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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 719-730, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383067

RESUMO

The efficient removal of toxic metal ions from waste water is of critical importance in environmental protection. In this study, we report the incorporation of graphene oxide (GO) into bacterial cellulose (BC) and the effect on the removal of metal ions from waste water. The as-prepared BC/GO adsorbents have a three-dimensional (3D) network structure with interconnected pores and high porosity. The adsorption capacities and efficiencies of the BC/GO adsorbents with varying GO contents were compared by using Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ as model heavy metal ions. The incorporated GO into the BC/GO adsorbents plays a critical role in removing metal ions through strong electrostatic interactions between the positive metal ions and the negative functional groups on GO. In addition, the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and ion concentration on the adsorption behavior of the BC/GO adsorbents were investigated. The data from adsorption kinetics indicate that the adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ on BC/GO obeys a pseudo-second-order model, while the adsorption isotherms vary with the type of metal ions. The desorption and readsorption experiments of the BC/GO adsorbents demonstrate good recyclability. It has been demonstrated that incorporating GO into BC is an effective way to improve the adsorption behavior of BC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the difference of computed tomography (CT) features between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) with and without lymph node metastasis (LNM) and to construct a nomogram to predict LNM and overall survival preoperatively. METHODS: Clinicopathological and contrast-enhanced CT features of 63 patients with ICC were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to construct a nomogram to predict LNM preoperatively. Survival curves were drawn with the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival difference was compared. RESULTS: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas with and without LNM differed significantly in clinical symptoms, tumor location, morphologic classification, arterial phase enhancement degree-mean, arterial phase enhancement degree-max, portal venous phase enhancement degree-max, equilibrium phase (EP) enhancement ratio, EP CT value-max, and EP CT value-max/liver. A nomogram based on morphologic classification, EP CT value-max, and EP enhancement ratio was constructed to predict LNM with an area under curve of 0.814 (P < 0.001). Patients with ICC with LNM risk of 0.20 or greater based on the nomogram showed a significantly poorer overall survival than those with LNM risk less than 0.20 (39.5 ± 5.2 vs 51.1 ± 4.7 months). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative CT features of ICCs differed significantly between those with and without LNM. Nomogram based on those features could predict LNM and overall survival even better than the N stage.

4.
Cell Biol Int ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498514

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) may function a key part in the progression of various cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). However, the expression, role and mechanism of miR-938 (microRNA-938) in LUAD have not been defined. Compared with adjacent tissues, the level of miR-938 was upregulated in LUAD tissues. miR-938 expression was significantly associated with tumor size. In vitro assays indicated that miR-938 expression was also increased in the LUAD cell lines. Overexpression of miR-938 promoted LUAD cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of miR-938 had the opposite effect. We identified RBM5 (RNA-binding protein 5) as a potential target gene of miR-938 in LUAD. Expression of RBM5 was down-regulated in LUAD tumor tissues and negatively correlated with expression of miR-938. Up-regulation of RBM5 reversed cell proliferation by inhibition of miR-938 expression in LUAD cells. These results showed that miR-938 may act as an oncogenic miRNA by targeting RBM5 in LUAD, suggesting that miR-938 may be a potential method for LUAD therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488721

RESUMO

In the development of photoelectrochemical cells for water splitting or CO2 reduction, a major challenge is O2 evolution at photoelectrodes that, in behavior, mimic photosystem II. At an appropriate semiconductor electrode, a water oxidation catalyst must be integrated with a visible light absorber in a stable half-cell configuration. Here, we describe an electrode consisting of a light absorber, an intermediate electron donor layer, and a water oxidation catalyst for sustained light driven water oxidation catalysis. In assembling the electrode on nanoparticle SnO2/TiO2 electrodes, a Ru(II) polypyridyl complex was used as the light absorber, NiO was deposited as an overlayer, and a Ru(II) 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate complex as the water oxidation catalyst. In the final electrode, addition of the NiO overlayer enhanced performance toward water oxidation with the final electrode operating with a 1.1 mA/cm2 photocurrent density for 2 h without decomposition under one sun illumination in a pH 4.65 solution. We attribute the enhanced performance to the role of NiO as an electron transfer mediator between the light absorber and the catalyst.

6.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 128, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sharp increases in food production worldwide are attributable to agricultural intensification aided by heavy use of agrochemicals. This massive use of pesticides and fertilizers in combination with global climate change has led to collateral damage in freshwater systems, notably an increase in the frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs). The precise mechanisms and magnitude of effects that pesticides exert on HCBs formation and proliferation have received little research attention and are poorly constrained. RESULTS: We found that azoxystrobin (AZ), a common strobilurin fungicide, can favor cyanobacterial growth through growth inhibition of eukaryotic competitors (Chlorophyta) and possibly by inhibiting cyanobacterial parasites (fungi) as well as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Meta-transcriptomic analyses identified AZ-responsive genes and biochemical pathways in eukaryotic plankton and bacteria, potentially explaining the microbial effects of AZ. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel mechanistic insights into the intertwined effects of a fungicide and eutrophication on microbial planktonic communities and cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic freshwater ecosystem. This knowledge may prove useful in mitigating cyanobacteria blooms resulting from agricultural intensification.

7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112850, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499430

RESUMO

In the present study, an accurate and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of plasma talazoparib concentration in rats was developed and established. The purpose of chromatographic separation of talazoparib and the internal standard (bosutinib) was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 µm) column with a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min, using a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a XEVO TQ-S triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization interface under positive-ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 381.3 → 285.2 for talazoparib and m/z 530.2 → 141.2 for bosutinib (IS), respectively. The method was linear over the range of 0.5-200 ng/mL for talazoparib. The accuracies and precisions of intra- and inter-day were all within the acceptance limits, and no matrix effect was observed in this method. The validated method was further employed to a pharmacokinetic study of talazoparib after oral treatment with 0.2 mg/kg talazoparib to rats.

8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(5): 5022-5040, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499702

RESUMO

Resampling detection plays an important role in identifying image tampering, such as image splicing. Currently, the resampling detection is still difficult in recompressed images, which are yielded by applying resampling followed by post-JPEG compression to primary JPEG images. Except for the scenario of low quality primary compression, it remains rather challenging due to the widespread use of middle/high quality compression in imaging devices. In this paper, we propose a new convolution neural network (CNN) method to learn the resampling trace features directly from the recompressed images. To this end, a noise extraction layer based on low-order high pass filters is deployed to yield the image residual domain, which is more beneficial to extract manipulation trace features. A dual-stream CNN is presented to capture the resampling trails along different directions, where the horizontal and vertical network streams are interleaved and concatenated. Lastly, the learned features are fed into Sigmoid/Softmax layer, which acts as a binary/multiple classifier for achieving the blind detection and parameter estimation of resampling, respectively. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method could detect resampling effectively in recompressed images and outperform the state-of-the-art detectors.

9.
Environ Int ; 131: 105059, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374443

RESUMO

The concept of planetary health acknowledges the links between ecosystems, biodiversity and human health and well-being. Soil, the critical component of the interconnected ecosystem, is the most biodiverse habitat on Earth, and soil microbiomes play a major role in human health and well-being through ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, pollutant remediation and synthesis of bioactive compounds such as antimicrobials. Soil is also a natural source of antimicrobial resistance, which is often termed intrinsic resistance. However, increasing use and misuse of antimicrobials in humans and animals in recent decades has increased both the diversity and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in soils, particularly in areas affected by human and animal wastes, such as organic manures and reclaimed wastewater, and also by air transmission. Antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance are two sides of the sword, while antimicrobials are essential in health care; globally, antimicrobial resistance is jeopardizing the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs, thus threatening human health. Soil is a crucial pathway through which humans are exposed to antimicrobial resistance determinants, including those harbored by human pathogens. In this review, we use the nexus of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance as a focus to discuss the role of soil in planetary health and illustrate the impacts of soil microbiomes on human health and well-being. This review examines the sources and dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in soils and uses the perspective of planetary health to track the movement of antimicrobial-resistance genes between environmental compartments, including soil, water, food and air.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 31028-31037, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373192

RESUMO

Textiles represent an appealing platform for continuous wearable applications due to the exceptional combination of compliance, water vapor permeability, and comfortableness for long-term wear. We present mechanically and electrically robust integration of nanocomposites with textiles by laser scribing and heat press lamination. The simple and scalable integration technique enables multifunctional E-textiles without compromising the stretchability, wearability, and washability of textiles. The textile-integrated patterns exhibit small line width (135 µm), low sheet resistance (0.2 Ω/sq), low Young's modulus, good washability, and good electromechanical performance up to 50% strain, which is desirable for wearable and user-friendly electronic textiles. To demonstrate the potential utility, we developed an integrated textile patch comprising four dry electrophysiological electrodes, a capacitive strain sensor, and a wireless heater for electrophysiological monitoring, motion tracking, and thermotherapy, respectively. Beyond the applications demonstrated in this paper, the materials and methods presented here pave the way for various other wearable applications in health care, activity tracking, rehabilitation, sports medicine, and human-machine interactions.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e1902343, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464046

RESUMO

Nanomaterial-enabled flexible and stretchable electronics have seen tremendous progress in recent years, evolving from single sensors to integrated sensing systems. Compared with nanomaterial-enabled sensors with a single function, integration of multiple sensors is conducive to comprehensive monitoring of personal health and environment, intelligent human-machine interfaces, and realistic imitation of human skin in robotics and prosthetics. Integration of sensors with other functional components promotes real-world applications of the sensing systems. Here, an overview of the design and integration strategies and manufacturing techniques for such sensing systems is given. Then, representative nanomaterial-enabled flexible and stretchable sensing systems are presented. Following that, representative applications in personal health, fitness tracking, electronic skins, artificial nervous systems, and human-machine interactions are provided. To conclude, perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this burgeoning field are considered.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10445-10453, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373490

RESUMO

Combinations of metal(loid) contamination and antibiotics are considered to increase the abundance of resistance genes in the environment, whereas the combined effect of metal(loid)s and antibiotics on microbial communities and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the gut of soil fauna remains unknown. We investigated herein the alteration of ARGs and the gut microbial communities after the earthworm Metaphire sieboldi was exposed to arsenate and/or sulfamethoxazole using high-throughput quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing analysis. Arsenic accumulation in the body tissues of arsenic-exposed earthworms exerted a significant inhibition on growth and survival. The synergistic interactions of arsenic and sulfamethoxazole increased significantly the incidence of ARGs and mobile genetic elements in the earthworm gut microbiota. In addition, co-exposure to arsenic and sulfamethoxazole altered the structure of the gut microbial communities, and the changes correlated with ARG profiles of the gut microbiota. Our results indicate that the gut of soil fauna is a neglected hotspot of antibiotic resistance.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is of high mortality and morbidity. SICH in the basal ganglia is usually attributed to chronic hypertension. Postoperative rehemorrhage is a severe complication, and it is relative to surgical techniques. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted on 123 patients with basal ganglia SICH who received surgery from January 2015 to January 2019. Postoperative rehemorrhage within 24 hours was recorded. Preoperative clinical parameters, surgeon experience (<10 and >20 years), operation time, surgical approach, and hemostasis technique were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The total postoperative rehemorrhage rate was 12.2% (15/123). The univariable analysis showed general surgeons had a higher postoperative rehemorrhage rate than experienced surgeons (30.4% vs. 8.6%, respectively; P = 0.068). The operation time (minutes) in experienced surgeons was significantly longer (164.9 ± 53.5 vs. 137.7 ± 30.8, P = 0.016), but they had a higher chance to locate the responsible vessel (74.2% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.001), respectively. Logistic analysis indicated that experienced surgeons significantly reduced the risk of rehemorrhage (odds ratio [OR], 0.242; P = 0.021). Transsylvian approach was a protective factor for postoperative rehemorrhage (OR, 0.291; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons' experience plays the most important role in postoperative rehemorrhage. Surgeons with rich experience were willing to spend more time to achieve definitive hemostasis in operation. The use of a transsylvian approach can significantly reduce the rehemorrhage rate. Packing hemostasis with gelatin sponge may increase complications.

14.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464121

RESUMO

A nickel-catalyzed decarbonylation or decarbonylation accompanied by decarboxylation cross-coupling reaction of aryl anhydrides with thiophenols as coupling partners was disclosed. This method is promoted by a commercially available, moisture-stable, and inexpensive nickel(II) precatalyst. The process can tolerate a variety of functional groups using ubiquitous aryl anhydrides as cross-coupling precursors to produce thioethers in moderate to excellent yields.

15.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 14(1): 243, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar disc herniation, a type of chronic low back pain syndrome, is caused by the lumbar intervertebral disk degeneration. Genetic variation in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3 has shown strong associations with smoking-related diseases. This study's aim is to test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3 gene are associated with lumbar disc herniation risk. METHODS: The genotype frequency distributions of the polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 380 lumbar disc herniation patients (case group) and 400 healthy individuals (control group). Allelic, genotypic, and haplotype analyses were performed. RESULTS: We found that the individuals with rs8040868 CT genotype had a 0.46-fold higher risk of lumbar disc herniation than those with rs8040868 TT genotype, in men group (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.84, p = 0.012). Also among women, rs8040868 CT + CC genotype still reduced the risk of lumbar disc herniation under the dominant model (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89, p = 0.019). Haplotype analysis showed that compared with the CHRNA5 "TACAACCG" wild-type, the "TACACCCG" haplotype was found to be associated with a decreased risk of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00, p = 0.047), while, in the less than 50-year-old group, CHRNA5 "TACACCCG" increased the risk of LDH (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that gene variance in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3 is associated with risk of lumbar disc herniation in the case-control study.

16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 345, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aquaporin (AQP) proteins comprise a group of membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that are responsible for transporting water and other small molecules, which is crucial for plant survival under stress conditions including salt stress. Despite the vital role of AQPs, little is known about them in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). RESULTS: In this study, we identified 39 aquaporin-encoding genes in cucumber that were separated by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIP, TIP, NIP, SIP, and XIP). Their substrate specificity was then assessed based on key amino acid residues such as the aromatic/Arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions, and specificity-determining positions. The putative cis-regulatory motifs available in the promoter region of each AQP gene were analyzed and results revealed that their promoter regions contain many abiotic related cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, analysis of previously released RNA-seq data revealed tissue- and treatment-specific expression patterns of cucumber AQP genes (CsAQPs). Three aquaporins (CsTIP1;1, CsPIP2;4, and CsPIP1;2) were the most transcript abundance genes, with CsTIP1;1 showing the highest expression levels among all aquaporins. Subcellular localization analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells revealed the diverse and broad array of sub-cellular localizations of CsAQPs. We then performed RNA-seq to identify the expression pattern of CsAQPs under salt stress and found a general decreased expression level of root CsAQPs. Moreover, qRT-PCR revealed rapid changes in the expression levels of CsAQPs in response to diverse abiotic stresses including salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000, heat, and chilling stresses. Additionally, transient expression of AQPs in N. benthamiana increased leaf water loss rate, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of plant water status under stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that CsAQPs play important roles in response to salt stress. The genome-wide identification and primary function characterization of cucumber aquaporins provides insight to elucidate the complexity of the AQP gene family and their biological functions in cucumber.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a highly malignant primary tumor in the liver, and the rates of incidence and mortality are rapidly increasing globally. Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is a transcriptional regulator and is associated with tumorigenesis of several tumor types. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between HDAC8 expression and clinicopathological parameters in ICC patients. METHODS: ICC tissues and corresponding nonmalignant bile duct tissues were obtained from 60 patients. HDAC8 and Ki-67 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining. HDAC8 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of the patients were analyzed. The mRNA level of HDAC8 in ICC was further analyzed using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RESULTS: The expression of HDAC8 were lower in ICC tissues (39/60, 65%) than in the corresponding nonmalignant bile duct tissues (54/60, 90%) (P = 0.001). Low HDAC8 expression in ICC was significantly associated with lymph node metastases (47.6% vs. 17.9%, P = 0.015). In addition, the positive cells rate of HDAC8 was statistically and negatively correlated with the Ki-67 index in ICC lesions (r = -0.7660, P < 0.001). Importantly, the overall survival rate and recurrence-free survival rate in ICC patients with low HDAC8 expression were lower than those with high HDAC8 expression (P = 0.008 and P = 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased HDAC8 expression in ICC is related to poor prognosis, and HDAC8 may be an independent prognostic indicator of ICC patients after curative resection.

18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2046: 95-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407299

RESUMO

Microorganisms play a key role in driving the global element (C, N, H, P, and S) cycling. However, the function and activity of environmental microbes remain largely elusive because the vast majority of them are yet uncultured. Recent achievements in single cell stable isotope-labeled Raman spectroscopy enable direct investigation of function and activity of individual microbes in complex environmental communities. Here, this protocol describes a workflow to investigate environmental microbes in soil and water by combining 15N, 2D, and 13C stable isotope labeling with different single-cell Raman techniques, including normal Raman, resonance Raman (RR), and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their applications in investigating functional bacteria driving the N and C cycles, and metabolically active cells are described.

19.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443588

RESUMO

Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal is a popular food among children. However, there are no recent data on the associations between RTE cereal consumption and dietary outcomes in the U.S. Therefore, we sought to investigate how RTE cereal was associated with nutrient and food group intakes and overall dietary quality among children aged 0.5 to 17 years using the latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015-2016). Thirty-six percent of children reported consuming RTE cereal. RTE cereal eaters consumed the same number of calories as non-eaters but had higher intakes of total carbohydrates, total sugar, fiber, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, as well as lower intakes of total fat and saturated fat (p ≤ 0.0007). We also found that children who consumed RTE cereal had 29% higher total dairy intake (p < 0.0001) and 61% higher whole grain intake (p < 0.0001). Lastly, children who ate RTE cereal had higher diet quality than the children that did not eat RTE cereal, as shown by Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score (52.6 versus 47.7, p < 0.0001). Therefore, consumption of whole-grain fortified RTE cereals should be encouraged as part of healthy dietary patterns for children.

20.
Environ Int ; 131: 104965, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284112

RESUMO

The use of pesticides to ensure global food security is the most important pest control strategy in modern agriculture but causes extensive soil pollution. This pollution involves potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In addition to soil animal growth, the adverse impact of pesticides on the gut microbiomes of nontarget soil fauna remains largely unknown. Here, the effect of the fungicide azoxystrobin (AZ) on soil and the gut microbiota of soil animals (Enchytraeus crypticus) was studied. The tested concentrations of AZ altered the bacterial community in the soil and E. crypticus gut and were slightly toxic with respect to E. crypticus adult mortality and reproduction. The most abundant bacterial phylum, Proteobacteria, significantly increased in response to the 2 and 5 mg/kg AZ treatments, which implied a disordered unhealthy gut bacterial community. Furthermore, bacterial community analysis between the soil and gut showed that the main effect of AZ on the gut microbiota was directly through AZ, not soil microbiota. In addition, AZ exposure significantly enhanced the number and total abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the E. crypticus gut; these genes may enter the soil food web to affect higher trophic levels and cause a more serious ecological risk. Our study reported the effect of pesticides on the gut of soil animals and on the enrichment of ARGs as global emerging contaminants, revealing unknown potential impacts of fungicides on ecosystem services and sustainable food production.

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