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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 17-27, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-971604

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic has infected over 109 million people, leading to over 2 million deaths up to date and still lacking of effective drugs for patient treatment. Here, we screened about 1.8 million small molecules against the main protease (Mpro) and papain like protease (PLpro), two major proteases in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 genome, and identified 1851Mpro inhibitors and 205 PLpro inhibitors with low nmol/l activity of the best hits. Among these inhibitors, eight small molecules showed dual inhibition effects on both Mpro and PLpro, exhibiting potential as better candidates for COVID-19 treatment. The best inhibitors of each protease were tested in antiviral assay, with over 40% of Mpro inhibitors and over 20% of PLpro inhibitors showing high potency in viral inhibition with low cytotoxicity. The X-ray crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in complex with its potent inhibitor 4a was determined at 1.8 Å resolution. Together with docking assays, our results provide a comprehensive resource for future research on anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug development.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antivirais/química , COVID-19 , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/química , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-982526

RESUMO

The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, IrtAB, plays a vital role in the replication and viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), where its function is to import iron-loaded siderophores. Unusually, it adopts the canonical type IV exporter fold. Herein, we report the structure of unliganded Mtb IrtAB and its structure in complex with ATP, ADP, or ATP analogue (AMP-PNP) at resolutions ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 Å. The structure of IrtAB bound ATP-Mg2+ shows a "head-to-tail" dimer of nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), a closed amphipathic cavity within the transmembrane domains (TMDs), and a metal ion liganded to three histidine residues of IrtA in the cavity. Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) structures and ATP hydrolysis assays show that the NBD of IrtA has a higher affinity for nucleotides and increased ATPase activity compared with IrtB. Moreover, the metal ion located in the TM region of IrtA is critical for the stabilization of the conformation of IrtAB during the transport cycle. This study provides a structural basis to explain the ATP-driven conformational changes that occur in IrtAB.


Assuntos
Sideróforos/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP
3.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-434764

RESUMO

The global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has triggered numerous efforts to develop therapeutic options for COVID-19 pandemic. The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro), which is a critical enzyme for transcription and replication of SARS-CoV-2, is a key target for therapeutic development against COVID-19. An organoselenium drug called ebselen has recently been demonstrated to have strong inhibition against Mpro and antiviral activity but its molecular mode of action is unknown preventing further development. We have examined the binding modes of ebselen and its derivative in Mpro via high resolution co-crystallography and investigated their chemical reactivity via mass spectrometry. Stronger Mpro inhibition than ebselen and potent ability to rescue infected cells were observed for a number of ebselen derivatives. A free selenium atom bound with cysteine 145 of Mpro catalytic dyad has been revealed by crystallographic studies of Mpro with ebselen and MR6-31-2 suggesting hydrolysis of the enzyme bound organoselenium covalent adduct, formation of a phenolic by-product is confirmed by mass spectrometry. The target engagement of these compounds with an unprecedented mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition suggests wider therapeutic applications of organo-selenium compounds in SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonotic beta-corona viruses.

4.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 877-888, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-922482

RESUMO

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M


Assuntos
Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/virologia , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Naftoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
5.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-393629

RESUMO

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10-fold of effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the RBD, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19. HighlightsO_LISARS-CoV-2 specific antibody, HB27, blocks viral receptor binding and membrane fusion C_LIO_LIHB27 confers prophylactic and therapeutic protection against SARS-CoV-2 in mice models C_LIO_LIRhesus macaques showed no adverse side effects when administered with HB27 C_LIO_LICryo-EM studies suggest that HB27 sterically occludes SARS-CoV-2 from its receptor C_LI

6.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-129098

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. There are no approved vaccines or therapeutics for treating COVID-19. Here we reported a humanized monoclonal antibody, H014, efficiently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV pseudoviruses as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2 at nM level by engaging the S receptor binding domain (RBD). Importantly, H014 administration reduced SARS-CoV-2 titers in the infected lungs and prevented pulmonary pathology in hACE2 mouse model. Cryo-EM characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 S trimer in complex with the H014 Fab fragment unveiled a novel conformational epitope, which is only accessible when the RBD is in open conformation. Biochemical, cellular, virological and structural studies demonstrated that H014 prevents attachment of SARS-CoV-2 to its host cell receptors. Epitope analysis of available neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 uncover broad cross-protective epitopes. Our results highlight a key role for antibody-based therapeutic interventions in the treatment of COVID-19. One sentence summaryA potent neutralizing antibody conferred protection against SARS-CoV-2 in an hACE2 humanized mouse model by sterically blocking the interaction of the virus with its receptor.

7.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-033233

RESUMO

The antineoplastic drug Carmofur was shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Here the X-ray crystal structure of Mpro in complex with Carmofur reveals that the carbonyl reactive group of Carmofur is covalently bound to catalytic Cys145, whereas its fatty acid tail occupies the hydrophobic S2 subsite. Carmofur inhibits viral replication in cells (EC50 = 24.30 M) and it is a promising lead compound to develop new antiviral treatment for COVID-19.

8.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-996348

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan. Specific antiviral drug are urgently needed to treat COVID-19 infections. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a key CoV enzyme that plays a pivotal role in mediating viral replication and transcription, which makes it an attractive drug target. In an effort to rapidly discover lead compounds targeting Mpro, two compounds (11a and 11b) were designed and synthesized, both of which exhibited excellent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 M and 0.04 M respectively. Significantly, both compounds exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection activity in a cell-based assay with an EC50 value of 0.42 M and 0.33 M, respectively. The X-ray crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in complex with 11a and 11b were determined at 1.5 [A] resolution, respectively. The crystal structures showed that 11a and 11b are covalent inhibitors, the aldehyde groups of which are bound covalently to Cys145 of Mpro. Both compounds showed good PK properties in vivo, and 11a also exhibited low toxicity which is promising drug leads with clinical potential that merits further studies.

9.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-993386

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak has caused a global pandemic resulting in tens of thousands of infections and thousands of deaths worldwide. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, also named nsp12), which catalyzes the synthesis of viral RNA, is a key component of coronaviral replication/transcription machinery and appears to be a primary target for the antiviral drug, remdesivir. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of 2019-nCoV full-length nsp12 in complex with cofactors nsp7 and nsp8 at a resolution of 2.9-[A]. Additional to the conserved architecture of the polymerase core of the viral polymerase family and a nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN) domain featured in coronaviral RdRp, nsp12 possesses a newly identified {beta}-hairpin domain at its N-terminal. Key residues for viral replication and transcription are observed. A comparative analysis to show how remdesivir binds to this polymerase is also provided. This structure provides insight into the central component of coronaviral replication/transcription machinery and sheds light on the design of new antiviral therapeutics targeting viral RdRp. One Sentence SummaryStructure of 2019-nCov RNA polymerase.

10.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-964882

RESUMO

A new coronavirus (CoV) identified as COVID-19 virus is the etiological agent responsible for the 2019-2020 viral pneumonia outbreak that commenced in Wuhan1-4. Currently there is no targeted therapeutics and effective treatment options remain very limited. In order to rapidly discover lead compounds for clinical use, we initiated a program of combined structure-assisted drug design, virtual drug screening and high-throughput screening to identify new drug leads that target the COVID-19 virus main protease (Mpro). Mpro is a key CoV enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in mediating viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive drug target for this virus5,6. Here, we identified a mechanism-based inhibitor, N3, by computer-aided drug design and subsequently determined the crystal structure of COVID-19 virus Mpro in complex with this compound. Next, through a combination of structure-based virtual and high-throughput screening, we assayed over 10,000 compounds including approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and other pharmacologically active compounds as inhibitors of Mpro. Six of these inhibit Mpro with IC50 values ranging from 0.67 to 21.4 M. Ebselen also exhibited promising antiviral activity in cell-based assays. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of this screening strategy, which can lead to the rapid discovery of drug leads with clinical potential in response to new infectious diseases where no specific drugs or vaccines are available.

11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 339-351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-828762

RESUMO

Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle and a prime target of antiviral drugs. Herpesviruses use an ATP-driven packaging motor/terminase complex to translocate and cleave concatemeric dsDNA into procapsids but its molecular architecture and mechanism are unknown. We report atomic structures of a herpesvirus hexameric terminase complex in both the apo and ADP•BeF3-bound states. Each subunit of the hexameric ring comprises three components-the ATPase/terminase pUL15 and two regulator/fixer proteins, pUL28 and pUL33-unlike bacteriophage terminases. Distal to the nuclease domains, six ATPase domains form a central channel with conserved basic-patches conducive to DNA binding and trans-acting arginine fingers are essential to ATP hydrolysis and sequential DNA translocation. Rearrangement of the nuclease domains mediated by regulatory domains converts DNA translocation mode to cleavage mode. Our structures favor a sequential revolution model for DNA translocation and suggest mechanisms for concerted domain rearrangements leading to DNA cleavage.

12.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 505-517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-828759

RESUMO

Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall assembly is an established strategy for anti-TB chemotherapy. Arabinosyltransferase EmbB, which catalyzes the transfer of arabinose from the donor decaprenyl-phosphate-arabinose (DPA) to its arabinosyl acceptor is an essential enzyme for Mtb cell wall synthesis. Analysis of drug resistance mutations suggests that EmbB is the main target of the front-line anti-TB drug, ethambutol. Herein, we report the cryo-EM structures of Mycobacterium smegmatis EmbB in its "resting state" and DPA-bound "active state". EmbB is a fifteen-transmembrane-spanning protein, assembled as a dimer. Each protomer has an associated acyl-carrier-protein (AcpM) on their cytoplasmic surface. Conformational changes upon DPA binding indicate an asymmetric movement within the EmbB dimer during catalysis. Functional studies have identified critical residues in substrate recognition and catalysis, and demonstrated that ethambutol inhibits transferase activity of EmbB by competing with DPA. The structures represent the first step directed towards a rational approach for anti-TB drug discovery.

13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 339-351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-828598

RESUMO

Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle and a prime target of antiviral drugs. Herpesviruses use an ATP-driven packaging motor/terminase complex to translocate and cleave concatemeric dsDNA into procapsids but its molecular architecture and mechanism are unknown. We report atomic structures of a herpesvirus hexameric terminase complex in both the apo and ADP•BeF3-bound states. Each subunit of the hexameric ring comprises three components-the ATPase/terminase pUL15 and two regulator/fixer proteins, pUL28 and pUL33-unlike bacteriophage terminases. Distal to the nuclease domains, six ATPase domains form a central channel with conserved basic-patches conducive to DNA binding and trans-acting arginine fingers are essential to ATP hydrolysis and sequential DNA translocation. Rearrangement of the nuclease domains mediated by regulatory domains converts DNA translocation mode to cleavage mode. Our structures favor a sequential revolution model for DNA translocation and suggest mechanisms for concerted domain rearrangements leading to DNA cleavage.

14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 505-517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-828595

RESUMO

Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall assembly is an established strategy for anti-TB chemotherapy. Arabinosyltransferase EmbB, which catalyzes the transfer of arabinose from the donor decaprenyl-phosphate-arabinose (DPA) to its arabinosyl acceptor is an essential enzyme for Mtb cell wall synthesis. Analysis of drug resistance mutations suggests that EmbB is the main target of the front-line anti-TB drug, ethambutol. Herein, we report the cryo-EM structures of Mycobacterium smegmatis EmbB in its "resting state" and DPA-bound "active state". EmbB is a fifteen-transmembrane-spanning protein, assembled as a dimer. Each protomer has an associated acyl-carrier-protein (AcpM) on their cytoplasmic surface. Conformational changes upon DPA binding indicate an asymmetric movement within the EmbB dimer during catalysis. Functional studies have identified critical residues in substrate recognition and catalysis, and demonstrated that ethambutol inhibits transferase activity of EmbB by competing with DPA. The structures represent the first step directed towards a rational approach for anti-TB drug discovery.

15.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 178-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-757982

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although several HCV protease/polymerase inhibitors were recently approved by U.S. FDA, the combination of antivirals targeting multiple processes of HCV lifecycle would optimize anti-HCV therapy and against potential drug-resistance. Viral entry is an essential target step for antiviral development, but FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitor remains exclusive. Here we identify serotonin 2A receptor (5-HTR) is a HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention by a chemical biology strategy. The silencing of 5-HTR and clinically available 5-HTR antagonist suppress cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) in different liver cells and primary human hepatocytes at late endocytosis process. The mechanism is related to regulate the correct plasma membrane localization of claudin 1 (CLDN1). Moreover, phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), an FDA-approved 5-HTR antagonist, inhibits all major HCV genotypes in vitro and displays synergy in combination with clinical used anti-HCV drugs. The impact of PBZ on HCV genotype 2a is documented in immune-competent humanized transgenic mice. Our results not only expand the understanding of HCV entry, but also present a promising target for the invention of HCV entry inhibitor.

16.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15408, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534487

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mediates cell entry by attachment to an integrin receptor, generally αvß6, via a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif in the exposed, antigenic, GH loop of capsid protein VP1. Infection can also occur in tissue culture adapted virus in the absence of integrin via acquired basic mutations interacting with heparin sulphate (HS); this virus is attenuated in natural infections. HS interaction has been visualized at a conserved site in two serotypes suggesting a propensity for sulfated-sugar binding. Here we determined the interaction between αvß6 and two tissue culture adapted FMDV strains by cryo-electron microscopy. In the preferred mode of engagement, the fully open form of the integrin, hitherto unseen at high resolution, attaches to an extended GH loop via interactions with the RGD motif plus downstream hydrophobic residues. In addition, an N-linked sugar of the integrin attaches to the previously identified HS binding site, suggesting a functional role.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células CHO , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polissacarídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 590-600, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-756983

RESUMO

Entero virus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and occasionally leads to severe neurological complications and even death. Scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) is a functional receptor for EV71, that mediates viral attachment, internalization, and uncoating. However, the exact binding site of EV71 on SCARB2 is unknown. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to human but not mouse SCARB2. It is named JL2, and it can effectively inhibit EV71 infection of target cells. Using a set of chimeras of human and mouse SCARB2, we identified that the region containing residues 77-113 of human SCARB2 contributes significantly to JL2 binding. The structure of the SCARB2-JL2 complex revealed that JL2 binds to the apical region of SCARB2 involving α-helices 2, 5, and 14. Our results provide new insights into the potential binding sites for EV71 on SCARB2 and the molecular mechanism of EV71 entry.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Química , Genética , Metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Enterovirus Humano A , Genética , Alergia e Imunologia , Fibroblastos , Virologia , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas , Química , Genética , Metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo , Química , Genética , Alergia e Imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores Depuradores , Química , Genética , Alergia e Imunologia , Receptores Virais , Química , Genética , Alergia e Imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Química , Genética , Alergia e Imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera , Termodinâmica
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 516-526, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-757409

RESUMO

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) accounts for the majority of total Ser/Thr phosphatase activities in most cell types and regulates many biological processes. PP2A holoenzymes contain a scaffold A subunit, a catalytic C subunit, and one of the regulatory/targeting B subunits. How the B subunit controls PP2A localization and substrate specificity, which is a crucial aspect of PP2A regulation, remains poorly understood. The kinetochore is a critical site for PP2A functioning, where PP2A orchestrates chromosome segregation through its interactions with BubR1. The PP2A-BubR1 interaction plays important roles in both spindle checkpoint silencing and stable microtubule-kinetochore attachment. Here we present the crystal structure of a PP2A B56-BubR1 complex, which demonstrates that a conserved BubR1 LxxIxE motif binds to the concave side of the B56 pseudo-HEAT repeats. The BubR1 motif binds to a groove formed between B56 HEAT repeats 3 and 4, which is quite distant from the B56 binding surface for PP2A catalytic C subunit and thus is unlikely to affect PP2A activity. In addition, the BubR1 binding site on B56 is far from the B56 binding site of shugoshin, another kinetochore PP2A-binding protein, and thus BubR1 and shugoshin can potentially interact with PP2A-B56 simultaneously. Our structural and biochemical analysis indicates that other proteins with the LxxIxE motif may also bind to the same PP2A B56 surface. Thus, our structure of the PP2A B56-BubR1 complex provides important insights into how the B56 subunit directs the recruitment of PP2A to specific targets.


Assuntos
Humanos , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Complexos Multienzimáticos , Química , Proteína Fosfatase 2 , Química , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Química
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 562-570, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-757402

RESUMO

The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn(2+) and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn(2+). The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Helicases , Química , RNA Viral , Química , Proteínas Virais , Química , Zika virus
20.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 101-116, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-757608

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (huNoVs) recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment factors, in which genogroup (G) I and GII huNoVs use distinct binding interfaces. The genetic and evolutionary relationships of GII huNoVs under selection by the host HBGAs have been well elucidated via a number of structural studies; however, such relationships among GI NoVs remain less clear due to the fact that the structures of HBGA-binding interfaces of only three GI NoVs with similar binding profiles are known. In this study the crystal structures of the P dimers of a Lewis-binding strain, the GI.8 Boxer virus (BV) that does not bind the A and H antigens, in complex with the Lewis b (Le(b)) and Le(y) antigens, respectively, were determined and compared with those of the three previously known GI huNoVs, i.e. GI.1 Norwalk virus (NV), GI.2 FUV258 (FUV) and GI.7 TCH060 (TCH) that bind the A/H/Le antigens. The HBGA binding interface of BV is composed of a conserved central binding pocket (CBP) that interacts with the β-galactose of the precursor, and a well-developed Le epitope-binding site formed by five amino acids, including three consecutive residues from the long P-loop and one from the S-loop of the P1 subdomain, a feature that was not seen in the other GI NoVs. On the other hand, the H epitope/acetamido binding site observed in the other GI NoVs is greatly degenerated in BV. These data explain the evolutionary path of GI NoVs selected by the polymorphic human HBGAs. While the CBP is conserved, the regions surrounding the CBP are flexible, providing freedom for changes. The loss or degeneration of the H epitope/acetamido binding site and the reinforcement of the Le binding site of the GI.8 BV is a typical example of such change selected by the host Lewis epitope.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sítios de Ligação , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Química , Alergia e Imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Alergia e Imunologia , Virologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos , Química , Alergia e Imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Antígenos do Grupo Sanguíneo de Lewis , Química , Alergia e Imunologia , Norovirus , Química , Alergia e Imunologia , Virulência , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Virais , Química , Alergia e Imunologia
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