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1.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 307-323, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987647

RESUMO

Background: Oxygen supplementation in myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. Inflammation is widely believed to play a central role in myocardial repair. A better understanding of these processes may lead to the design of novel strategies complementary to MI treatment. Methods: To investigate the role of hypoxia in inflammation and myocardial repair after acute MI, we placed MI mice in a tolerable mild hypoxia (10% O2) chamber for 7 days and then transferred the mice to ambient air for another 3 weeks. Results: We found that the cumulative survival rate of the MI mice under hypoxia was significantly higher than that under oxygen supplementation. Hypoxia promoted postinfarction myocardial repair. Importantly, we found that hypoxia modulated the phenotypic transition of blood monocytes from pro-inflammatory to pro-reparative in a timely manner, leading to the subsequent discontinuation of inflammation in myocardial tissues and promotion of myocardial repair post-MI. Specifically, cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) primed by hypoxia in vitro exhibited improved reparative capacities and differed from M1 and M2 macrophages through the AMPKα2 signaling pathway. The deletion of AMPKα2 in monocytes/macrophages prevented the phenotypic transition induced by hypoxia and could not promote myocardial repair after MI when transplanted into the myocardium. Conclusions: Taken together, our work demonstrates that hypoxia promotes postinfarction myocardial repair by modulating the blood monocyte/macrophage phenotypic transition from pro-inflammatory to pro-reparative in a timely manner through the AMPKα2 signaling pathway. Hypoxia priming might be an attractive translational strategy for MI treatment by amplifying immune cells during early inflammation and subsequent resolution and repair.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD47 has been identified as a phagocytosis checkpoint conferring poor clinical outcomes in various cancer types. A flurry of clinical trials designed to evaluate agents that block CD47 have been initiated. We aimed to explore the clinical significance of CD47 and its correlation with immune infiltration and molecular features in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS: 235 tumor tissue microarray specimens of ccRCC patients from Zhongshan Hospital, 530 ccRCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 726 ccRCC patients from JAVELIN Renal 101 study were analyzed. CD47 expression and immune contexture were examined by immunohistochemistry and CIBERSORT algorithm. Survival analyses were conducted through Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model. RESULTS: We demonstrated that ccRCC patients with high CD47 expression exhibited inferior overall survival and recurrence-free survival. CD47 expression associated with heavily immune infiltrated but immunosuppressed microenvironment. CD8+ T cells infiltration had discordant prognostic value based on CD47 expression, where high CD8+ T cell infiltration was associated with worse clinical outcome in CD47hi patients and with favorable prognosis in CD47lo patients. Patients with mutated PBRM1 and SETD2 correlated with decreased CD47 mRNA expression. Patients with higher CD47 expression possessed improved PFS in ICI + VEGFR TKI combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: CD47 expression was an independent prognosticator of clinical outcome for ccRCC patients. CD47 expression correlated with ccRCC molecular classification and response to combination therapy. The phagocytosis checkpoint CD47 could be applied as an attractive candidate for immunotherapeutic approach in ccRCC.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to reveal the clinical significance of stromal-infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 288 patients from the TCGA database and 118 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center with MIBC. The CIBERSORT model and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate TAM infiltration. Cox regression analyses were employed to calculate their prognostic value. RESULTS: Among all 23 immune phenotypes analyzed in the TCGA cohort, pan-macrophage infiltration was significantly associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.001). Further analyses found that stromal TAM infiltration could be an independent prognostic predictor for recurrence-free survival (RFS; HR: 1.019, 95% CI: 1.006-1.033, p = 0.004). High stromal infiltration was related to unfavorable RFS. After stratification by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT), patients without ACT could be differentiated by TAM infiltration (p = 0.036), while patients with ACT could not. Moreover, TAM infiltration was negatively associated with IFN-γ-related mRNA panel, which was shown to have strong predictive value for clinical response to programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Stromal TAM infiltration could be an independent prognosticator for MIBC patients. This might have potential to guide precise treatments such as ACT and immune checkpoint blockade in MIBC.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 18, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013245

RESUMO

Maternal seeding of the microbiome in neonates promotes a long-lasting biological footprint, but how it impacts disease susceptibility in early life remains unknown. We hypothesized that feeding butyrate to pregnant mice influences the newborn's susceptibility to biliary atresia, a severe cholangiopathy of neonates. Here, we show that butyrate administration to mothers renders newborn mice resistant to inflammation and injury of bile ducts and improves survival. The prevention of hepatic immune cell activation and survival trait is linked to fecal signatures of Bacteroidetes and Clostridia and increases glutamate/glutamine and hypoxanthine in stool metabolites of newborn mice. In human neonates with biliary atresia, the fecal microbiome signature of these bacteria is under-represented, with suppression of glutamate/glutamine and increased hypoxanthine pathways. The direct administration of butyrate or glutamine to newborn mice attenuates the disease phenotype, but only glutamine renders bile duct epithelial cells resistant to cytotoxicity by natural killer cells. Thus, maternal intake of butyrate influences the fecal microbial population and metabolites in newborn mice and the phenotypic expression of experimental biliary atresia, with glutamine promoting survival of bile duct epithelial cells.

5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(1): 41-4, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effect of Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture (acupuncture for unblocking governor vessel and regulating qi ) combined with warming acupuncture, Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture, abdominal moxibustion and oral tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsule on postoperative urinary retention. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with postoperative urinary retention were randomized into an acupuncture-moxibustion group, an acupuncture group, a moxibustion group and a medication group, 30 cases in each group. Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture combined with warming acupuncture were applied in the acupuncture-moxibustion group. Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Shuigou (CV 26) etc. in the acupuncture group. Moxibustion was applied at Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Shuidao (ST 28) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) in the moxibustion group. Tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsule was given orally in the medication group. The treatment was once a day, and 5-day treatment was required in each group. Before and after treatment, the residual urine volume of bladder, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the time of first urethral catheter removal were observed, and the clinical efficacy was compared in the 4 groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the residual urine volume of bladder was decreased compared before treatment in the 4 groups (P<0.05), and that in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was less than the other 3 groups (P<0.05). After treatment, the VAS scores were decreased compared before treatment in the acupuncture-moxibustion group, the acupuncture group and the moxibustion group (P<0.05), and those in the 3 groups were lower than the medication group (P<0.05). The time of first urethral catheter removal in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was earlier than the other 3 groups (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 93.3% (28/30) in the acupuncture-moxibustion group, which was superior to 63.3% (19/30) in the acupuncture group, 60.0% (18/30) in the moxibustion group and 66.7% (20/30) in the medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effect of Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture combined with warming acupuncture on postoperative urinary retention is superior to simple acupuncture, abdominal moxibustion and tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsule.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984611

RESUMO

Income inequality, poverty, and economic growth are defined as an economy's exposure to exogenous shocks arising out of poverty. The study used various econometric estimations to measure the effect of inequality and poverty on economic development during 1990 to 2016 in Vietnam. Various econometric estimation tests confirmed the presence of a long-run association between inequality and poverty, and economic growth is the matter of poverty headcount ratio in Vietnam. When we added the investment-to-GDP ratio and the number of years in education, it decreases by -0.144. This is reduced to -0.05 when log population growth rate was added while the employment, the coefficient decreases to -0.04 and becomes statistically insignificant. We found a negative impact of poverty and we reassess the hypothesis's emphasis on inequality and poverty and their combining effect of inclusive economic growth. Interestingly our results verify the previous findings that inequality and poverty show a negative impact on economic growth. The negative impact of poverty and inequality on economic growth appears to be concentrated at the high poverty level. These findings recommend that poverty reduction policies should be beneficial in encouraging economic growth even if they do not decrease income inequality.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983034

RESUMO

BiFeO3 is a photocatalyst with excellent performance. However, its applications are limited due to its wide bandgap. In this paper, MIL-101(Fe)@BiOI composite material is synthesized by hydrothermal method and then calcined at high temperature to obtain BiFeO3@Bi5O7I composite material with high adsorption capacity. Among them, An n-n heterojunction is formed, which improves the efficiency of charge transfer, and the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes prevents the improvement of photocatalytic efficiency and stability. The result of photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible light irradiation showed, BiFeO3@Bi5O7I (1:2) has the best photodegradation effect, with a removal rate of 86.4%, which proves its potential as a photocatalytic degradation material.

9.
Support Care Cancer ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nutrition education andcounseling is the first-line approach in nutritional support for adult cancer patients; however, it is not well implemented in many clinical settings. This study aims to determine the effect of an evidence-based nutrition education and counseling (NEC) program on nutrition status among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This cluster-randomized clinical trial enrolled cancer patients receiving radiotherapy from ten radiotherapy units in three hospitals. Randomization was conducted at the unit level (five units into the NEC group and five units into the usual care group). The primary outcome was nutrition status after radiotherapy measured by the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Secondary outcomes included nutrition-related blood biomarkers after radiotherapy and the use of artificial nutrition and treatment interruption during radiotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients were enrolled (241 in the NEC and 227 in the usual care group); 196 patients were female with a mean age (SD) of 59.8 (11.9). No difference was found between the NEC and usual care groups in nutrition status and blood biomarkers at baseline. After radiotherapy, patients in the NEC group had lower PG-SGA scores (5.6 vs 6.9; MD = -1.3, p < 0.001) and lower malnutrition rate (56.0% vs 70.5%; OR = 0.5; p = 0.004) compared with the usual care group. The usages of artificial nutrition and treatment interruption during radiotherapy and the level of blood biomarkers after radiotherapy did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition education and counseling is an effective approach in reducing malnutrition and can be generalized to multiple radiotherapy settings. REGISTERED UNDER CLINICALTRAILS. GOV IDENTIFIER NO: None.

10.
iScience ; 25(1): 103674, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024593

RESUMO

Poly-α-methylstyrene (PAMS) is considered as the preferred mandrel material, whose degradation is crucial for the fabrication of high-quality inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Herein, we reveal that hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) during PAMS degradation, which is usually attributed to the thermal effect, unexpectedly exhibits a strong high-temperature tunneling effect. Specifically, although the energy barrier of the HAT reaction is only 10-2 magnitude different from depolymerization, the tunneling probability of the former can be 14-32 orders of magnitude greater than that of the latter. Furthermore, chain scission following HAT will lead to a variety of products other than monomers. Our work highlights that quantum tunneling may be an important source of uncertainty in PAMS degradation, which will provide a direction for the further development of key technology of target fabricating in ICF research and even the solution of plastic pollution.

11.
Epileptic Disord ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031528

RESUMO

Interictal epileptiform discharges on EEG are integral to diagnosing epilepsy. However, EEGs are interpreted by readers with and without specialty training, and there is no accepted method to assess skill in interpretation. We aimed to develop a test to quantify IED recognition skills. A total of 13,262 candidate IEDs were selected from EEGs and scored by eight fellowship-trained reviewers to establish a gold standard. An online test was developed to assess how well readers with different training levels could distinguish candidate waveforms. Sensitivity, false positive rate and calibration were calculated for each reader. A simple mathematical model was developed to estimate each reader's skill and threshold in identifying an IED, and to develop receiver operating characteristics curves for each reader. We investigated the number of IEDs needed to measure skill level with acceptable precision. Twenty-nine raters completed the test; nine experts, seven experienced non-experts and thirteen novices. Median calibration errors for experts, experienced non-experts and novices were -0.056, 0.012, 0.046; median sensitivities were 0.800, 0.811, 0.715; and median false positive rates were 0.177, 0.272, 0.396, respectively. The number of test questions needed to measure those scores was 549. Our analysis identified that novices had a higher noise level (uncertainty) compared to experienced non-experts and experts. Using calculated noise and threshold levels, receiver operating curves were created, showing increasing median area under the curve from novices (0.735), to experienced non-experts (0.852) and experts (0.891). Expert and non-expert readers can be distinguished based on ability to identify IEDs. This type of assessment could also be used to identify and correct differences in thresholds in identifying IEDs.

12.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(2): 344-353, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269209

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that there are similar pathological mechanisms and closely related pathogenic risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the epidemiological features of these two diseases are different. This review systematically evaluated the relationship between inflammatory bowel diseases and Parkinson's disease risk. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases to retrieve observational studies of IBD and PD published from inception to October 2019. Nine observational studies, involving 12,177,520 patients, were included in the final analysis. None of the studies had Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores that suggested a high risk of bias. After adjusting for confounders and excluding heterogeneous studies, the overall risk of PD was significantly higher in IBD patients than in the general population (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.34, P < 0.001). A meta-analysis of the temporal relationship revealed that the incidence of IBD was significantly increased before (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.18-1.35, P < 0.001) and after (adjusted RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.20-1.80, P < 0.001) PD diagnosis. After excluding a heterogeneous study, the pooled risk of PD development in patients with ulcerative colitis (adjusted HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.13-1.38, P < 0.001) or Crohn's disease (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.21-1.45, P < 0.01) was significantly increased. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant differences in risk between men (adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.10-1.39) and women (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.43); however, older (> 65 years old) IBD patients (adjusted HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48) may have a higher risk than younger (≤ 65 years old) patients (adjusted HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.42). Patients with IBD who were not treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α or azathioprine had significantly higher PD risk (adjusted HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2). Thus, our meta-analysis indicates a certain correlation between IBD and PD, and suggests that IBD may moderately increase PD risk regardless of sex, especially in patients over 65 years of age. Moreover, early anti-inflammatory therapies for IBD might reduce the risk of developing PD. Our findings suggest an urgent need for an individualized screening strategy for patients with IBD. However, most studies included in this paper were observational, and more randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the precise association between IBD and PD.

13.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 209(Pt 2): 112175, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740095

RESUMO

Topical use of antimicrobial agents to treat wounds to inhibit bacterial invasion and facilitate wound healing is an effective strategy. In this work, an antibacterial xerogel film for potential applications in wound dressings was developed. First, a natural antibacterial agent, quercetin (Qu), was made into water-soluble quercetin-borate (QuB) nanoparticles by merging a solvent exchange method with the borate esterification reaction. QuB nanoparticles were then employed as the cross-linking agent to achieve gelation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to obtain antimicrobial QuB-PVA composite microgels. Furthermore, QuB-PVA microgels were utilized as raw materials to produce xerogel films via an electrospray technique. The as-prepared QuB-PVA xerogel films exhibited excellent bacteriostasis, antioxidation, biocompatibility, self-healing, accelerated skin regeneration and functional restoration, and promoted skin wound healing. The QuB-PVA films significantly facilitated the in vivo healing speed of full-thickness skin wounds compared to commercial dressings. We believe that the present multifunctional QuB-PVA xerogel film is an excellent candidate for the wound dressings.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Quercetina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bandagens , Álcool de Polivinil , Quercetina/farmacologia
14.
Endocrinology ; 163(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647995

RESUMO

Seminal plasma contains a high concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs). The heterogeneity of small EVs or the presence of nonvesicular extracellular matter (NV) pose major obstacles in understanding the composition and function of seminal EVs. In this study, we employed high-resolution density gradient fractionation to accurately characterize the composition and function of seminal EVs and NV. We found that the seminal EVs could be divided into 3 different subtypes-namely, high-density EV (EV-H), medium-density EV (EV-M), and low-density EV (EV-L)-after purification using iodixanol, while NV was successfully isolated. EVs and NV display different features in size, shape, and expression of some classic exosome markers. Both EV-H and NV could markedly promote sperm motility and capacitation compared with EV-M and EV-L, whereas only the NV fraction induced sperm acrosome reaction. Proteomic analysis results showed that EV-H, EV-M, EV-L, and NV had different protein components and were involved in different physiological functions. Further study showed that EV-M might reduce the production of sperm intrinsic reactive oxygen species through glutathione S-transferase mu 2. This study provides novel insights into important aspects of seminal EVs constituents and sounder footing to explore their functional properties in male fertility.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Motilidade Espermática , Reação Acrossômica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotinilação , Biologia Computacional , Exossomos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/química , Proteoma , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos/farmacologia
15.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(7): 1609-1616, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916448

RESUMO

The development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be related to the abnormal alterations of multiple proteins. Our previous study revealed that the expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4 (PIK3R4) was decreased in ALS. However, the role of PIK3R4 in ALS pathogenesis remains unknown. This study was the first to find that transfection of PC12 cells with small interfering RNA against the PIK3R4 gene significantly decreased the expression levels of PIK3R4 and the autophagy-related proteins p62 and LC3. Additionally, in vivo experiments revealed that the PIK3R4 protein was extensively expressed in the anterior horn, posterior horn, central canal, and areas surrounding the central canal in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments of the spinal cord in adult mice. PIK3R4 protein was mainly expressed in the neurons within the spinal lumbar segments. PIK3R4 and p62 expression levels were significantly decreased at both the pre-onset and onset stages of ALS disease in Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice compared with control mice, but these proteins were markedly increased at the progression stage. LC3 protein expression did not change during progression of ALS. These findings suggest that PIK3R4 likely participates in the prevention of ALS progression. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Care and Use of Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital of Nanchang University (approval No. 2020025) on March 26, 2020.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118212, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582921

RESUMO

Varroa mite is one of the major adverse factors causing honey bee population decline. In this study, Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested honey bee colonies were established by selective applying miticide (Apivar® amitraz). Mite population was monitored monthly (April-October 2016), and deformed wing virus (DWV) loading was detected seasonally (April, July, and October). Four immunity- and two physiology-related gene expressions, natural mortality, and susceptibility to five insecticides were comparatively and seasonally examined in field-collected honey bee workers. Results showed that Apivar-treated bee colonies had minor or undetectable mite and DWV (using RT-qPCR) infestations in whole bee season, while untreated colonies had substantially higher mite and DWV infestations. In untreated colonies, Varroa mite population irregularly fluctuated over the bee season with higher mite counts in Jun (318 ± 89 mites dropped in 48 h) or August (302) than that (25 ± 4 or 34) in October, and mite population density was not dynamically or closely correlated with the seasonal shift of honey bee natural mortality (regression slope = -0.5212). Unlike mite, DWV titer in untreated colonies progressively increased over the bee season, and it was highly correlated (R2 = 1) with the seasonal increase of honey bee natural mortality. Significantly lower gene expressions of dor, PPO, mfe, potentially PPOa and eat as well, in untreated colonies also indicated an association of increased DWV infestation with decreased physiological and immunity-related functions in late-season honey bees. Furthermore, bees with lower mite/DWV infestations exhibited generally consistently lower susceptibilities (contact and oral toxicities) to five representative insecticides than the bees without Apivar treatment. All of these data from this study consistently indicated an interaction of Varroa/viral infestations with insecticide susceptibilities in honey bees, potentially through impairing bee's physiology and immunity, emphasizing the importance of mite control in order to minimize honey bee decline.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Inseticidas , Vírus de RNA , Varroidae , Acaricidas/toxicidade , Animais , Abelhas , Inseticidas/toxicidade
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 286: 114922, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923087

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hepatocyte lipid accumulation is the main feature in the early stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Highland barley Monascus purpureus Went (HBMPW), a fermentation product of Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f. has traditionally been used as fermented foods in Tibet with the effect of reducing blood lipid in folk medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the protective effects and molecular mechanism of highland barley Monascus purpureus Went extract (HBMPWE) on NAFLD in syrian golden hamster fed with high-fat, high-fructose, high-cholesterol diet (HFFCD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HFFCD-induced NAFLD golden hamster model was established and treated with HBMPWE. Liver index, biochemical index, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were observed. Liver metabolomics and western blot analysis were employed. RESULTS: Our study found that HBMPWE ameliorated HFFCD induced dyslipidemia, weight gain and elevated the liver index. In addition, HBMPWE treatment significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in the liver and modulated lipid metabolism (sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid). Our data demonstrated that HBMPWE not only regulated the expression of proteins related to fatty acid synthesis and decomposition (SREBP-1/ACC/FAS/AceS1, PPARα/ACSL/CPT1/ACOX1), but also regulated the expression of proteins related to cholesterol synthesis and clearance (HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7A1). CONCLUSIONS: HBMPWE improved NAFLD through multiple pathways and multiple targets in body metabolism and could be used as a functional food to treat NAFLD and other lipid metabolic disorders.

18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): 6-11, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has a high burden of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI among healthy young children and adolescents and test a 2-step approach to explore the threshold for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in Chengdu, China. METHODS: Healthy preschool children and school-going children in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, were screened for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Preschool children with TST ≥ 5 mm also underwent interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to explore the threshold of this 2-step approach. RESULTS: In total, 5667 healthy young children and adolescents completed TST test between July 2020 and January 2021 and were included in the present analysis. The age of the participants ranged from 2.4 to 18 years (median 7.25 ± 4.514 years), of which 2093 (36.9%) were younger than 5 years. The overall prevalence of LTBI was 6.37% and 6.64% in children younger than 5 years old. Fourteen of the 341 preschool children with TST ≥5 mm were interferon-γ release assay positive, of which 4 showed a TST result of 5-10 mm, and 6 preschool children received preventive treatment for LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy young children and adolescents should also be considered as important target populations for LTBI screening. TST can be recommended for first-line screening as part of a 2-step approach for LTBI screening using a positive threshold of 5 mm.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126749, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390953

RESUMO

Although (-)-α-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and (+)-γ-HBCDD are preferentially enriched in chickens, the key factors contributing to their selective bioaccumulation in hens and their potential biotransformation in developing chicken embryos remain unclear. Herein, in vivo and in ovo exposure experiments using hens and fertilized eggs were conducted to investigate the absorption, excretion, and biotransformation of HBCDDs in chickens. γ-HBCDD (76%) exhibited a higher absorption efficiency than α- (22%) and ß- (69%) HBCDDs. However, α-HBCDD was dominant in hen tissues, although γ-HBCDD accounted for >75% in the spiked feed. Moreover, chicken embryos biotransformed approximately 9.5% and 11.7% of absorbed α- and γ-HBCDDs, respectively, implying that diastereomer-selective elimination causes the predominance of α-HBCDD in hens. The concentration and enantiomer fraction (EF) of α-HBCDD in laid eggs were significantly positively correlated, suggesting enantioselective elimination. The EFs of α- and γ-HBCDDs varied between feces from the exposure and depuration periods, indicating the preferred excretion of (+)-α- and (-)-γ-HBCDDs. Furthermore, the enantioselective biotransformation of (-)-γ-HBCDD was confirmed in developing chicken embryos. These results show that excretion and biotransformation contribute to the diastereomer- and enantiomer-selective bioaccumulation of HBCDDs in chickens; The results may improve our understanding of the environmental fate and ecological risks of HBCDDs in biota.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Animais , Bioacumulação , Biotransformação , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Estereoisomerismo
20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 11766-11771, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854688

RESUMO

Superatomic molecular orbitals (SAMOs) have symmetries (angular quantum numbers) similar to those of atoms, and thus, it is possible to realize Rydberg state excitations (RSEs) in superatomic molecules. In this Letter, the feasibility of superatomic Rydberg state excitation (SRSE) is explored using gold superatoms based on first-principles calculations. The results show that the SRSE exists in the high and low excited states of the gold superatoms and their SAMOs make a major contribution to electronic transitions. The radial distribution function of electronic density shows that the main distribution of electrons in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and other unoccupied superatomic molecular orbitals is extremely far from the geometric center, and thus, they can be unambiguously identified as Rydberg orbitals. We found that due to the two-dimensional ductility of the planar SAMOs, superatoms are superior in the RSE regulation. Our findings may provide a new source of superatom-based RSE and will contribute to the regulation and efficient preparation of Rydberg states.

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