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1.
Opt Express ; 32(7): 11509-11521, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570996

RESUMO

Stable Q-switched and femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) have been achieved using CuSe nanosheets as novel saturable absorber (SA), where the CuSe nanosheets were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The nonlinear optical properties of CuSe nanosheets were measured using an Z-scan setup, revealing nonlinear absorption coefficients of -3.67 ± 0.22 cm GW-1 at 1560 nm. The prepared CuSe nanosheets were mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to obtain a CuSe-PVA SA with a modulation depth of 3.8 ± 0.13%, and it was utilized to realize a Q-switched EDFL, obtaining the narrowest pulse duration of 1.29 µs and the maximum output power of 5.96 mW, which corresponds to a pulse energy of up to 103.7 nJ. In addition, CuSe nanosheets were deposited on a D-shaped fiber (DSF) to fabricate a CuSe-DSF SA with a modulation depth of 5.6 ± 0.17%, and it was utilized to realize a mode-locked EDFL. The mode-locked EDFL demonstrated a low threshold of only 42 mW, a pulse duration of 740 fs, and a maximum output power of 9.7 mW. Meanwhile, it exhibited a high signal-to-noise ratio of 72 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time of CuSe nanosheets as SA in EDFL. The results demonstrate that CuSe nanosheets are a highly promising nonlinear optical material with great potential for applications in ultrafast photonics.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(14): 143801, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640373

RESUMO

Photonic structures with Weyl points (WPs), including type I and type II, promise nontrivial surface modes and intriguing light manipulations for their three-dimensional topological bands. While previous studies mainly focus on exploring WPs in a uniform Weyl structure, here we establish Weyl heterostructures (i.e., a nonuniform Weyl lattice) with different rotational orientations in the synthetic dimension by nanostructured photonic waveguides. In this work, we unveil a transition between bound and extended modes on the interface of type-II Weyl heterostructures by tuning their rotational phases, despite the reversed topological order across the interface. This mode transition is also manifested from the total transmission to total reflection at the interface. All of these unconventional effects are attributed to the tilted dispersion of type-II Weyl band structure that can lead to mismatched bands and gaps across the interface. As a comparison, the type-I Weyl heterostructures lack the phase transition due to the untilted band structure. This work establishes a flexible scheme of artificial Weyl heterostructures that opens a new avenue toward high-dimensional topological effects and significantly enhances our capabilities in on-chip light manipulations.

3.
Appl Opt ; 63(9): 2286-2293, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568584

RESUMO

A two-dimensional binary phase grating is proposed in this paper. Unlike a conventional transmission grating, in theory, the proposed phase grating can simultaneously eliminate the zero- and high-order diffraction along certain axes on the image plane, forming a pure sinusoidal transmission modulation that leaves only the first-order diffraction. The first-ever, to the best of our knowledge, theoretical model for achieving sinusoidal transmission modulation is suggested in this paper; then the theoretical calculation and experiment results are displayed to investigate the physical mechanism of the proposed grating. Moreover, the manipulation on the arrangement of grating design can disperse or concentrate the diffraction energy at a specific axis. Finally, almost first-order-only diffraction is achieved on a single axis by introducing random changes to certain geometrical parameters of the two-dimensional binary phase grating. Our work provides potential applications in optical science and engineering fields.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(8)2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673078

RESUMO

Periodically poled lithium niobate on insulator (PPLNOI) offers an admirably promising platform for the advancement of nonlinear photonic integrated circuits (PICs). In this context, domain inversion engineering emerges as a key process to achieve efficient nonlinear conversion. However, periodic poling processing of thin-film lithium niobate has only been realized on the chip level, which significantly limits its applications in large-scale nonlinear photonic systems that necessitate the integration of multiple nonlinear components on a single chip with uniform performances. Here, we demonstrate a wafer-scale periodic poling technique on a 4-inch LNOI wafer with high fidelity. The reversal lengths span from 0.5 to 10.17 mm, encompassing an area of ~1 cm2 with periods ranging from 4.38 to 5.51 µm. Efficient poling was achieved with a single manipulation, benefiting from the targeted grouped electrode pads and adaptable comb line widths in our experiment. As a result, domain inversion is ultimately implemented across the entire wafer with a 100% success rate and 98% high-quality rate on average, showcasing high throughput and stability, which is fundamentally scalable and highly cost-effective in contrast to traditional size-restricted chiplet-level poling. Our study holds significant promise to dramatically promote ultra-high performance to a broad spectrum of applications, including optical communications, photonic neural networks, and quantum photonics.

5.
6.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 95(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497834

RESUMO

Reducing the surface resistance of underwater vehicles plays an important role in improving cruising speed and cruising mileage. The epidermis of loaches is not only covered with a layer of scale structure but also secretes mucus tissue with a lubricating effect, which makes loaches swim rapidly in muddy water. Study the morphology and structure of the skin of loach and establish a two-stage biomimetic drag reduction model. Adjust the different structural parameters of the model and select the parameters with the best drag reduction rate for the modeling design. The numerical simulation results show that the optimal drag reduction rate of the two-stage drag reduction structure is greater than 21%. In the flow channel test experiment, the drag reduction rate is slightly lower than the simulation results. Numerical simulation and experimental data show that the underwater drag reduction function can be realized by simulating the microstructure of loach skin. Finally, analyze the velocity gradient, vortices, etc., and search for the drag reduction mechanism. The simulation design of the microstructure of the loach skin can increase the thickness of the boundary layer, promote the vortex structure near the wall surface, change the flow mode of the solid-liquid interface, and reduce the wall resistance. At the same time, the drag reduction model provides key technical support for the practical application of reducing surface resistance, such as in underwater vehicles.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 63(8): 3807-3814, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345921

RESUMO

Thorium-doped vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) transparent crystals is a promising candidate for establishing a solid-state nuclear clock. Here, we report the research results on high-concentration doping of 232Th:CaF2 single crystals. The structures, defects, and VUV transmittance performances of highly doped Th:CaF2 crystals are investigated by theoretical and experimental methods. The defect configurations formed by Th and the charge compensation mechanism (Ca vacancy or interstitial F atoms) located at its first nearest neighbor position are mainly considered and studied. The preferred defect configuration is identified according to the doping concentration dependence of structural changes caused by the defects and the formation energies of the defects at different Ca or F chemical potentials. The cultivated Th:CaF2 crystals maintain considerable high VUV transmittance levels while accommodating high doping concentrations, showcasing an exceptional comprehensive performance. The transmittances of 1-mm-thick samples with doping concentrations of 1.91 × 1020 and 2.76 × 1020 cm-3 can reach ∼62% and 53% at 150 nm, respectively. The VUV transmittance exhibits a weak negative doping concentration dependence. The system factors that may cause distortion and additional deterioration of the VUV transmittance are discussed. Balancing and controlling the impacts of various factors will be of great significance for fully exploiting the advantages of Th:CaF2 and other Th-doped crystals for a solid-state nuclear optical clock.

8.
Opt Express ; 32(3): 4334-4345, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297637

RESUMO

Integrated on-chip femtosecond (fs) laser optoelectronic system, with photodetector as a critical component for light-electrical signal conversion, is a long-sought-after goal for a wide range of frontier applications. However, the high laser peak intensity and complicated nanophotonic waveguide structure of on-chip fs laser are beyond the detectability and integrability of conventional photodetectors. Therefore, flexible photodetector with the response on intense fs laser is in urgent needs. Herein, we demonstrate the first (to our knowledge) two-photon absorption (TPA) flexible photodetector based on the strong TPA nonlinearity of layered hybrid perovskite (IA)2(MA)2Pb3Br10, exhibiting efficient sub-bandgap response on the infrared fs laser at 700-1000 nm. High saturation intensity up to ∼3.8 MW/cm2 is achieved. The device also shows superior current stability even after bending for 1000 cycles. This work may pave the new way for the application of flexible optoelectronics specialized in integrated fs-laser detection.

9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1726, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409174

RESUMO

Electronic processors are reaching the physical speed ceiling that heralds the era of optical processors. Multifunctional all-optical logic gates (AOLGs) of massively parallel processing are of great importance for large-scale integrated optical processors with speed far in excess of electronics, while are rather challenging due to limited operation bandwidth and multifunctional integration complexity. Here we for the first time experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable all-in-one broadband AOLG that achieves nine fundamental Boolean logics in a single configuration, enabled by ultrabroadband (400-4000 nm) plasmon-enhanced thermo-optical nonlinearity (TONL) of liquid-metal Galinstan nanodroplet assemblies (GNAs). Due to the unique heterogeneity (broad-range geometry sizes, morphology, assembly profiles), the prepared GNAs exhibit broadband plasmonic opto-thermal effects (hybridization, local heating, energy transfer, etc.), resulting in a huge nonlinear refractive index under the order of 10-4-10-5 within visual-infrared range. Furthermore, a generalized control-signal light route is proposed for the dynamic TONL modulation of reversible spatial-phase shift, based on which nine logic functions are reconfigurable in one single AOLG configuration. Our work will provide a powerful strategy on large-bandwidth all-optical circuits for high-density data processing in the future.

10.
Opt Lett ; 49(4): 931-934, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359219

RESUMO

A continuous-wave, tandem optical parametric oscillator (TOPO) based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) is demonstrated. Because the MgO:PPLN is tandemly pumped by the OPO's signal beam, it outputs simultaneously two groups of signal and idler with a single pump source. The entire range spans from 1398 to 1490 nm, 1914 to 2107 nm, 3720 to 4444 nm, and 4849 to 5190 nm, which is limited by periods of the MgO:PPLN and cavity mirror coatings. The TOPO, whose oscillation threshold of pump power exceeds 7 W, can be easily triggered by marginally increasing the pump power as long as the OPO process occurs. The maximum idler powers are respectively 2.6 W (at 3896 nm) and 34 mW (at 4863 nm), and the corresponding signal powers are both nearly 100 mW.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(1): 016601, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242675

RESUMO

Topological photonic states provide intriguing strategies for robust light manipulations, however, it remains challenging to perfectly excite these topological eigenstates due to their complicated mode profiles. In this work, we propose to realize the exact eigenmode of the topological edge states by supersymmetric (SUSY) structures. By adiabatically transforming the SUSY partner to its main topological structure, the edge modes can be perfectly excited with simple single-site input. We experimentally verify our strategy in integrated silicon waveguides in telecommunication wavelength, showing a broad working bandwidth. Moreover, a shortcut-to-adiabaticity strategy is further applied to speed up the adiabatic pump process by inverse-design approaches, thus enabling fast mode evolutions and leading to reduced device size. Our method is universal and beneficial to the topology-based or complex eigenmodes systems, ranging from photonics and microwaves to cold atoms and acoustics.

12.
Nano Lett ; 24(4): 1303-1308, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232135

RESUMO

A nonlinear holographic technique is capable of processing optical information in the newly generated optical frequencies, enabling fascinating functions in laser display, security storage, and image recognition. One popular nonlinear hologram is based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (LN) crystal. However, due to the limitations of traditional fabrication techniques, the pixel size of the LN hologram is typically several micrometers, resulting in a limited field-of-voew (FOV) of several degrees. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-high-resolution LN hologram by using the laser poling technique. The minimal pixel size reaches 200 nm, and the FOV is extended above 120° in our experiments. The image distortions at large view angles are effectively suppressed through the Fourier transform. The FOV is further improved by combining multiple diffraction orders of SH fields. The ultimate FOV under our configuration is decided by a Fresnel transmission. Our results pave the way for expanding the applications of nonlinear holography to wide-view imaging and display.

13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 55, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168081

RESUMO

Dissipative Kerr soliton (DKS) microcomb has emerged as an enabling technology that revolutionizes a wide range of applications in both basic science and technological innovation. Reliable turnkey operation with sub-optical-cycle and sub-femtosecond timing jitter is key to the success of many intriguing microcomb applications at the intersection of ultrafast optics and microwave electronics. Here we propose an approach and demonstrate the first turnkey Brillouin-DKS frequency comb to the best of our knowledge. Our microresonator-filtered laser design offers essential benefits, including phase insensitivity, self-healing capability, deterministic selection of the DKS state, and access to the ultralow noise comb state. The demonstrated turnkey Brillouin-DKS frequency comb achieves a fundamental comb linewidth of 100 mHz and DKS timing jitter of 1 femtosecond for averaging times up to 56 µs. The approach is universal and generalizable to various device platforms for user-friendly and field-deployable comb devices.

14.
Adv Mater ; 36(14): e2310010, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117070

RESUMO

Gauge field is widely studied in natural and artificial materials. With an effective magnetic field for uncharged particles, many intriguing phenomena are observed in several systems like photonic Floquet topological insulator. However, previous researches about the gauge field mostly focus on limited dimensions such as the Dirac spinor in graphene materials. Here, an orbital gauge field based on photonic triangular lattices is first proposed and experimentally observed. Disclination defects with Frank angle Ω created on such lattices breaks the original lattice symmetry and generates purely geometric gauge field operating on orbital basis functions. Interestingly, it is found that bound states near zero energy with the orbital angular momentum (OAM) l = 2 are intensively confined at the disclination as gradually expanding Ω. Moreover, the introduction of a vector potential field breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the orbital gauge field, experimentally manifested by the chiral transmission of light on helical waveguides. The orbital gauge field further suggests fantastic applications of manipulating the vortex light in photonic integrated devices.

15.
Light Sci Appl ; 12(1): 288, 2023 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044390

RESUMO

Polarimetry plays an indispensable role in modern optics. Nevertheless, the current strategies generally suffer from bulky system volume or spatial multiplexing scheme, resulting in limited performances when dealing with inhomogeneous polarizations. Here, we propose a non-interleaved, interferometric method to analyze the polarizations based on a tri-channel chiral metasurface. A deep convolutional neural network is also incorporated to enable fast, robust and accurate polarimetry. Spatially uniform and nonuniform polarizations are both measured through the metasurface experimentally. Distinction between two semblable glasses is also demonstrated. Our strategy features the merits of compactness and high spatial resolution, and would inspire more intriguing design for detecting and sensing.

16.
Opt Express ; 31(23): 37464-37471, 2023 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38017874

RESUMO

Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) is a powerful platform for integrated photonic circuits. Recently, advanced applications in nonlinear and quantum optics require to controllably fabricate nano-resolution domain structures in LNOI. Here, we report on the fabrication of stable domain structures with sub-100 nm feature size through piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) tip poling in a z-cut LNOI. In experiment, the domain dot with an initial diameter of 80 nm and the domain line with an initial width of 50 nm can survive after a storage of more than 3 months. Particularly, we demonstrate the successful fabrication of 1D stable domain array with a period down to 100 nm and a duty cycle of ∼50%. Our method paves the way to precisely manipulate frequency conversion and quantum entanglement on an LNOI chip.

17.
Opt Lett ; 48(22): 5895-5898, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966746

RESUMO

Metasurfaces, composed of sub-wavelength structures, have a powerful capability to manipulate light propagations. However, metasurfaces usually work either in pure reflection mode or pure transmission mode. Achieving full-space manipulation of light at will in the optical region is still challenging. Here we propose a design method of full-space meta-device containing a bilayer metasurface sandwiching 1D photonic crystal to manipulate the transmitted and reflected wave independently. To provide a proof-of-concept demonstration, a device is proposed to show the light focusing in transmission and a vortex beam in reflection. Meanwhile, a device focusing the reflected light with oblique 45° incidence and the transmitted light with normal incidence is designed to indicate its application potential in augmented reality (AR) application. Our design provides a promising way to enrich the multifunctional meta-devices for potential applications.

18.
Opt Lett ; 48(22): 5951-5954, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966760

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal vortices (STOVs) are a new, to the best of our knowledge, type of structured light in which the optical phase circulates in space-time. In this work, we propose to generate STOVs via second harmonic generation in lithium niobate nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) with a linearly chirped Gaussian pulse as the fundamental wave. The structural function of the NPC is derived by the inverse design method. Numerical simulations of the intensity and phase profiles of the generated second harmonic waves are performed with both the amplitude-phase-modulated and the simplified binary-phase-modulated NPCs. We anticipate our study will be valuable for the experimental generation and manipulation of STOVs in NPCs.

19.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6995, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914741

RESUMO

Quantum storage and distribution of entanglement are the key ingredients for realizing a global quantum internet. Compatible with existing fiber networks, telecom-wavelength entangled photons and corresponding quantum memories are of central interest. Recently, 167Er3+ ions have been identified as a promising candidate for an efficient telecom quantum memory. However, to date, no storage of entangled photons, the crucial step of quantum memory using these promising ions, 167Er3+, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of the entangled state of two telecom photons generated from an integrated photonic chip. Combining the natural narrow linewidth of the entangled photons and long storage time of 167Er3+ ions, we achieve storage time of 1.936 µs, more than 387 times longer than in previous works. Successful storage of entanglement in the crystal is certified using entanglement witness measurements. These results pave the way for realizing quantum networks based on solid-state devices.

20.
Opt Express ; 31(21): 33873-33882, 2023 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37859157

RESUMO

Correction of chromatic aberration is an important issue in color imaging and display. However, realizing broadband achromatic imaging by a singlet lens with high comprehensive performance still remains challenging, though many achromatic flat lenses have been reported recently. Here, we propose a deep-learning-enhanced singlet planar imaging system, implemented by a 3 mm-diameter achromatic flat lens, to achieve relatively high-quality achromatic imaging in the visible. By utilizing a multi-scale convolutional neural network (CNN) imposed to an achromatic multi-level diffractive lens (AMDL), the white light imaging qualities are significantly improved in both indoor and outdoor scenarios. Our experiments are fulfilled via a large paired imaging dataset with respect to a 3 mm-diameter AMDL, which guaranteed with achromatism in a broad wavelength range (400-1100 nm) but a relative low efficiency (∼45%). After our CNN enhancement, the imaging qualities are improved by ∼2 dB, showing competitive achromatic and high-quality imaging with a singlet lens for practical applications.

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