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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 864481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573384

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that inflammatory responses may influence brain neurochemical pathways, inducing depressive-like behaviors. Ultrasound stimulation (US) is a promising non-invasive treatment for neuropsychiatric diseases. We investigated whether US can suppress inflammation and improve depressive-like behaviors. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce depressive-like behaviors. Ultrasound wave was delivered into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for 30 min. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated through the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and elevated plus maze (EPM). Biochemical analyses were performed to assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the PFC and serum. The results indicated that US of the PFC significantly improved depressive-like behaviors in the TST (p < 0.05) and FST (p < 0.05). Anxiety-like behaviors also improved in the EPM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the lipopolysaccharide-mediated upregulation of IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in the PFC was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by US. In addition, no tissue damage was observed. Overall, US of PFC can effectively improve lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviors, possibly through the downregulation of inflammatory cytokines in the PFC. US may be a safe and promising tool for improvement of depression.

2.
Chromosoma ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511360

RESUMO

In the Brassica genus, we find both diploid species (one genome) and allotetraploid species (two different genomes) but no naturally occurring hexaploid species (three different genomes, AABBCC). Although hexaploids can be produced via human intervention, these neo-polyploids have quite unstable genomes and usually suffer from severe genome reshuffling. Whether these genome rearrangements continue in later generations and whether genomic arrangements follow similar, reproducible patterns between different lineages is still unknown. We crossed Brassica hexaploids resulting from different species combinations to produce five F1 hybrids and analyzed the karyotypes of the parents and the F1 hybrids, as well as allele segregation in a resulting test-cross population via molecular karyotyping using SNP array genotyping. Although some genomic regions were found to be more likely to be duplicated, deleted, or rearranged, a consensus pattern was not shared between genotypes. Brassica hexaploids had a high tolerance for fixed structural rearrangements, but which rearrangements occur and become fixed over many generations does not seem to show either strong reproducibility or to indicate selection for stability. On average, we observed 10 de novo chromosome rearrangements contributed almost equally from both parents to the F1 hybrids. At the same time, the F1 hybrid meiosis produced on average 8.6 new rearrangements. Hence, the increased heterozygosity in the F1 hybrid did not significantly improve genome stability in our hexaploid hybrids and might have had the opposite effect. However, hybridization between lineages was readily achieved and may be exploited for future genetics and breeding purposes.

3.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565795

RESUMO

Curcumin is a polyphenol that has been shown to have prebiotic and cholesterol-lowering properties. This study aimed to investigate the impact of curcumin on bile cholesterol supersaturation and the potential mechanistic role of intestinal microbiota and cholesterol absorption. Male hamsters (n = 8) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with or without curcumin for 12 weeks. Results showed that curcumin significantly decreased cholesterol levels in the serum (from 5.10 to 4.10 mmol/L) and liver (from 64.60 to 47.72 nmol/mg protein) in HFD-fed hamsters and reduced the bile cholesterol saturation index (CSI) from 1.64 to 1.08 due to the beneficial modifications in the concentration of total bile acids (BAs), phospholipids and cholesterol (p < 0.05). Gut microbiota analysis via 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that curcumin modulated gut microbiota, predominantly increasing microbiota associated with BA metabolism and short-chain fatty acid production, which subsequently up-regulated the expression of hepatic cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase and increased the synthesis of bile acids (p < 0.05). Furthermore, curcumin significantly down-regulated the expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1(NPC1L1) in hamsters and reduced cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that dietary curcumin has the potential to prevent bile cholesterol supersaturation through modulating the gut microbiota and inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption.

4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 125: 48-53, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526800

RESUMO

PLAAT1 belongs to the PLAAT family and plays regulatory roles in cell growth, tumor suppression and phospholipid metabolism. However, whether PLAAT1 is involved in p53 mediated signaling has not been investigated. Here, we report that PLAAT1 promotes degradation of p53 in zebrafish. We found that the plaat1 gene was constitutively expressed in tissues including liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, eye and brain, with relative higher expression levels detected in the brain and eye. Overexpression of plaat1 led to inhibition of p53 and tnfα mRNA expression. Furthermore, it was shown that PLAAT1 interacted with p53 to facilitate p53 degradation via autophagy-lysosome dependent pathway. Our work indicates that PLAAT1 is involved in the interplay between p53 mediated cellular responses and autophagy.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 862764, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392096

RESUMO

Teleost type I interferons (IFNs) are categorized into group I and II subgroups that bind to distinct receptors to activate antiviral responses. However, the interaction between ifn ligands and receptors has not fully been understood. In this study, the crystal structure of grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Ci)] IFNa has been solved at 1.58Å and consists of six helices. The CiIFNa displays a typical structure of type I IFNs with a straight helix F and lacks a helix element in the AB loop. Superposition modeling identified several key residues involved in the interaction with receptors. It was found that CiIFNa bound to cytokine receptor family B (CRFB) 1, CRFB2, and CRFB5, and the three receptors could form heterodimeric receptor complexes. Furthermore, mutation of Leu27, Glu103, Lys117, and His165 markedly decreased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1a induced by CiIFNa in the Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells, and Glu103 was shown to be required for the CiIFNa-activated antiviral activity. Interestingly, wild-type and mutant CiIFNa proteins did not alter the phosphorylation levels of STAT1b. Our results demonstrate that fish type I IFNs, although structurally conserved, interact with the receptors in a manner that may differ from mammalian homologs.


Assuntos
Carpas , Interferon Tipo I , Animais , Antivirais , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Filogenia , Receptores de Interferon/metabolismo
6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 727805, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444525

RESUMO

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical entity associated with declined cognitive function following surgery. It occurs more frequently in elderly patients. Recent studies have shown that circRNA-associated-ceRNA networks, constructed based on interactions between circRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA, provide key insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. However, the mechanism of POCD remains undetermined. In this study, laparotomies were performed under isoflurane anesthesia on young (2-month-old) and aging (17-month-old) male C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that the aging mice were more likely than the young mice to develop POCD. Subsequently, differentially expressed circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were characterized by RNA sequencing the hippocampi of young and aging mice under control and surgery conditions. Six circRNAs, 6 miRNAs, and 203 mRNAs were identified to construct the circRNA-associated-ceRNA network for the control condition, while 13 circRNAs, 8 miRNAs, and 189 mRNAs were used for the circRNA-associated-ceRNA network for the surgery condition. Further Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of these two networks revealed that the circRNA-associated-ceRNA networks are involved in POCD pathogenesis though modulating the Wnt and VEGF signaling pathways, as well as neural processes associated with long-term synaptic depression and synaptic transmission. In particular, the mmu-miR-298-5P regulatory pathway identified in this study's mouse model suggests that mm9_circ_009789- and mm9_circ_004229-associated-ceRNA networks as closely related to the occurrence of POCD through regulating PKC signaling pathway, neural cell apoptosis and glycolipid metabolism pathway. These findings provide possible insight into the role of the circRNA-associated-ceRNA networks, helping to unravel the complexity of the molecular pathogenesis of POCD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411669

RESUMO

Brensocatib, an investigational first-in-class, small-molecule, orally bioavailable, selective, and reversible dipeptidyl peptidase 1 inhibitor that blocks activation of neutrophil serine proteases, is currently under clinical development for the treatment of bronchiectasis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. In a 2-part phase 1 study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of brensocatib were evaluated in healthy Japanese and White adults. In part A, participants received single and multiple once-daily doses of brensocatib (10, 25, or 40 mg) or placebo after an overnight fast. In part B, participants received a single oral dose of brensocatib 40 mg on days 1 and 8, with or without food in a crossover fashion. Following a single dose and at steady state, brensocatib exposure was dose dependent, with low to moderate interindividual variability; systemic exposure between Japanese and White participants was similar. Elimination half-life of brensocatib ranged from 22 to 28 hours, resulting in ≈2-fold accumulation in maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve at steady state. In both ethnic groups, the presence of food slightly delayed brensocatib absorption with time to maximum plasma concentration increased by 0.7 to 1.7 hours, but it had no significant effect on brensocatib exposure (maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve). Brensocatib was well tolerated in Japanese and White participants. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were headache and skin exfoliation. No clinically significant vital signs, laboratory abnormalities, or evidence of renal toxicity were observed. The results from this study demonstrate that brensocatib can be administered with or without food and that dose adjustment is unnecessary for Japanese patients when receiving brensocatib treatment.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1970, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413951

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including arthritis (arthritis-irAE). Management of arthritis-irAE is challenging because immunomodulatory therapy for arthritis should not impede antitumor immunity. Understanding of the mechanisms of arthritis-irAE is critical to overcome this challenge, but the pathophysiology remains unknown. Here, we comprehensively analyze peripheral blood and/or synovial fluid samples from 20 patients with arthritis-irAE, and unmask a prominent Th1-CD8+ T cell axis in both blood and inflamed joints. CX3CR1hi CD8+ T cells in blood and CXCR3hi CD8+ T cells in synovial fluid, the most clonally expanded T cells, significantly share TCR repertoires. The migration of blood CX3CR1hi CD8+ T cells into joints is possibly mediated by CXCL9/10/11/16 expressed by myeloid cells. Furthermore, arthritis after combined CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitor therapy preferentially has enhanced Th17 and transient Th1/Th17 cell signatures. Our data provide insights into the mechanisms, predictive biomarkers, and therapeutic targets for arthritis-irAE.


Assuntos
Artrite , Neoplasias , Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia
9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 4912961, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399831

RESUMO

Phytoestrogens can alleviate some pathological processes related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, there are limited and contradictory studies on the relationships between phytoestrogens (especially single phytoestrogen) and NAFLD. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and NAFLD in American adults. This cross-sectional study used the data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2010, and 2294 adults were finally enrolled in this study. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were measured in urine samples, and urinary phytoestrogens were divided into tertiles according to the concentration distributions. The diagnosis of NAFLD was determined by the United States fatty liver index. The main analysis used a multivariate logistic regression model. The fully adjusted models included gender, age, race, education, marriage, poverty, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and other five phytoestrogens. In the fully adjusted model, the urinary enterolactone (ENL) concentration was negatively correlated with NAFLD (OR of Tertile 3 : 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.94). When stratified by age and gender, the urinary ENL concentration was negatively correlated with NAFLD in males aged 40-59 years (OR of Tertile 3 : 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.82), while the urinary equol concentration was positively correlated with NAFLD in such population (OR of Tertile 3 : 4.27, 95% CI 1.02-17.85). In addition, a negative correlation between enterodiol (END) concentration and NAFLD was observed in males aged 60 years or over (OR of Tertile 2 : 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.69). Collectively, in middle-aged males, urinary ENL may be associated with a lower risk of NAFLD, while urinary equol may be related to a higher risk. In addition, urinary END has a possible relationship with a reduced risk of NAFLD in elder males. Definitely, clinical randomized controlled trials are needed to further verify the conclusions.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fitoestrógenos , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Equol , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fitoestrógenos/urina , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Front Surg ; 9: 849096, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360421

RESUMO

Background: Spinal cord ischemia is largely caused by cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), which has a corresponding biomechanical basis. Finite element analysis of spinal cord stress in diseased segments of CSM was performed to provide a biomechanical basis for the pathogenesis of CSM. Methods: A single segment (C4-5) in a patient with CSM was selected for mechanical simulation of three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography scanning, and a 3D finite element model of the cervical vertebra was constructed. Based on the patient's age, sex, height, weight, and other parameters, a finite element analysis model of an individual with healthy cervical vertebrae in our hospital was selected as the control to compare the stress changes between the patient and control groups in the analysis of the cervical vertebrae under anterior flexion, posterior extension, lateral flexion, and rotating load in the diseased spinal cord segment. Results: In the CSM patient, the diseased segment was C4-5. Under loading conditions of forward flexion, posterior extension, left flexion, right flexion, left rotation, and right rotation, the maximum stress on the spinal cord in the control group was 0.0044, 0.0031, 0.00017, 0.00014, 0.0011, and 0.001 MPa, respectively, whereas those in the spinal cord in the CSM group were 0.039, 0.024, 0.02, 0.02, 0.0194, and 0.0196 MPa, respectively. Conclusion: The maximum stress on the diseased segments of the spinal cord in the CSM group was higher than that in the control group, which contributed to verifying the imaging parameters associated with spinal cord compression stress.

12.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 135, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303878

RESUMO

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is an attractive target for the treatment of cancer, because it is expressed at low levels in healthy tissues but at high levels in malignant tumours. uPAR is closely related to the invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours, plays important roles in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM), tumour angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is associated with the multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour cells, which has important guiding significance for the judgement of tumor malignancy and prognosis. Several uPAR-targeted antitumour therapeutic agents have been developed to suppress tumour growth, metastatic processes and drug resistance. Here, we review the recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted antitumor therapeutic strategies, including nanoplatforms carrying therapeutic agents, photodynamic therapy (PDT)/photothermal therapy (PTT) platforms, oncolytic virotherapy, gene therapy technologies, monoclonal antibody therapy and tumour immunotherapy, to promote the translation of these therapeutic agents to clinical applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo
13.
Hepatol Int ; 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis E virus-related acute liver failure (HEV-ALF) rapidly worsens and has a high mortality. However, no simple and specific parameters for predicting short-term mortality are available. METHODS: A derivation cohort including 97 patients with HEV-ALF and another validation cohort were enrolled. Laboratory and clinical parameters were recorded. Platelet count, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and King's College criteria (KCC) were separately used for predicting mortality, and the levels of cytokines associated with systemic inflammation, platelet production, and platelet activation were measured. RESULTS: Platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with HEV-ALF, and nonsurvivors had lower platelet counts than survivors (p < 0.001). Platelet count was an independent risk factor for predicting 28- and 90-day mortality in patients with HEV-ALF. The AUROC of the baseline platelet count (cutoff, 131 × 109/L) for 28- and 90-day mortality was 0.786 and 0.764, respectively, which was superior to KCC score (p < 0.05) and comparable to MELD score. Furthermore, the platelet counts at 3 and 7 days after ALF diagnosis had similar predictive power for 28- and 90-day mortality. The value of platelet count was also confirmed in the validation cohort. Moreover, platelet-associated cytokines, including thrombopoietin, platelet factor 4, and P-selectin, were increased in patients with HEV-ALF. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased platelet count is a simple and reliable indicator for predicting 28- and 90-day mortality in patients with HEV-ALF. Overactivation of platelets is an important risk for platelet counts decrease, and treatment aiming at platelet count recovery may be considered.

14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(5): 577-587, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273357

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can capture and kill viruses, such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), thus contributing to host defense. Contrary to our expectation, we show here that the histones released by NETosis enhance the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, as found by using live SARS-CoV-2 and two pseudovirus systems as well as a mouse model. The histone H3 or H4 selectively binds to subunit 2 of the spike (S) protein, as shown by a biochemical binding assay, surface plasmon resonance and binding energy calculation as well as the construction of a mutant S protein by replacing four acidic amino acids. Sialic acid on the host cell surface is the key molecule to which histones bridge subunit 2 of the S protein. Moreover, histones enhance cell-cell fusion. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of NETosis, histone H3 or H4, or sialic acid notably affected the levels of sgRNA copies and the number of apoptotic cells in a mouse model. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could hijack histones from neutrophil NETosis to promote its host cell attachment and entry process and may be important in exploring pathogenesis and possible strategies to develop new effective therapies for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Histonas , Camundongos , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Internalização do Vírus
15.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 7181-7196, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264065

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play vital roles in the development and progression of various diseases. CircRNA coiled-coil domain containing 66 (circ-CCDC66) has been reported to be involved in several cancers, but its biological function and underlying mechanism in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remain unclear. We detected the relative expression level of circ-CCDC66 in PTC specimens and cell lines using real-time reverse transcription PCR. In addition, EdU assay, transwell assay, and xenograft analysis were performed to measure the effect of circ-CCDC66 on the proliferative, migratory, and invasive capacities of PTC cells. We also investigated the potential mechanism of circ-CCDC66 by bioinformatics analysis, RNA immunoprecipitation, and dual-luciferase reporter assay. We observed that circ-CCDC66 expression was upregulated in PTC specimens and cell lines and was correlated with poor clinical characteristics of PTC patients. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated that knockdown of circ-CCDC66 markedly suppressed the proliferative, migratory, and invasive capacities of PTC cells. Mechanistically, miR-129-5p was a target gene of circ-CCDC66 and was downregulated in PTC tissues. LARP1, a downstream target of miR-129-5p, was upregulated in PTC tissues. In addition, we confirmed that inhibition of circ-CCDC66 could repress xenograft tumor growth. Circ-CCDC66 promoted PTC proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth by sponging miR-129-5p and promoting LARP1 expression.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Ribonucleoproteínas , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
16.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35207175

RESUMO

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurological disease that involves the collection of blood products in the subdural space. The progression of CSDH is an angiogenic and inflammatory process, but the multifactorial mechanisms underlying CSDH are still not fully understood. We aimed to identify one or more factors that may play an important role in the development of CSDH. We enrolled 83 patients with CSDH, including 17 postoperative patients, and analyzed 20 markers in the hematoma fluid and peripheral blood of each patient. Overall differential gene expression was examined to identify the representative markers. The concentration of MMP-8 was significantly lower in the postoperative group than in the preoperative group. The concentration of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the postoperative group than in the preoperative group. These findings indicate that MMP-8 and MMP-9 may play important roles in the pathophysiology of CSDH. Understanding the pathways associated with CSDH may provide insights for improving disease outcomes.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 825: 153951, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192820

RESUMO

Terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) refers to a key process in the hydrological cycle by which water is transferred from the Earth's surface to lower atmosphere. With spatiotemporal variations, ET plays a crucial role in the global ecosystem and affects vegetation distribution and productivity, climate, and water resources. China features a complex, diverse natural environment, leading to high spatiotemporal heterogeneity in ET and climatic variables. However, past and future ET trends in China remain largely unexplored. Thus, by using MOD16 products and meteorological datasets, this study examined the spatiotemporal variations of ET in China from 2000 to 2019 and analyzed what is behind changes, and explored future ET trends. Climate variation in China from 2000 to 2019 was statistically significant and had a remarkable impact on ET. Average annual ET increased at a rate of 5.3746 mm yr-1 (P < 0.01) during the study period. The main drivers of the trend are increasing precipitation and wind speed. The increase in ET can also be explained to some extent by increasing temperature, decreasing sunshine duration and relative humidity. The zonation results show that the increase in temperature, wind speed, and precipitation and the decrease in relative humidity had large and positive effects on ET growth, and the decrease in sunshine duration had either promoting or inhibiting effects in different agricultural regions. Pixel-based variations in ET exhibited an overall increasing trend and obvious spatial volatility. The Hurst exponent indicates that the future trend of ET in China is characterized by significant anti-persistence, with widely distributed areas expected to experience a decline in ET. These findings improve the understanding of the role of climate variability in hydrological processes, and the ET variability in question will ultimately affect the climate system.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Hidrologia , Temperatura
18.
Opt Lett ; 47(4): 826-829, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167535

RESUMO

This Letter reports ring-shaped photoacoustic (PA) tweezers that are capable of manipulating single or multiple micron-sized particles. By illuminating a thin layer of an optically absorptive liquid medium with a focused annular pulsed laser beam and a higher pulse repetition rate (e.g., 800 Hz), both acoustic radiation force and instantaneous vaporization repulsion are generated within a certain distance of the illumination region. This makes it possible to conduct continuous and versatile locomotion of single or multiple microparticles. In this Letter, interactions between two or more particles are demonstrated, such as separation, attachment, and grouping of microparticles. The PA tweezers combine some of the advantages of conventional optical and acoustic tweezers and are expected to be a useful alternative approach for the manipulation of microscale objects.


Assuntos
Acústica , Pinças Ópticas , Luz , Análise Espectral
19.
Mycopathologia ; 187(2-3): 169-180, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157189

RESUMO

Knowledge about the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of Talaromyces marneffei infection in children is limited, especially in HIV-positive children. We performed a retrospective study of all HIV-positive pediatric inpatients with T. marneffei infection in a tertiary hospital in Southern China between 2014 and 2019 and analyzed the related risk factors of poor prognosis using logistic regression. Overall, 28 cases were enrolled and the prevalence of talaromycosis in AIDS children was 15.3% (28/183). The median age of the onset was 8 years (range: 1-14 years). The typical manifestation of skin lesion with central umbilication was not common (21.4%). All the children had very low CD4+ cell counts (median 13.5 cells/µL, range: 3-137 cells/µL) on admission. 92.9% children were misdiagnosed and talaromycosis was only noted after positivity for HIV infection. 89.3% diagnoses of T. marneffei infections were based on positive blood cultures, with a long culture time (median 7 days, range from 3-14 days). The sensitivity of fungus 1,3-ß-D-glucan assay was 63.2%. Amphotericin B was superior to itraconazole in the induction antifungal therapy of talaromycosis in HIV-positive children. A six-month follow-up revealed a 28.6% mortality. Lower ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and amphotericin B treatment not over 7 days predicted poor prognosis. Our retrospective study provided an overview and update on the current knowledge of talaromycosis in HIV-positive children. Pediatricians in endemic areas should be aware of mycoses to prevent misdiagnosis. 1,3-ß-D-glucan assay did not show optimal sensitivity. Amphotericin B treatment over 7 days can improve poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Micoses , Talaromyces , Adolescente , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Glucanos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Stem Cells Int ; 2022: 2190447, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35126525

RESUMO

Cartilage regeneration is still a challenge for clinicians because of avascularity, denervation, load-bearing, synovial movement, and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. We constructed a multilayered osteochondral bionic scaffold and examined its repair capacity using a rabbit osteochondral defect model. The cartilage phase and interface layer of the scaffold were prepared by freeze-drying, whereas the bone phase of the scaffold was prepared by high-temperature sintering. The three-phase osteochondral bionic scaffold was formed by joining the hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds using the repeated freeze-thaw method. Different groups of scaffolds were implanted into the rabbit osteochondral defect model, and their repair capacities were assessed using imaging and histological analyses. The cartilage phase and the interface layer of the scaffold had a pore size of 110.13 ± 29.38 and 96.53 ± 33.72 µm, respectively. All generated scaffolds exhibited a honeycomb porous structure. The polydopamine- (PDA-) modified scaffold released platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) for 4 weeks continuously, reaching a cumulative release of 71.74 ± 5.38%. Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) adhered well to all scaffolds, but demonstrated the strongest proliferation ability in the HSPP (HAp-Silk-PDA-PDGF) group. Following scaffold-induced chondrogenic differentiation, SMSCs produced much chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM). In in vivo experiments, the HSPP group exhibited a significantly higher gross tissue morphology score and achieved cartilage regeneration at an earlier stage and a significantly better repair process compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed that the new cartilage tissue in the experimental group had a better shape and almost filled the defect area, whereas the scaffold was nearly completely degraded. The new cartilage was effectively fused with the surrounding normal cartilage, and a substantial amount of chondrocyte ECM was formed. The SF/HAp three-layer osteochondral bionic scaffold exhibited favorable pore size, porosity, and drug sustained-release properties. It demonstrated good biocompatibility in vitro and encouraging repair effect at osteochondral defect site in vivo, thereby expected to enabling the repair and regeneration of osteochondral damage.

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