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1.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2000481, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047435

RESUMO

This work reports on the transition of a polyamide ultrathick wall microtubes to microvesicles through self-assembly. An amphiphilic polyamide is synthesized first by the solution polycondensation of sodium isophthalate-5-sulfonate (SIPA) and poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) 2000. Then, its self-assembly in aqueous solution is investigated through direct hydration. The size and morphology of the self-assemblies is investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and optical microscope (OM) measurements. The result shows that the as-prepared polyamide first self-assembles to thick walled tubes, then these tubes can gradually evolve to ultrathick wall microvesicles with an unusually thick membrane above 330 nm. Both the transition pathway and the mechanism are investigated in micromicroscopy. Most importantly, the microvesicles show great thermal and chemical stability. The novel superstable self-assembly structures as well as the transition mechanism presented here offer a promising perspective for the application in the scope of the biological membrane movements and nanoelectromechanics in medical devices.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9108216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029529

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension is now common in China. Patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes are prone to severe cardiovascular complications and poor prognosis. Therefore, this study is aimed at establishing an effective risk prediction model to provide early prediction of the risk of new-onset diabetes for patients with a history of hypertension. Methods: A LASSO regression model was used to select potentially relevant features. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors. Based on the results of multivariate analysis, a nomogram of the 5-year incidence of T2D in patients with hypertension in mainland China was established. The discriminative capacity was assessed by Harrell's C-index, AUC value, calibration plot, and clinical utility. Results: After random sampling, 1273 and 415 patients with hypertension were included in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The prediction model included age, body mass index, FPG, and TC as predictors. In the derivation cohort, the AUC value and C-index of the prediction model are 0.878 (95% CI, 0.861-0.895) and 0.862 (95% CI, 0.830-0.894), respectively. In the validation cohort, the AUC value and C-index of the prediction model were 0.855 (95% CI, 0.836-0.874) and 0.841 (95% CI, 0.817-0.865), respectively. The calibration plots demonstrated good agreement between the estimated probability and the actual observation. Decision curve analysis shows that nomograms are clinically useful. Conclusion: Our nomogram can be used as a simple, affordable, reasonable, and widely implemented tool to predict the 5-year T2D risk of hypertension patients in mainland China. This application helps timely intervention to reduce the incidence of T2D in patients with hypertension in mainland China.

3.
Infect Genet Evol ; : 104585, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035644

RESUMO

Innate immunity is the first line against the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. Over the past several years, the antiviral activity and mechanisms of the IFIT5 gene have been confirmed in mammals. However, more information is needed on the functions and molecular mechanisms of IFIT5 in response to viral infection in chickens. In this study, we examined the expression profile of chicken IFIT5 in the different tissues and explored how chicken IFIT5 transduces upstream signaling to the downstream adaptor. Relative expression of IFIT5 was highest in spleen, indicating tissue- and species-specificity. Expression of IFIT5 was significantly up-regulated following Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)]-, and poly(deoxyadenylic-thymidylic)[poly (dA:dT)]-triggered antiviral immune response. Chicken MDA5, MAVS, and IRF7 genes positively regulated the expression of IFIT5, and overexpression with IFIT5 could promote IRF7- and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated gene expression following transfection with NDV and poly (I:C). These results suggested that chicken IFIT5 is an important enhancer of the innate immunity response.

4.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 877-886, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031067

RESUMO

Water pollution from antibiotics has attracted a lot of attention for its serious threat to human health. In this study, a magnetic adsorbent (zinc ferrite/activated carbon (ZnFe2O4/AC) was synthesized via microwave method to effectively remove gemifioxacin mesylate (GEM) and moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOX). Based on the porosity of AC and the magnetism of ZnFe2O4, the resulting ZnFe2O4/AC has high adsorption capacities and can be easily separated from the solid-liquid system via a magnetic field. The largest adsorption capacities for GEM and MOX can reach up to 433.4 mg g-1 and 388.8 mg g-1, respectively, higher than those of reported adsorbents such as MIL-101 and MOF-808. Fastest adsorptions of GEM and MOX were found at 5 min, and solution pH and coexisting salts do not have a significant influence on the adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism analysis indicates that electrostatic interaction and H-bond interaction contribute to the effective adsorption.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Magnetismo
5.
Zootaxa ; 4772(2): zootaxa.4772.2.6, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055616

RESUMO

Three species of geckos in the genus Goniurosaurus have been recorded from Hainan Island in China. We describe a new species, Goniurosaurus kwanghua sp. nov. Zhu He, bringing the number of this genus in Hainan Island to four. We conducted phylogenetic analyses with two mitochondrial genes (16S Cytb) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 C-MOS) to validate this new species. The new species is similar to G. hainanensis, but differs in the following characters: (1) middle section of the nuchal loop wide and posteriorly protracted, (2) wider body bands with dark markings, (3) yellow stripes on posterior side of humerus and femur, linked to the first and third body bands, respectively. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Ilhas , Masculino , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4778(2): zootaxa.4778.2.9, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055827

RESUMO

The phylogenetic tree of Chinese Nemobiinae species was reconstructed based on one mitochondrial COI fragment and two nuclear ribosomal loci (18S and 28S). According to both of concatenated and coalescent trees, Dianemobius, Polionemobius and Pteronemobius (except P. jianfenglingensis Liu Shi) were shown to be monophyletic with highly nodal supports. As to P. jianfenglingensis, it should be moved into a newly established genus, Giganemobius Shen He gen. nov. In addition, a new mute species named as Qionemobius hsterus Shen He gen. nov. sp. nov. was reported. It differs from other genera by having six apical spurs on hind tibia, but lacking forewings. The type specimens are deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4786(3): zootaxa.4786.3.3, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056472

RESUMO

In this paper, a new species, Sichuana cryptospina sp. nov., is described from Sichuan, China. COI genes were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships with the species belonging to Drymadusini from China. Phylogenetic reconstruction supports the monophyly of Drymadusini while the relationships among genera are still unclear. The new species should be placed in the new genus named Sichuana gen. nov. Additionally, Kansua Uvarov should be moved into this tribe, with supplementary expression of the tribe diagnosis. Types of the new species in this paper are preserved in the Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Filogenia , Universidades
8.
J Nat Prod ; 83(10): 2817-2830, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001650

RESUMO

A pair of enantiomeric 15-nordolabellane diterpenoids, (-)- and (+)-caseadolabellols A (1a and 1b), three dolabellane diterpenoids, caseadolabellols B-D (2-4), two dolastane diterpenoids, caseadolastols A and B (5 and 6), 10 clerodane diterpenoids, caseakurzins A-J (7-16), and nine known diterpenoids (17-25) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Casearia kurzii. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data, and those of compounds 1a, 1b, and 2 were verified by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. The enantiomers 1a and 1b were separated by chiral-phase HPLC. The absolute configurations were determined by experimental and calculated ECD data, the modified Mosher's method, or literature comparison. Compounds 1a and 5 showed significant quinone reductase-inducing activity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells, while 1b showed moderate activity. Molecular docking studies showed that 1a had greater binding affinity with Nrf2 protein (5FNQ) than 1b. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1a, 1b, 2-12, 15, and 16 was evaluated, among which compounds 8 and 16 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against the A549 cell line. Compounds 8 and 16 induced the A549 cells to arrest at G2/M and S phases, respectively, and both compounds induced apoptosis in A549 cells.

9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 3078-3088, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolocumab inhibits the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 protein and is a potent cholesterol-lowering drug. However, the relationship between evolocumab and inflammation, and the effects of evolocumab on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques remain unknown. METHODS: Twenty-seven purebred New Zealand rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. The abdominal aortic endothelium was balloon-injured. The rabbits were divided into the atorvastatin (2 mg/kg/day; Ato), evolocumab (7 mg/kg/2 weeks, Evo) and control groups. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images of the abdominal artery were analyzed at 10 and 18 weeks. Additionally, the serum levels of the biomarkers were measured at baseline, and at 10 and 18 weeks. RESULTS: The serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) increased after 10 weeks of administration of the proatherosclerotic diet, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) decreased. The reduction in the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, MCP-1, TGF-ß, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) following treatment with evolocumab was higher than that of atorvastatin. Both evolocumab and atorvastatin reduced the percent atheroma volume. Evolocumab increased the fibrotic% and decreased the necrotic%. Correlation analysis revealed that the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, MCP-1, TGF-ß, and TLR4 were negatively correlated with the fibrotic%, but were positively correlated with the necrotic%. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that treatment with atorvastatin, and especially evolocumab, was a consistent predictor of the percent atheroma volume, and fibrotic and necrotic composition. CONCLUSIONS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 regulates the serum levels of lipid and cholesterol may via inflammatory pathways. The results also indicate that evolocumab is more potent than atorvastatin in suppressing the progression and stability of atherosclerotic plaque in rabbits.

10.
Zootaxa ; 4768(3): zootaxa.4768.3.11, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055655

RESUMO

The range of hearing for human is about 50 to 20,000 Hz, but some animals can produce ultrasounds over 20000 Hz. These include bats, cetaceans, rodents and even frogs (Feng et al., 2006). Katydids and crickets are famous singing insects belonging to order Orthoptera. Many katydids can produce ultrasounds even over 100 kHz (Montealegre-Z et al., 2006). However, the dominant frequency of most crickets ranges from 2 to 8 kHz (Walker Carlysle, 1975; Robillard Desutter-Grandcolas, 2004). In previous studies, only Eneopterinae crickets were reported to produce high-frequency songs (Robillard et al. 2007; Robillard Tan 2013). We report that Lissotrachelus ferrugineonotatus crickets produce ultrasounds with peak at 26.25 kHz.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Animais
11.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 905, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097689

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4852(2): zootaxa.4852.2.6, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056426

RESUMO

Five species of geckos in the genus Goniurosaurus had been recorded from Guangxi, China. Here we describe a new species, Goniurosaurus gezhi sp. nov. Zhu, He Li. The new species is similar to those found in Guangxi and Guizhou provinces of China and Northern Vietnam, but unique in a combination of the following characters: (1) three body bands between limb insertions; (2) precloacal pores 18-20; (3) body small (SVL=70.6-83.8 mm); (4) body color orange to yellow. We evaluated the phylogenetic position of this new species based on the 16S mitochondrial gene. Molecular phylogenies validate this new species as distinct to currently described lineages within Goniurosaurus. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Masculino , Filogenia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5166, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056999

RESUMO

Many creatures have the ability to traverse challenging environments by using their active muscles with anisotropic structures as the motors in a highly coordinated fashion. However, most artificial robots require multiple independently activated actuators to achieve similar purposes. Here we report a hydrogel-based, biomimetic soft robot capable of multimodal locomotion fueled and steered by light irradiation. A muscle-like poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanocomposite hydrogel is prepared by electrical orientation of nanosheets and subsequent gelation. Patterned anisotropic hydrogels are fabricated by multi-step electrical orientation and photolithographic polymerization, affording programmed deformations. Under light irradiation, the gold-nanoparticle-incorporated hydrogels undergo concurrent fast isochoric deformation and rapid increase in friction against a hydrophobic substrate. Versatile motion gaits including crawling, walking, and turning with controllable directions are realized in the soft robots by dynamic synergy of localized shape-changing and friction manipulation under spatiotemporal light stimuli. The principle and strategy should merit designing of continuum soft robots with biomimetic mechanisms.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e2005567, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079426

RESUMO

Living organisms use musculatures with spatially distributed anisotropic structures to actuate deformations and locomotion with fascinating functions. Replicating such structural features in artificial materials is of great significance yet remains a big challenge. Here, a facile strategy is reported to fabricate hydrogels with elaborate ordered structures of nanosheets (NSs) oriented under a distributed electric field. Multiple electrodes are distributed with various arrangements in the precursor solution containing NSs and gold nanoparticles. A complex electric field induces sophisticated orientations of the NSs that are permanently inscribed by subsequent photo-polymerization. The resultant anisotropic nanocomposite poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels exhibit rapid deformation upon heating or photoirradiation, owing to the fast switching of permittivity of the media and electric repulsion between the NSs. The complex alignments of NSs and anisotropic shape change of discrete regions result in programmed deformation of the hydrogels into various configurations. Furthermore, locomotion is realized by a spatiotemporal light stimulation that locally triggers time-variant shape change of the composite hydrogel with complex anisotropic structures. Such a strategy on the basis of the distributed electric-field-generated ordered structures should be applicable to gels, elastomers, and thermosets loaded with other anisotropic particles or liquid crystals, for the design of biomimetic/bioinspired materials with specific functionalities.

15.
Small ; : e2001805, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079449

RESUMO

The rational integration of chemotherapy and hydroxyl radical (·OH)-mediated chemodynamic therapy (CDT) holds great potential for cancer treatment. Herein, a smart biocompatible nanocatalyst based on porous core-shell cuprous oxide nanocrystals (Cu2 O-PEG (polyethylene glycol) NCs) is reported for acid-triggered chemo/chemodynamic synergistic therapy. The in situ formed high density of hydrophilic PEG outside greatly improves the stability and compatibility of NCs. The porosity of Cu2 O-PEG NCs shows the admirable capacity of doxorubicin (DOX) loading (DOX@Cu2 O-PEG NCs) and delivery. Excitingly, Cu (Cu+/2+ ) and DOX can be controllably released from DOX@Cu2 O-PEG NCs in a pH-responsive approach. The released Cu+ exerts Fenton-like catalytic activity to generate toxic ·OH from intracellular overexpressed hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for CDT via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-involved oxidative damage. Exactly, DOX can not only induce cell death for chemotherapy but also enhance CDT by self-supplying endogenous H2 O2 . After the intravenous injection, Cu2 O-PEG NCs can effectively accumulate in tumor region via passive targeting improved by external high-density PEG shell. Additionally, the effect of boosted CDT combined with chemotherapy presents excellent in vivo antitumor ability without causing distinct systemic toxicity. It is believed that this smart nanocatalyst responding to the acidity provides a novel paradigm for site-specific cancer synergetic therapy.

16.
Allergy ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The missing asymptomatic COVID-19 infections have been overlooked because of the imperfect sensitivity of the nucleic acid testing (NAT). Globally understanding the humoral immunity in asymptomatic carriers will provide scientific knowledge for developing serological tests, improving early identification, and implementing more rational control strategies against the pandemic. MEASURE: Utilizing both NAT and commercial kits for serum IgM and IgG antibodies, we extensively screened 11 766 epidemiologically suspected individuals on enrollment and 63 asymptomatic individuals were detected and recruited. Sixty-three healthy individuals and 51 mild patients without any preexisting conditions were set as controls. Serum IgM and IgG profiles were further probed using a SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray, and neutralizing antibody was detected by a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay system. The dynamics of antibodies were analyzed with exposure time or symptoms onset. RESULTS: A combination test of NAT and serological testing for IgM antibody discovered 55.5% of the total of 63 asymptomatic infections, which significantly raises the detection sensitivity when compared with the NAT alone (19%). Serum proteome microarray analysis demonstrated that asymptomatics mainly produced IgM and IgG antibodies against S1 and N proteins out of 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Different from strong and persistent N-specific antibodies, S1-specific IgM responses, which evolved in asymptomatic individuals as early as the seventh day after exposure, peaked on days from 17 days to 25 days, and then disappeared in two months, might be used as an early diagnostic biomarker. 11.8% (6/51) mild patients and 38.1% (24/63) asymptomatic individuals did not produce neutralizing antibody. In particular, neutralizing antibody in asymptomatics gradually vanished in two months. CONCLUSION: Our findings might have important implications for the definition of asymptomatic COVID-19 infections, diagnosis, serological survey, public health, and immunization strategies.

17.
Neuroreport ; 31(17): 1215-1224, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105441

RESUMO

Music and instruction-guided relaxation (MIGR) is a complementary therapeutic tool used in the treatment of the major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neural mechanism that underlies the effect of MIGR on MDD patients is not known. Twenty-three right-handed MDD patients and 23 age-, sex-, handedness-, and educational level-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from patients before and after MIGR and from healthy controls. The relationships between insular subregion-based functional connectivity and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and Ruminative Responses Scale scores were examined. One-way analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the three groups in functional connectivity between the left dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and left superior medial frontal gyrus (SMFG), left dAI and left precuneus, left posterior insula and left gyrus rectus, right ventral anterior insula (vAI) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right vAI and right inferior frontal gyrus (R-IFG). Further comparisons in regions of interest showed that MDD patients before MIGR showed decreased functional connectivity between the left dAI and left SMFG, left dAI and left precuneus, left posterior insula, and left gyrus rectus, right vAI and left PCC, right vAI and R-IFG relative to those in healthy controls. The strength of functional connectivity between the right dAI and left putamen also exhibited a negative correlation with the HAM-A score in MDD cases before MIGR. MIGR may result in enhanced functional connectivity in insular subregions, thereby potentially increasing the regulatory influence of cognitive reappraisal.

18.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908237

RESUMO

Our recent work demonstrates that infusion of sodium butyrate (NaBu) into the renal medulla blunts angiotensin II-induced hypertension and improves renal injury. The present study aimed to test whether oral administration of NaBu attenuates salt-sensitive hypertension in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-treated rats. Uninephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with DOCA pellets (150 mg/rat) plus 1% NaCl drinking water for 2 weeks. Animals received oral administration of NaBu (1 g/kg) or vehicle once per day. Our results showed that NaBu administration significantly attenuated DOCA/salt-increased mean arterial pressure from 156 ± 4 mmHg to 136 ± 1 mmHg. DOCA/salt treatment markedly enhanced renal damage as indicated by an increased ratio of kidney weight/body weight, elevated urinary albumin, extensive fibrosis, and inflammation, whereas kidneys from NaBu-treated rats exhibited a significant reduction in these renal damage responses. Compared to the DOCA/salt group, the DOCA/salt-NaBu group had ~30% less salt water intake and decreased Na+ and Cl- excretion in urine but no alteration in 24-h urine excretion. Mechanistically, NaBu inhibited the protein levels of several sodium transporters stimulated by DOCA/salt in vivo, such as ßENaC, γENaC, NCC, and NKCC-2. Further examination showed that NaBu downregulated the expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and serum and glucocorticoid-dependent protein kinase 1 (SGK1) in DOCA/salt-treated rats or aldosterone-treated human renal tubular duct epithelial cells. These results provide evidence that NaBu may attenuate DOCA/salt-induced hypertension and renal damage by inhibiting the MR/SGK1 pathway.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922324

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00459.].

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