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1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 196, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ubiquitous gut microbiotas acquired from the environment contribute to host health. The gut microbiotas of soil invertebrates are gradually assembled from the microecological region of the soil ecosystem which they inhabit, but little is known about their characteristics when the hosts are under environmental stress. The rapid development of high-throughput DNA sequencing in the last decade has provided unprecedented insights and opportunities to characterize the gut microbiotas of soil invertebrates. Here, we characterized the core, transient, and rare bacterial taxa in the guts of soil invertebrates using the core index (CI) and developed a new theory of global microbial diversity of soil ecological microregions. RESULTS: We found that the Gammaproteobacteria could respond indiscriminately to the exposure to environmental concentrations of soil pollutants and were closely associated with the physiology and function of the host. Meanwhile, machine-learning models based on metadata calculated that Gammaproteobacteria were the core bacteria with the highest colonization potential in the gut, and further identified that they were the best indicator taxon of the response to environmental concentrations of soil pollution. Gammaproteobacteria also closely correlated with the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results determined that Gammaproteobacteria were an indicator taxon in the guts of the soil invertebrates that responded to environmental concentrations of soil pollutants, thus providing an effective theoretical basis for subsequent assessments of soil ecological risk. The results of the physiological and biochemical analyses of the host and the microbial-community functions, and the antibiotic resistance of Gammaproteobacteria, provide new insights for evaluating global soil ecological health. Video abstract.

2.
New Phytol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606623

RESUMO

Snow algae are predicted to expand in polar regions due to climate warming, which can accelerate snowmelt by reducing albedo. Green snow frequently occurs near penguin colonies, while red snow distributes widely along ocean shores. However, the mechanisms underpinning the assemblage of algae and heterotrophs in colored snow remain poorly characterized. We investigated algal, bacterial and fungal communities and their interactions in red and green snow using high-throughput sequencing method in the Antarctic Peninsula. We found distinct algal community structure in red and green snow, and the relative abundance of dominant taxa varied, potentially due to nutrient status differences. Contrastingly, red and green snow exhibited similar heterotrophic communities (bacteria and fungi), while the relative abundance of fungal pathogens was substantially higher in red snow by 3.8 folds. Red snow exhibited a higher network complexity, indicated by a higher number of nodes and edges. Red snow exhibited a higher proportion of negative correlations among heterotrophs (62.2% versus 3.4%) and stronger network stability, suggesting the red snow network is more resistant to external disturbance. Our study revealed that red snow microbiome exhibits a stable microbial network than green snow microbiome.

3.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; : 113924, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606745

RESUMO

Changes in expression or activation of various metalloproteases including matrix metalloproteases (Mmp), a disintegrin and metalloprotease (Adam) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motif (Adamts), and their endogenous inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, Timp), have been shown to be critical for ovulation in various species from studies in past decades. Some of these metalloproteases such as Adamts1, Adamts9, Mmp2, and Mmp9 have also been shown to be regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and/or progestin, which are essential triggers for ovulation in all vertebrate species. Most of these metalloproteases also express broadly in various tissues and cells including germ cells and somatic gonad cells. Thus, metalloproteases likely play roles in gonad formation processes comprising primordial germ cell (PGC) migration, development of germ and somatic cells, and sex determination. However, our knowledge on the functions and mechanisms of metalloproteases in these processes in vertebrates is still lacking. This review will summarize our current knowledge on the metalloproteases in ovulation and gonad formation with emphasis on PGC migration and germ cell development.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613706

RESUMO

Agricultural soils are important reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which have close linkage to human health via crop production. Metal stress in environments may function as a selection pressure for antibiotic resistomes. However, there is still a lack of field studies focusing on the effect of historical mercury (Hg) contamination on antibiotic resistomes in agricultural soils. Here, we explored the ARG profile in soils with different cropping systems (paddy and upland) and linked them to legacy Hg exposure. We found that ARG profiles were significantly different between paddy and upland soils. However, both paddy and upland soils with long-term field Hg contamination harbored higher diversity and abundance of ARGs than non-polluted soils. The co-occurrence network reveals significant associations among Hg, Hg resistance genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and ARGs. Together with path analysis showing legacy Hg possibly affecting soil resistomes through the shifts of soil microbiota, Hg resistance genes, and MGEs, we suggest that legacy Hg-induced potential co-selection might elevate the ARG level. Redundancy analysis further supports that legacy Hg pollution had a significant association with ARG variations in the paddy and upland soils (P < 0.01). Collectively, our results highlight the underappreciated role of legacy Hg as a potential persistent selecting agent in contributing to soil ARGs in agroecosystems.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596377

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a global health concern. Long-term organic fertilization can influence the antibiotic resistome of agricultural soils, posing potential risks to human health. However, little is known about the contribution of viruses to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in this context. Here, we profiled the viral communities and virus-associated ARGs in a long-term (over 10 years) organic fertilized field by viral metagenomic analysis. A total of 61,520 viral populations (viral operational taxonomic units, vOTUs) were retrieved, of which 21,308 were assigned at the family level. The viral community structures were significantly correlated with the bacterial community structures (P < 0.001) and the dosage of applied sewage sludge (r2 = 0.782). A total of 16 unique ARGs were detected in soil viromes, and the number of virus-associated ARG subtypes was higher in sewage sludge treatments (except for 1 SS) than others. The network analysis showed that the application of the organic fertilizer increased the bacteria-virus interactions, suggesting that the chances of ARG exchange between viruses and their hosts may increase. Overall, our results provide a novel understanding about virus-associated ARGs and factors affecting the profile of viral community in fertilized soil.

6.
Radiology ; : 211276, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636636

RESUMO

Background Subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) detected with cardiac MRI in myocarditis represents a diagnostic dilemma, since it may resemble myocardial ischemia. Purpose To explore and compare the histopathologic characteristics and clinical features and outcomes in patients with myocarditis with and without subendocardial involvement at cardiac MRI. Materials and Methods This retrospective study evaluated 39 patients with myocarditis pathologically proven by means of either endomyocardial biopsy or explant pathologic findings between 2015 and 2020. Patients were divided into two groups according to cardiac MRI phenotype: 18 with subendocardial involvement (mean age ± standard deviation, 40 years ± 17; 10 women) and 21 with no subendocardial involvement (mean age, 35 years ± 11; six women). The median follow-up period was 784 days (interquartile range [IQR], 90-1123 days). The Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and univariable Cox regression were used for statistical analyses. Results In the 18 patients with subendocardial involvement, 12 (67%) had lymphocytic myocarditis and six (33%) had giant cell myocarditis. Patients with subendocardial involvement compared with those without subendocardial involvement had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (mean ± standard deviation, 27% ± 11 vs 41% ± 19; P = .004), larger LGE extent (median, 13% [IQR, 10%-22%] vs 5% [IQR, 2%-17%]; P < .001), higher rates of cardiac death or transplant (eight of 18 patients [44%] vs one of 21 patients [4.8%]; P = .006), higher probability of giant cell myocarditis (six of 18 [33%] vs one of 21 [4.8%]; P = .02), and more major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (15 of 18 [83%] vs seven of 21 [33%]; P = .002). In a subgroup of patients with comparable LGE extent (median, 15% vs 16%; P = .40) and left ventricular ejection fraction (median, 27% vs 31%; P = .26), the prognostic difference in terms of MACE remained (15 of 17 patients [88%] vs five of 10 [50%]; P = .02). Conclusion Subendocardial involvement detected with cardiac MRI in myocarditis indicated more severe clinical features, including a higher frequency of severe lymphocytic myocarditis or giant cell myocarditis and worse prognosis. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by de Roos in this issue.

7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(9): 496-503, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590462

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the clinical features, laboratory data, treatment, and outcomes of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR) encephalitis in Chinese patients. Methods: This retrospective study included hospitalized patients definitively diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and positive for anti-NMDAR antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Shenzhen People's hospital, between November 2015 and February 2020. The clinical manifestation, laboratory data, treatments and outcomes were collected retrospectively. Patients were followed up for more than 1 year. Results: The study included 31 patients (15 men, 48.4%) with a median age of 31 years (interquartile range 21-48). The most common clinical presentations were psychosis (n = 23, 74.2%), seizures (n = 20, 64.5%), and memory impairment (n = 20, 64.5%). Total magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were found in 11 patients (35.5%), with the medial temporal and frontal lobes as the most commonly involved. Abnormal electroencephalogram was observed in 16 patients (51.6%). Five out of 31 patients (19.5%) were diagnosed as neoplasm, including five females with ovarian teratoma and one male with a central nervous system tumor. Multiple immune antibodies, including anti-SSA antibody in four patients (15.4%), anti-Ro52 antibody in four (15.4%), antinuclear antibody (ANT) in four (15.4%), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) in five (17.2%), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in three (10.3%) were present. All patients received first-line immunization therapy (intravenous immunoglobulin, glucocorticoids, or plasmapheresis alone or combined), and only two patients (7.3%) received second-line immunization therapy (rituximab). Mechanical ventilation was more necessary in women (37.5%) than in men (6.7%) (p = 0.04), and 29 (93.5%) had favorable clinical outcomes. At more than 12 months of follow-up, the median modified Rankin Scale score decreased from 4 to 0. Conclusions: Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China had high rates of psychosis and seizures, with low rates of underlying neoplasms. A higher proportion of female patients required mechanical ventilation. Complications with other positive autoimmune antibodies were a common clinical symptoms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Majority of the patients obtained satisfactory outcomes in combination with early first-line and long-term immunization therapy.

8.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to compare the differences of clinical-radiologic characteristics between malignant and benign causes of patients with unexplained distal obstructive biliary dilatation and to develop a logistic regression model (nomogram) based on those features to predict malignant causes preoperatively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical-radiologic characteristics of 133 patients with unexplained distal obstructive biliary dilatation were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to construct a nomogram to predict malignant causes preoperatively. The developed nomograms were externally validated by assessing their predictive accuracy in an independent set of 90 patients. RESULTS: Intrahepatic bile duct diameter, enlarged gallbladder, direct bilirubin, and carbohydrate antigen19-9 differed significantly between malignant and benign group. In the training set, the logistic regression model showed the discrimination between benign and malignant causes of distal obstructive biliary dilatation with an area under the curve of 0.965, an accuracy of 0.904, a sensitivity of 0.886, a specificity of 0.913. In the validation set, the model showed an area under the curve of 0.851, an accuracy of 0.837, a sensitivity of 0.897, a specificity of 0.750. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative clinical-radiologic characteristics differed significantly between malignant and benign group. Nomogram based on those features performed well in predicting the malignant causes of patients with unexplained distal obstructive biliary dilatation.

9.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519916

RESUMO

Viruses depend on host cellular metabolism to provide the energy and biosynthetic building blocks required for their replication. In this study, we observed that influenza A virus (H1N1), a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus with an eight-segmented genome, enhanced glycolysis both in mouse lung tissues and in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. In detail, the expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2), the first enzyme in glycolysis, was upregulated in H1N1-infected A549 cells, and the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 (PDK3) was upregulated in H1N1-infected mouse lung tissues. Pharmacologically inhibiting the glycolytic pathway or targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), the central transcriptional factor critical for glycolysis, significantly reduced H1N1 replication, revealing a requirement for glycolysis during H1N1 infection. In addition, pharmacologically enhancing the glycolytic pathway further promoted H1N1 replication. Furthermore, the change of H1N1 replication upon glycolysis inhibition or enhancement was independent of interferon signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that influenza A virus induces the glycolytic pathway and thus facilitates efficient viral replication. This study raises the possibility that metabolic inhibitors, such as those that target glycolysis, could be used to treat influenza A virus infection in the future.

10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 189, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing our knowledge of soil biodiversity is fundamental to forecast changes in ecosystem functions under global change scenarios. All multicellular organisms are now known to be holobionts, containing large assemblages of microbial species. Soil fauna is now known to have thousands of species living within them. However, we know very little about the identity and function of host microbiome in contrasting soil faunal groups, across different terrestrial biomes, or at a large spatial scale. Here, we examined the microbiomes of multiple functionally important soil fauna in contrasting terrestrial ecosystems across China. RESULTS: Different soil fauna had diverse and unique microbiomes, which were also distinct from those in surrounding soils. These unique microbiomes were maintained within taxa across diverse sampling sites and in contrasting terrestrial ecosystems. The microbiomes of nematodes, potworms, and earthworms were more difficult to predict using environmental data, compared to those of collembolans, oribatid mites, and predatory mites. Although stochastic processes were important, deterministic processes, such as host selection, also contributed to the assembly of unique microbiota in each taxon of soil fauna. Microbial biodiversity, unique microbial taxa, and microbial dark matter (defined as unidentified microbial taxa) all increased with trophic levels within the soil food web. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that soil animals are important as repositories of microbial biodiversity, and those at the top of the food web harbor more diverse and unique microbiomes. This hidden source of biodiversity is rarely considered in biodiversity and conservation debates and stresses the importance of preserving key soil invertebrates. Video abstract.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535804

RESUMO

Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex and dynamic evolving environment which facilitates tumor proliferation and progression. We aimed at investigating the characteristics of tumor microenvironment and its prognostic value in gliomas. Transcriptome data of 702 glioma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas were included as training dataset, while 325 samples from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database and 268 samples from GSE16011 database were used to validate. We found that the infiltration of stromal and immune cell varied in gliomas of different grades and pathological types, and was associated with poor prognosis. Based on the gene expression profile, we constructed a TME-related signature (TMERS), which was closely related to clinical features and genomic variation of gliomas. In TMERS-high group, specific gene mutations and increased copy number alternations were observed. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis showed that TMERS was an independent prognostic indicator. Then we developed a nomogram prognostic model to predict 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival of patients. Functional analysis confirmed that TMERS could reflect the status of glioma microenvironment, and immunological analysis showed that macrophages were significantly enriched in the TMERS-high group. We established a novel TME-related signature for predicting prognosis and provided new insights into immunotherapy.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506618

RESUMO

AIMS : This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and long-term survival outcome in patients with Takayasu's arteritis-associated pulmonary hypertension (TA-PH). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a nationally representative cohort study of TA-PH using data from the National Rare Diseases Registry System of China. Patients with pulmonary artery involvement who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Takayasu's arteritis and pulmonary hypertension were included. The primary outcome was the time from diagnosis of TA-PH to the occurrence of all-cause death. Between January 2007 and January 2019, a total of 140 patients were included, with a mean age of 41.4 years at diagnosis, and a female predominance (81%). Patients with TA-PH had severely haemodynamic and functional impairments at diagnosis. Significant improvements have been found in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and haemodynamic profiles in patients with TA-PH receiving drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates in TA-PH were 94.0%, 83.2%, and 77.2%, respectively. Predictors associated with an increased risk of all-cause death were syncope [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 5.38 (95% confidence interval 1.77-16.34), P = 0.003], NT-proBNP level [adjusted HR 1.04 (1.03-1.06), P < 0.001], and mean right atrial pressure [adjusted HR 1.07 (1.01-1.13), P = 0.015]. CONCLUSION : Patients with TA-PH were predominantly female and had severely compromised haemodynamics. More than 80% of patients in our cohort survived for at least 3 years. Medical treatment was based on investigators' personal opinions, and no clear risk-to-benefit ratio can be derived from the presented data.

13.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497172

RESUMO

AIM: Recently, the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been proposed as a novel, reliable plasma atherogenicity marker. This study aimed to investigate the association of AIP with the risk of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: This study retrospectively enrolled patients with ACS followed by angiography within 6 to 18 months after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent (DES). And the participants were divided into ISR or non-ISR groups based on the angiographic follow-up results. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of serum triglyceride (mmol/L) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L). RESULTS: This study recruited 1319 patients with ACS, 199 of which had ISR. Compared with the non-ISR group, patients in the ISR group had higher level of AIP (0.199±0.290 vs 0.131±0.282, p=0.002). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, AIP was an independent risk factor for DES-ISR (OR=2.100, 95% CI 1.134 to 3.891, p=0.018). When we modulated AIP as a categorical variable, the risk of DES-ISR increased in quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 (OR=1.713, 95% CI 1.040 to 2.822, p=0.034). Furthermore, this association remains stable in various subgroups. Unexpectedly, the subgroup analysis suggested AIP and DES-ISR had a stronger positive association in individuals with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <1.8 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: AIP and the risk of DES-ISR were positively and independently correlated in patients with ACS, especially in those with an LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L.

14.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569785

RESUMO

Fully understanding the environmental implications of engineered nanomaterials is crucial for their safe and sustainable use. Cyanobacteria, as the pioneers of the planet earth, play important roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. Here, we evaluated the biological effects of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets on a N2-fixation cyanobacteria (Nostoc sphaeroides) by monitoring growth and metabolome changes. MoS2 nanosheets did not exert overt toxicity to Nostoc at the tested doses (0.1 and 1 mg/L). On the contrary, the intrinsic enzyme-like activities and semiconducting properties of MoS2 nanosheets promoted the metabolic processes of Nostoc, including enhancing CO2-fixation-related Calvin cycle metabolic pathway. Meanwhile, MoS2 boosted the production of a range of biochemicals, including sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and other valuable end products. The altered carbon metabolism subsequently drove proportional changes in nitrogen metabolism in Nostoc. These intracellular metabolic changes could potentially alter global C and N cycles. The findings of this study shed light on the nature and underlying mechanisms of bio-nanoparticle interactions, and offer the prospect of utilization bio-nanomaterials for efficient CO2 sequestration and sustainable biochemical production.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126227, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492981

RESUMO

The high-voltage electric field can effectively capture charged aerosols and has the effect of killing microbial aerosols simultaneously. In this article, an innovative visualization method for investigating the dynamic characteristic of submicron-scale aerosol particles in the high-voltage electric field is developed. Based on reasonable working principles and reliable experimental schemes, the movement of submicron-scale aerosol particles is observed and visualization images in different working conditions are photographed. Besides, with the aid of numerical method and solution of related equations, simulation researches on flow field distribution, electrostatic field characteristics, particle charging and motion behavior characteristics are also carried out. Visualization results prove the linear motion law of aerosol particles in an electric field of 0-3 kV/cm unit. As for 1 µm diameter particle, its migration velocity in 1 kV/cm electric field is measured as 0.016 m/s and 0.019 m/s after positive and negative charging of 1.5 kV voltage, respectively. A reliable calculation formula (η=(VjqpLj)/(3πµD2uxdp)) for predicting collection efficiency is derived and established based on actual particle migration velocity. The researches on the migration and capture law of submicron-scale aerosol in the high voltage electric field gives a key reference for the development and design of efficient removal of microbial aerosol and air purification equipment.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Aerossóis , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletricidade Estática
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18347, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526604

RESUMO

To investigate the ability of CT-based radiomics signature for pre-and postoperatively predicting the early recurrence of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (IMCC) and develop radiomics-based prediction models. Institutional review board approved this study. Clinicopathological characteristics, contrast-enhanced CT images, and radiomics features of 125 IMCC patients (35 with early recurrence and 90 with non-early recurrence) were retrospectively reviewed. In the training set of 92 patients, preoperative model, pathological model, and combined model were developed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict the early recurrence (≤ 6 months) of IMCC, and the prediction performance of different models were compared using the Delong test. The developed models were validated by assessing their prediction performance in test set of 33 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified solitary, differentiation, energy- arterial phase (AP), inertia-AP, and percentile50th-portal venous phase (PV) to construct combined model for predicting early recurrence of IMCC [the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.917; 95% CI 0.840-0.965]. While the AUC of pathological model and preoperative model were 0.741 (95% CI 0.637-0.828) and 0.844 (95% CI 0.751-0.912), respectively. The AUC of the combined model was significantly higher than that of the preoperative model (p = 0.049) or pathological model (p = 0.002) in training set. In test set, the combined model also showed higher prediction performance. CT-based radiomics signature is a powerful predictor for early recurrence of IMCC. Preoperative model (constructed with homogeneity-AP and standard deviation-AP) and combined model (constructed with solitary, differentiation, energy-AP, inertia-AP, and percentile50th-PV) can improve the accuracy for pre-and postoperatively predicting the early recurrence of IMCC.

17.
mSystems ; : e0136820, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546068

RESUMO

Rice paddy soil-associated microbiota participate in biogeochemical processes that underpin rice yield and soil sustainability, yet continental-scale biogeographic patterns of paddy soil microbiota remain elusive. The soil bacteria of four typical Chinese rice-growing regions were characterized and compared to those of nonpaddy soils. The paddy soil bacteria were significantly less diverse, with unique taxonomic and functional composition, and harbored distinct cooccurrence network topology. Both stochastic and deterministic processes shaped soil bacteria assembly, but paddy samples exhibited a stronger deterministic signature than nonpaddy samples. Compared to other environmental factors, climatic factors such as mean monthly precipitation and mean annual temperature described most of the variance in soil bacterial community structure. Cooccurrence network analysis suggests that the continental biogeographic variance in bacterial community structure was described by the competition between two mutually exclusive bacterial modules in the community. Keystone taxa identified in network models (Anaerolineales, Ignavibacteriae, and Deltaproteobacteria) were more sensitive to changes in environmental factors, leading us to conclude that environmental factors may influence paddy soil bacterial communities via these keystone taxa. Characterizing the uniqueness of bacterial community patterns in paddy soil (compared to nonpaddy soils) at continental scales is central to improving crop productivity and resilience and to sustaining agricultural soils. IMPORTANCE Rice fields provide food for over half of the world's human population. The ecology of paddy soil microbiomes is shaped by human activities, which can have a profound impact on rice yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and soil health. Investigations of the soil bacteria in four typical Chinese rice-growing regions showed that (i) soil bacterial communities maintain highly modularized species-to-species network structures; (ii) community patterns were shaped by the balance of integrated stochastic and deterministic processes, in which homogenizing selection and dispersal limitation dominate; and (iii) deterministic processes and climatic and edaphic factors influence community patterns mainly by their impact on highly connected nodes (i.e., keystone taxa) in networks. Characterizing the unique ecology of bacterial community patterns in paddy soil at a continental scale may lead to improved crop productivity and resilience, as well as sustaining agricultural soils.

18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 731273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489872

RESUMO

Vascular aging is characterized by alterations in the constitutive properties and biological functions of the blood vessel wall. Endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are indispensability elements in the inner layer and the medial layer of the blood vessel wall, respectively. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, as a hypoglycemic agent, play a protective role in reversing vascular aging regardless of their effects in meliorating glycemic control in humans and animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through complex cellular mechanisms, including improving EC dysfunction, promoting EC proliferation and migration, alleviating EC senescence, obstructing EC apoptosis, suppressing the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) levels, and preventing the infiltration of mononuclear macrophages. All of these showed that DPP4 inhibitors may exert a positive effect against vascular aging, thereby preventing vascular aging-related diseases. In the current review, we will summarize the cellular mechanism of DPP4 inhibitors regulating vascular aging; moreover, we also intend to compile the roles and the promising therapeutic application of DPP4 inhibitors in vascular aging-related diseases.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494310

RESUMO

Yaks display unique properties of the lung and heart, enabling their adaptation to high-altitude environments, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. In the present study, the proteome differences in lung and heart tissues were compared between yak (Bos grunniens) and three cattle strains (Bos taurus, Holstein, Sanjiang and Tibetan cattle) using the sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra/data-independent acquisition (SWATH/DIA) proteomic method. In total, 51,755 peptides and 7215 proteins were identified. In the lung tissue, there were 162, 310 and 118 differential abundance proteins (DAPs) in Tibetan, Holstein and Sanjiang cattle compared to yak respectively. In the heart tissue, there were 71, 57 and 78 DAPs in Tibetan, Holstein and Sanjiang cattle compared to yak respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that the DAPs were enriched for the retinol metabolism and toll-like receptor categories in lung tissue. The changes in these two pathways may regulate hypoxia-induced factor and immune function in yaks. Moreover, DAPs in heart tissues were enriched for cardiac muscle contraction, Huntington's disease, chemical carcinogenesis and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. Further exploration indicated that yaks may alter cardiac function through regulation of type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and Ca2+ -release channels. The present results are useful to further develop an understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation of animals to high-altitude conditions.

20.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 545, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distal humerus fractures (DHFs) constitute one-third of elbow fractures approximately. In this study, we aim to define and analyze the fracture lines and morphological features of DHFs using mapping technique. METHODS: One hundred and two DHFs were retrospectively reviewed. All the computed tomography (CT) data were used to manually reconstruct and virtually reduce the DHF fragments to fit a standard 3D model. Smooth curves were depicted accurately onto the surface of the template to represent the fracture lines. All the curves were overlapped onto the model to create the 3D fracture map and heat map. RESULTS: Our analysis was based on 102 CT images of DHFs, contributed by 59 male and 43 female patients (mean age, 46 years; range, 18-93 years), and included 15 type A, 25 type B, and 62 type C fractures. On mapping, the hot zones were located in the radial fossa, coronoid fossa, olecranon fossa, and the external part of the trochlear. Conversely, the cold zones were noted in medial condyle, the medial side of the trochlear, and the anterolateral area on the supracondylar ridge. CONCLUSIONS: Our study firstly shows the fracture lines and morphological features of distal humeral fractures by three-dimensional mapping technology. Distal humerus fracture lines are characteristic and highly related to the micro-architecture difference of distal humerus, which may provide some guidance for the treatment plan selection and surgical fixation design.

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