented cortical microtubules and considerably reduced the cell elongation in maize mesocotyl cells as well as in Arabidopsis hypocotyl cells. More importantly, we demonstrated that ZmRPH1 overexpression in maize effectively reduced plant and ear heights by repressing internode elongation, with no apparent effect on grain yield. Our work identified a valuable plant-height gene ZmRPH1 that will be useful for molecular breeding to improve plant height and lodging resistant traits in maize. This study also indicated that manipulation of cortical microtubule arrays could be a practical and efficient new strategy to optimize plant height, and will greatly benefit future maize breeding for increasing planting density.

10.
Biosci Rep ; 39(11)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD), matrix acidity challenges transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The Ca2+-permeable acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is responsible for acidosis-mediated tissue injury. The aim of our study was to confirm whether ASIC1a activation induces BMSC apoptosis under conditions that mimic the acidic microenvironment of the degenerated IVD. METHODS: ASIC1a expression in rat BMSCs was investigated by real time-PCR, Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence. The proliferation and apoptosis of BMSCs under acidic conditions were analyzed by MTT and TUNEL assays. Ca2+-imaging was used to assess the acid-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The activation of calpain and calcineurin was analyzed using specific kits, and WB analysis was performed to detect apoptosis-related proteins. Ultrastructural changes in BMSCs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Acid exposure led to the activation of ASIC1a and increased BMSC apoptosis. The Ca2+ imaging assay showed a significant increase in the [Ca2+]i in response to a solution at pH 6.0. However, BMSC apoptosis and [Ca2+]i elevation were alleviated in the presence of an ASIC1a inhibitor. Moreover, ASIC1a mediated the Ca2+ influx-induced activation of calpain and calcineurin in BMSCs. WB analysis and TEM revealed mitochondrial apoptosis, which was inhibited by an ASIC1a inhibitor, in BMSCs under acidic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The mimical acidic microenvironment of the degenerated IVD can induce BMSC apoptosis by activating Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a. An acid-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in BMSCs leads to the subsequent activation of calpain and calcineurin, further resulting in increased mitochondrial permeability and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 134732, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767306

RESUMO

In this paper, Ag/Zn-MIP-TiO2 was prepared by sol-gel method, and the imprinted molecule was ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate. To study the properties of the Ag/Zn-MIP-TiO2 on the photocatalytic activity, these factors were investigated: the effects of the dosage of Ag and Zn, the amount of imprinted molecules, the calcination temperature and time, then the capture of active substances. Besides, the selectivity of Ag/Zn-MIP-TiO2 was investigated in three aspects: UV-vis multi-wavelength spectral integral area change, specific group absorbance change and traditional reaction kinetic parameter change. The selectivity coefficients of the three angles are 8.55, 1.47 and 6.77. And the selectivity factors are 4.12, 1.02 and 4.81, indicating that Ag/Zn-MIP-TiO2 has high selectivity. Furthermore, its selectivity is not only for the specific characteristic groups on the target pollutants, but for the integrated target pollutants. From the perspective of materials, Ag/Zn-MIP-TiO2 is 100% anatase with a lower band gap and a larger specific surface area. As a molecularly imprinted polymer, the active sites on the surface make it have selective recognition function. The results of photocatalytic experiments are as follows: the optimum Ag and Zn ratio is Ti:Ag:Zn = 100:1:0.75 (molar ratio); the best molecular weight of imprint is Ti:MIP = 5:1; the finest calcination temperature is 500 °C; the optimum calcination time is 2 h; the removal rate of ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate degraded by photocatalysis for 2 h is 99.1%; the main active substance of the photocatalytic reaction is •OH.

12.
Mol Plant ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706031

RESUMO

Suppression mechanisms employed by transcriptional repressors commonly exist in diverse phytohormone signaling pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are transcriptional repressors that function as negative regulators of diverse JA responses. Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA) is an adaptor protein connecting JAZs with the co-repressor, TOPLESS (TPL), to mediate gene repression in JA-dependent root growth inhibition and defense pathways. However, whether NINJA or other adaptor proteins are employed in other JA responsive biological processes remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that a previously uncharacterized protein, ECAP (EAR motif-Containing Adaptor Protein), directly interacts with JAZ6/8 and enhances their transcriptional repression activities. We also provide evidence that ECAP is a novel adaptor protein for JAZ6/8 recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, TPR2, into a transcriptional repressor complex, to repress the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex, an important transcriptional activator in the JA-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. This novel insight, together with previous studies, reveals that specific adaptor proteins are critical for distinct JA responses by pairing different JAZs (which possess overlapping but also individual functions) with the general co-repressors, TPL and TPRs.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16171, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700003

RESUMO

Osteoblasts are implicated in the building of the vertebrate skeleton. The current study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA-495 (miR-495) in the osteoblasts of mice with tibial fractures and the underlying mechanism involving in aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway. Initially, a microarray-based analysis was performed to screen the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs associated with tibial fracture. Following the establishment of a tibial fracture mouse model, the positive rate of the AQP1 protein in the fracture tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Next, to verify the binding site between miR-495 on AQP1, bioinformatics data were employed in addition to the application of a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. The osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 was treated with miR-495 mimic, miR-495 inhibitor and Anisomycin to explore the potent effects of miR-495 on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in mice with tibial fracture. The expression of miR-495, AQP1, p38 MAPK, PCNA, Cyclin D1, OCN, and OPN was subsequently evaluated by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. Cell viability, the number of calcium nodules and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were detected by MTT assay, alizarin red staining, and ALP activity assay, respectively. Our results revealed that miR-495 was down-regulated while AQP1 was up-regulated in the mice with tibial fractures. AQP1 was verified as a target gene of miR-495. When the cells were treated with overexpressed miR-495 or activated p38 MAPK signaling pathway, elevated expression of PCNA, Cyclin, D1, OCN, and OPN along with an increased amount of calcium nodules, higher cell viability, and enhanced ALP activity was detected, while the expression of AQP1 was reduced. Collectively, the key findings of the present study support the notion that overexpressed miR-495 may activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway to inhibit AQP1 and to promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in mice with tibial fracture.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714219

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the leading causes of permanent blindness in the working-age population. Automatic grading of DR and DME helps ophthalmologists design tailored treatments to patients, thus is of vital importance in the clinical practice. However, prior works either grade DR or DME, and ignore the correlation between DR and its complication, i.e., DME. Moreover, the location information, e.g., macula and soft hard exhaust annotations, are widely used as a prior for grading. Such annotations are costly to obtain, hence it is desirable to develop automatic grading methods with only image-level supervision. In this paper, we present a novel cross-disease attention network (CANet) to jointly grade DR and DME by exploring the internal relationship between the diseases with only image-level supervision. Our key contributions include the disease-specific attention module to selectively learn useful features for individual diseases, and the disease-dependent attention module to further capture the internal relationship between the two diseases. We integrate these two attention modules in a deep network to produce disease-specific and diseasedependent features, and to maximize the overall performance jointly for grading DR and DME. We evaluate our network on two public benchmark datasets, i.e., ISBI 2018 IDRiD challenge dataset and Messidor dataset. Our method achieves the best result on the ISBI 2018 IDRiD challenge dataset and outperforms other methods on the Messidor dataset. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/xmengli999/CANet.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691469

RESUMO

Direct conversion of methane to value-added chemicals with high selectivity under mild conditions remains a great challenge in catalysis. Herein, we report a new kind of single chromium atoms supported on titanium dioxide nanoparticles as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for direct methane oxidation to C1 oxygenated products with H2O2 as oxidant under mild condition. The highest yield for C1 oxygenated products can be reached as 57.9 mol/molCr with selectivity of around 93% at 50ºC for 20 h, which is significantly higher than those of most reported catalysts. The superior catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between single Cr atoms and TiO2 support. Combining catalytic kinetics, electron paramagnetic resonance and control experiment results, methane conversion mechanism was proposed as a methyl radical pathway to form CH3OH and CH3OOH first, and then the generated CH3OH is further oxidized to HOCH2OOH and HCOOH.

16.
Adv Mater ; : e1905645, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736170

RESUMO

A ternary structure has been demonstrated as being an effective strategy to realize high power conversion efficiency (PCE) in organic solar cells (OSCs); however, general materials selection rules still remain incompletely understood. In this work, two nonfullerene small-molecule acceptors 3TP3T-4F and 3TP3T-IC are synthesized and incorporated as a third component in PM6:Y6 binary blends. The photovoltaic behaviors in the resultant ternary OSCs differ significantly, despite the comparable energy levels. It is found that incorporation of 15% 3TP3T-4F into the PM6:Y6 blend results in facilitating exciton dissociation, increasing charge transport, and reducing trap-assisted recombination. All these features are responsible for the enlarged PCE of 16.7% (certified as 16.2%) in the PM6:Y6:3TP3T-4F ternary OSCs, higher than that (15.6%) in the 3TP3T-IC containing ternary devices. The performance differences are mainly ascribed to the compatibility between the third component and the host materials. The 3TP3T-4F guest acceptor exhibits an excellent compatibility with Y6, tending to form well-mixed phases in the ternary blend without disrupting the favored bicontinuous transport networks, whereas 3TP3T-IC displays a morphological incompatibility with Y6. This work highlights the importance of considering the compatibility for materials selection toward high-efficiency ternary organic OSCs.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031812, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activated receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker that may predict the occurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); however, there is still controversy about whether suPAR can predict FSGS. In this study, we performed a systematic evaluation and meta-analysis to prove whether suPAR can predict FSGS, and to detect a threshold concentration of suPAR that can be used to diagnose FSGS. In addition, a threshold concentration of suPAR for the diagnosis of FSGS was proposed. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and China Biology Medicine databases for studies published from the inception dates to 1 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: (1) Data involving the suPAR level were from blood samples; (2) FSGS was diagnosed by biopsy; and (3) randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Initially, a total of 364 studies were searched, among which 29 studies were finally included. In addition, seven studies described the cut-off value of suPAR, which ranged from 2992.6 to 5500 pg/mL. RESULTS: The results showed that the suPAR levels in the primary FSGS group were significantly higher when compared with that in the normal control group (p<0.001; standard mean difference (SMD): 2.56; 95% CI 1.85 to 3.28), and significant differences were observed in the secondary FSGS and in the normal control group (p<0.001; SMD: 1.68; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.98). A suPAR concentration of 3000 pg/mL may be the best threshold for the diagnosis of primary FSGS (sensitivity=0.72; specificity=0.88; area under the curve=0.85). CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that suPAR might be a potential biomarker for predicting primary and secondary FSGS. In addition, our data showed that a suPAR concentration of 3000 pg/mL might be used as a threshold for the diagnosis of FSGS. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019120948.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(43): 17337-17349, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633346

RESUMO

Manganese-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions have attracted broad interest since the first report in 2016. Among the reported catalytic systems, Mn catalysts supported by tridentate PNP- and NNP-pincer ligands have most commonly been used. For example, a number of PNP-Mn pincer catalysts have been reported for the hydrogenation of aldehydes, aldimines, ketones, nitriles, and esters. Furthermore, various NNP-Mn pincer catalysts have been shown to be active in the hydrogenation of less-reactive substrates such as amides, carbonates, carbamates, and urea derivations. These observations indicated that Mn catalysts supported by NNP-pincer ligands exhibit higher reactivity in hydrogenation reactions than their PNP counterparts. Such a ligand effect in Mn-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions has yet to be confirmed. Herein, we investigated the origin and applicability of this ligand effect. A combination of experimental and theoretical investigations showed that NNP-pincer ligands on the Mn complexes were more electron-rich and less sterically hindered than their PNP counterparts, leading to higher reactivity in a series of Mn-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions. Inspired by the ligand effect on Mn-catalyzed hydrogenations, we developed the first Mn-catalyzed hydrogenation of N-heterocycles. Specifically, NNP-Mn pincer catalysts hydrogenated a series of N-heterocycles (32 examples) with up to 99% yields, and the corresponding PNP-Mn pincer catalysts afforded low reactivity under the same conditions. This verified that such a ligand effect is generally applicable in hydrogenation reactions of both carbonyl and noncarbonyl substrates based on Mn catalysis.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(45): 42438-42446, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615206

RESUMO

Developing efficient all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) has always been a long-standing challenge due to the unfavorable morphology caused by conventional blend casting (BC). Here, we first employ the methodology of sequential processing (SP) with nonorthogonal solvents to fabricate facilely all-PSCs. A highly crystalline polymer donor, PBDB-T, is used to construct a well-organized underlying film, while a new polymer, FPDI-BT1, is selected as the acceptor to be intercalated into the amorphous or semicrystalline regions of PBDB-T during the secondary deposition. By tuning the solvent composition for FPDI-BT1 processing, a bulk heterojunction-like configuration, rather than a traditional bilayer device, is obtained facilely without the need of further processing treatment. The extremely boosted power conversion efficiency of 7.15% from the SP device is achieved, which is more than twice as efficient as the BC analogue (3.57%). The results demonstrate that SP is a promising strategy to fabricate high-performance all-PSCs with tunable configurations of active layers.

20.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 216, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resin bond strength of sclerotic dentine is significantly lower than that of the normal dentine, which paused a challenge for bonding procedures clinically. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different surface pretreatments on the micro-tensile bond strength and microstructure between sclerotic dentine and normal dentine. METHODS: Eighty teeth that were collected, forty premolars with typical wedge-shaped defects visually graded as class III were assigned as the sclerotic dentine group (SD), the other forty normal premolars with artificial wedge-shaped defects were assigned as the normal dentine group (ND). Each group was randomly subdivided into eight subgroups according to the solution used: 35% phosphoric acid, 15% EDTA, 5% or 10% NaClO. Then the dentine surface was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The lesions were restored using self-etching adhesive and the subsequent resin composite. The teeth were sectioned into sticks for the micro-tensile bond strength analysis, and the data were analysed using the SPSS17.0 software package (α = 0.05). RESULTS: First, for the ND groups, after pretreatment using 35% phosphoric acid, and 35% phosphoric acid + 5% or 10% sodium hypochlorite, the bonding strengths of the normal dentine were higher than that of the other groups (P < 0.05). Second, for the SD groups, after pretreatment using 35% phosphoric acid, 15% EDTA, and 35% phosphoric acid + 5% or 10% sodium hypochlorite, the bonding strengths of the sclerotic dentine were higher than that of the other groups (P < 0.05). Third, the bond strengths of the sclerotic dentine were lower than that of the normal dentine without any pretreatment (P < 0.05). After pretreatment using 35% phosphoric acid + 5% or 10% sodium hypochlorite, the bonding strengths of the sclerotic dentine were higher than that of the normal dentine (P < 0.05). SEM observation showed that the appearances of dentine surface were changed after pretreatment using the above solutions, with the reduced smear layer, opened small groove and increased dentinal tubules. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment of dentine using 35% phosphoric acid+ 5% or + 10% sodium hypochlorite changed the microstructure of the sclerotic dentine surface and subsequently increased the micro-tensile bond strength.

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