Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 187
Filtrar
2.
Clin Hypertens ; 30(1): 12, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under the adverse remodeling of the right ventricle and interventricular septum in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) the left ventricle (LV) dynamics is impaired. Despite the benefits of combined aerobic and resistance physical trainings to individuals with PAH, its impact on the LV is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To test whether moderate-intensity combined physical training performed during the development of PAH induced by MCT in rats is beneficial to the LV's structure and function. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Sedentary Hypertensive Survival (SHS, n = 7); and Exercise Hypertensive Survival (EHS, n = 7) to test survival. To investigate the effects of combined physical training, another group of rats were divided into three groups: Sedentary Control (SC, n = 7); Sedentary Hypertensive (SH, n = 7); and Exercise Hypertensive (EH, n = 7). PAH was induced through an intraperitoneal injection of MCT (60 mg/kg). Echocardiographic evaluations were conducted on the 22nd day after MCT administration. Animals in the EHS and EH groups participated in a combined physical training program, alternating aerobic (treadmill running: 50 min, 60% maximum running speed) and resistance (ladder climbing: 15 climbs with 1 min interval, 60% maximum carrying load) exercises, one session/day, 5 days/week for approximately 4 weeks. RESULTS: The physical training increased survival and tolerance to aerobic (i.e., maximum running speed) and resistance (i.e., maximum carrying load) exertions and prevented reductions in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In addition, the physical training mitigated oxidative stress (i.e., CAT, SOD and MDA) and inhibited adverse LV remodeling (i.e., Collagen, extracellular matrix, and cell dimensions). Moreover, the physical training preserved the amplitude and velocity of contraction and hindered the reductions in the amplitude and velocity of the intracellular Ca2+ transient in LV single myocytes. CONCLUSION: Moderate-intensity combined physical training performed during the development of MCT-induced PAH in rats protects their LV from damages to its structure and function and hence increases their tolerance to physical exertion and prolongs their survival.

3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 107: 102149, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442544

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples of calves and buffalo calves (2008-2013), in Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as the frequency of O157 gene and strains carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. E. coli strains (n=518) were tested for susceptibility against ten antimicrobials. Tetracycline was the antimicrobial with the highest resistance rate (382/518), followed by ampicillin (321/518), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (312/518), chloramphenicol (192/518), gentamicin (126/518), ciprofloxacin (148/518), cefazolin (89/518), colistin (54/518) and cefoxitin (34/518). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 381/518 isolates. No strain harbored mcr or O157 genes, whereas 19/99 were ESBL positive. The most prevalent pathotype and phylogroup were STEC and B1, respectively. Age, EHEC pathotype and resistance to aminoglycoside and cephem were significantly associated with MDR in the multivariate model. Overall, E. coli strains showed high rates of resistance to penicillin, tetracyclines and folate inhibitors, in addition to an alarming rate of MDR and ESBL-producing strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Animais , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
4.
Vaccine X ; 16: 100429, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322610

RESUMO

The Brazilian National Immunization Program (PNI) has been consolidating itself as one of the most relevant interventions in public health. Paradoxically, great challenges arise for the PNI. The phenomenon of falling vaccine coverage is observed not only in Brazil, but in several countries. In the year 2021, faced with the unfavorable scenario of a drop in vaccination coverage, the State Department of Health, and the Federal University of Minas Gerais joined forces to implement a research-intervention project. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this intervention on vaccination coverage in children under 2 years of age and on indicators of immunization work processes. This is a community clinical trial carried out in 212 municipalities in the state. Workshops were held and Municipal Action Plans were created. Vaccination coverage data were obtained from the National Immunization Program Information System (SIPNI) and evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U Test and the McNemar Test. Work process indicators were evaluated using the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The results demonstrate an important improvement for most of the indicators in the three analyzed times, with statistical significance and an increase in medians and interquartile ranges. Among the indicators that showed the best performance, it is possible to mention those related to the active search by the Community Health Agent. Regarding vaccine coverage, for all immunobiologicals analyzed, there was an increase in the percentage of municipalities that reached targets when comparing the years 2022 and 2021, except for hepatitis A. The intervention research had a positive impact on vaccine coverage of children under 2 years of age and on indicators of immunization work processes in municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active search for tuberculosis cases through mass screening is widely described as a tool to improve case detection in hyperendemic settings. However, its effectiveness in high-risk populations, such as incarcerated people, is debated. METHODS: Between 2017 and 2021, three rounds of mass screening were carried out in three Brazilian prisons. Social and health questionnaires, chest X-rays and Xpert MTB/RIF were performed. RESULTS: Over 80% of the prison population was screened. Overall, 684 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were diagnosed. Prevalence across screening rounds was not statistically different. Among incarcerated persons with symptoms, the overall prevalence of tuberculosis per 100,000 persons was 8,497 (95% CI, 7,346-9,811), 11,115 (95% CI, 9,471-13,082), and 7,957 (95% CI, 6,380-9,882) in screening rounds one, two and three, respectively. Similar to our overall results, there were no statistical differences between screening rounds and within individual prisons. We found no statistical differences in CAD4TB scores across screening rounds among people with tuberculosis - the median scores in rounds 1, 2, and 3 were 82 (IQR, 63-97), 77 (IQR, 60-94), and 81 (IQR, 67-92), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this environment with hyperendemic rates of tuberculosis, three rounds of mass screening did not reduce the overall tuberculosis burden. In prisons, where a substantial amount of TB is undiagnosed annually, a range of complementary interventions and more frequent TB screening may be required.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180643

RESUMO

Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are a diverse group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds. The Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) classification organizes GHs into families based on sequence data and function, with fewer than 1% of the predicted proteins characterized biochemically. Consideration of genomic context can provide clues to infer possible enzyme activities for proteins of unknown function. We used the MultiGeneBLAST tool to discover a gene cluster in Marinovum sp., a member of the marine Roseobacter clade, that encodes homologues of enzymes belonging to the sulfoquinovose monooxygenase pathway for sulfosugar catabolism. This cluster lacks a gene encoding a classical family GH31 sulfoquinovosidase candidate, but which instead includes an uncharacterized family GH13 protein (MsGH13) that we hypothesized could be a non-classical sulfoquinovosidase. Surprisingly, recombinant MsGH13 lacks sulfoquinovosidase activity and is a broad-spectrum α-glucosidase that is active on a diverse array of α-linked disaccharides, including maltose, sucrose, nigerose, trehalose, isomaltose, and kojibiose. Using AlphaFold, a 3D model for the MsGH13 enzyme was constructed that predicted its active site shared close similarity with an α-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11 of the same GH13 subfamily that shows narrower substrate specificity.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 14, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in skeletal muscle tissue in pigs is crucial for understanding the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic expression of carcass traits in meat animals. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including scenarios removing SNPs pruned for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and SNPs derived from SNP chip arrays and RNA-seq data from liver, brain, and skeletal muscle tissues, on the identification of eQTLs in the Longissimus lumborum tissue, associated with carcass and body composition traits in Large White pigs. The SNPs identified from muscle mRNA were combined with SNPs identified in the brain and liver tissue transcriptomes, as well as SNPs from the GGP Porcine 50 K SNP chip array. Cis- and trans-eQTLs were identified based on the skeletal muscle gene expression level, followed by functional genomic analyses and statistical associations with carcass and body composition traits in Large White pigs. RESULTS: The number of cis- and trans-eQTLs identified across different sets of SNPs (scenarios) ranged from 261 to 2,539 and from 29 to 13,721, respectively. Furthermore, 6,180 genes were modulated by eQTLs in at least one of the scenarios evaluated. The eQTLs identified were not significantly associated with carcass and body composition traits but were significantly enriched for many traits in the "Meat and Carcass" type QTL. The scenarios with the highest number of cis- (n = 304) and trans- (n = 5,993) modulated genes were the unpruned and LD-pruned SNP set scenarios identified from the muscle transcriptome. These genes include 84 transcription factor coding genes. CONCLUSIONS: After LD pruning, the set of SNPs identified based on the transcriptome of the skeletal muscle tissue of pigs resulted in the highest number of genes modulated by eQTLs. Most eQTLs are of the trans type and are associated with genes influencing complex traits in pigs, such as transcription factors and enhancers. Furthermore, the incorporation of SNPs from other genomic regions to the set of SNPs identified in the porcine skeletal muscle transcriptome contributed to the identification of eQTLs that had not been identified based on the porcine skeletal muscle transcriptome alone.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Suínos/genética , Animais , Fenótipo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Composição Corporal/genética
8.
J Phys Act Health ; 21(2): 146-154, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to estimate leisure-time physical activity and television (TV) viewing curves according to age stratified by sex, area of residence, and socioeconomic position. METHODS: Using data from the Brazilian National Health Survey, we estimated the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and TV viewing according to continuous age. The estimates were calculated using fractional polynomials and stratified by sex, wealth, skin color, and area of residence. RESULTS: The sample included 87,376 adults (aged 18 y or over). In general, leisure-time physical activity decreased according to age while TV viewing increased. Regarding behavior of curves according to stratifiers, for leisure-time physical activity the disadvantaged groups maintained a pattern of low physical activity across all age groups or presented the decrease earlier when compared to groups in social advantage. On the other hand, for TV viewing, women presented an increase in prevalence before men, and individuals living in the urban area and the wealthiest group were those with a higher increase according to age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may help researchers and policymakers further explore inequalities in physical activity across life in different settings, as well as develop sensitive cultural actions to support more vulnerable people to adopt public health recommendations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividade Motora , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Recreação , Televisão
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(1): 196-205, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advancements in the global dialog surrounding sex and gender equity, an important gap persists with women markedly underrepresented in major roles within health care leadership. OBJECTIVES: We examined the extent of women's representation in prominent positions within parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies worldwide over a span of 2 decades. DESIGN: This retrospective analysis explored the sex distribution of society chairs, conference presidents, and editor-in-chief positions across 64 PEN societies between 2003 and 2022. Additionally, data on the first and last authors of endorsed clinical guidelines were collected from the 2 leading societies. RESULTS: Over the past 20 y, women held society chair positions in 34.4% of cases. The representation shifted from 30% during the decade from 2003 to 2012 to 40.5% from 2013 to 2022. Throughout these years, the numbers consistently ranged from 0 to 10; however, the median shifted upward from 1 during the first decade to 4 in the subsequent decade (P = 0.04). Of 420 congress presidencies, ∼30% were women. In endorsed guidelines, women were the first authors in 27.1% of cases (P < 0.001) and the last in 28.9% (P < 0.001) compared with men. Of the 123 journal editor-in-chief positions, women occupied 23 (18.7%). CONCLUSION: Over the last 2 decades, women have been consistently underrepresented in prominent leadership roles in PEN societies globally. Although there has been a noticeable shift toward more women in chair positions, true sex equality remains elusive. Moreover, sex disparities are even more pronounced in positions, such as conference presidents, authors of major guidelines, and editors-in-chief of society-affiliated journals. These data underscore the pressing need to enhance efforts toward sex equality across these domains.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Liderança , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas
10.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0295211, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134187

RESUMO

This study assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in 496 asymptomatic individuals from Mato Grosso do Sul, located in Dourados, the largest periurban indigenous area in Brazil, from January 25 to February 4, 2021. The volunteers participated before receiving their first dose of the CoronaVac inactivated vaccine. For screening, blood samples were collected and analyzed using SARS-CoV-2 rapid tests and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed varying trends in total anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies across different variables. Seropositivity among the participants tested was 63.70% (316/496) using the rapid test and 52.82% (262/496) were positive using the ELISA method. The majority of participants identified with the Guarani-Kaiowá ethnic group, with 66.15% (217/328), and other ethnic groups with 58.84% (193/328). The median age of the subjects was 30.5 years, with 79.57% (261/328) being femaleThis research showed the elevated seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in asymptomatic Brazilians. The findings indicate a high seropositivity rate among the asymptomatic indigenous population of Midwest Brazil. This underscores the overlooked status of these communities and underscores the need for targeted national initiatives that emphasize the protection of vulnerable ethnic groups in the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Povos Indígenas , Adulto , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Etnicidade , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia
11.
Lasers Med Sci ; 38(1): 259, 2023 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935876

RESUMO

This study evaluated photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for treatment of trismus in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). Sixteen patients, 10 men and 6 women, who had a mouth opening < 35 mm and underwent RT were included. The patients were evaluated daily before and after the PBMT application, measuring mouth opening and performing pain scores for the masticatory muscles using the visual analog scale (VAS). We used the infrared laser (~ 808 nm) extraorally, 0.1 W power, 3 J energy, 30 s (107 J/cm2) per point, applied to temporalis anterior, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints (TMJ). An intraoral point was made in the trigonoretromolar region towards the medial pterygoid muscle. The mean mouth opening of the patients increased by more than 7 mm throughout the treatment. The pain scores on the initial days showed an immediate reduction after PBMT on the ipsilateral side in the muscles and TMJ. Throughout PBMT applications, there was a significant reduction in pain scores in all muscles and the TMJ. The radiation dose of all patients was above 40 Gy, which is the threshold dose for the risk of developing trismus. SPSS software was used and adopted a confidence of 95%. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, Wilcoxon test, and Spearman correlation were performed. PBMT controls muscular pain and reduced mouth opening limitation in HNC during radiotherapy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the preventive capacity of PBMT protocols for RT trismus-related HNC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Trismo/etiologia , Trismo/radioterapia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Músculos da Mastigação , Dor
12.
Discov Ment Health ; 3(1): 2, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861876

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, which leads to impairments in the social, academic, and professional contexts. ADHD diagnosis relies solely on clinical assessment based on symptom evaluation and is sometimes challenging due to the substantial heterogeneity of the disorder in terms of clinical and pathophysiological aspects. Despite the difficulties imposed by the high complexity of ADHD etiology, the growing body of research and technological advances provide good perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of the disorder. Such knowledge is essential to refining diagnosis and identifying new therapeutic options to optimize treatment outcomes and associated impairments, leading to improvements in all domains of patient care. This review is intended to be an updated outline that addresses the etiological and neurobiological aspects of ADHD and its treatment, considering the impact of the "omics" era on disentangling the multifactorial architecture of ADHD.

13.
Life Sci ; 332: 122128, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769805

RESUMO

AIM: We tested the effects of low- to moderate-intensity resistance exercise training (RT) on the structure and function of pulmonary, right ventricle (RV), and skeletal muscle tissues in rats with stable pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). MAIN METHODS: After the first monocrotaline (MCT; 20 mg/kg) injection, male rats were submitted to a RT program (Ladder climbing; 55-65 % intensity), 5 times/week. Seven days later rats received the second MCT dose. Physical effort tolerance test and echocardiographic examination were performed. After euthanasia, lung, heart, and biceps brachii were processed for histological, single myocyte, and biochemical analysis. KEY FINDINGS: RT improved survival and physical effort tolerance (i.e., maximum carrying load), mitigated the pulmonary artery resistance increase (i.e., TA/TE), and preserved cardiac function (i.e., fractional shortening, ejection fraction, stroke volume and TAPSE). RT counteracted oxidative stress (i.e., CAT, SOD, GST, MDA and NO) and adverse remodeling in lung (i.e., collapsed alveoli) and in biceps brachii (i.e., atrophy and total collagen) tissues. RT delayed RV adverse remodeling (i.e., hypertrophy, extracellular matrix, collagen types I and III, and fibrosis) and impairments in single RV myocyte contractility (i.e., amplitude and velocity to peak and relaxation). RT improved the expression of gene (i.e., miRNA 214) and intracellular Ca2+ cycling regulatory proteins (i.e., PLBser16); and of pathological (i.e., α/ß-MHC and Foxo3) and physiological (i.e., Akt, p-Akt, mTOR, p-mTOR, and Bcl-xL) hypertrophy pathways markers in RV tissue. SIGNIFICANCE: Low- to moderate-intensity RT benefits the structure and function of pulmonary, RV, and skeletal muscle tissues in rats with stable pulmonary artery hypertension.

14.
J Clin Nurs ; 32(21-22): 7718-7729, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37605033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain in the postoperative period of amputation surgeries, when not managed correctly, can have consequences for the patient. PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to map the scientific evidence on pain management in patients in the postoperative period of amputation surgeries. DESIGN: Scoping review with elaboration based on the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute, supported by The PAGER framework and guided by the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. METHODS: The survey was conducted in August 2022 in 10 data sources. The 3300 publications found were analysed by two independent reviewers, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 studies were selected. RESULTS: Publications occurred between the years 1997 and 2022 and mainly dealt with the management of residual pain and phantom limb through pharmacological measures with pain assessment made by numerical scales. CONCLUSIONS: The literature pointed out strategic uses of analgesics and highlighted technologies for neurostimulation through catheters. The need for new studies with non-pharmacological measures and with designs that can prove their effectiveness is reinforced. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The knowledge of these strategies by health professionals allows adequate pain management and patient follow-up for a less traumatic recovery. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: To patient or public involvement in this scoping review.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor , Membro Fantasma , Humanos , Amputação Cirúrgica , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória , Período Pós-Operatório
15.
J Phys Act Health ; 20(9): 860-867, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37558222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low prevalence of physical activity (PA) and a high prevalence of mental health problems are common among youth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between PA during adolescence and depression and anxiety disorders in young adulthood. METHODS: Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study were analyzed. Leisure-time PA and total PA (leisure plus commuting) were evaluated at 11, 15, and 18 years using self-reported data. PA was evaluated at each age separately and during adolescence, considering the number of times participants reached PA recommendations. Depression and anxiety were assessed through Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at 22 years. Crude and adjusted association analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust error variance, providing prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred and forty-seven participants were included in the study. In the adjusted analyses, active participants in leisure-time PA (≥300 min/wk) and total PA at 11 years were less likely to be depressed at age 22 (prevalence ratios: 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.89; prevalence ratios: 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.97). For leisure-time PA, the more PA recommendations were met during adolescence, the lower the prevalence of depression. There was no association when PA variables were evaluated separately at 15 and 18 years and between PA and anxiety after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescence appears to be a sensitive period for PA benefits on depression in early adulthood. The more timepoints reaching PA recommendations during adolescence, the lower the risk of depression. On the other hand, PA during adolescence was not associated with anxiety in young adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividade Motora , Atividades de Lazer
16.
Popul Health Metr ; 21(1): 10, 2023 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37507749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infant and neonatal mortality estimates are typically derived from retrospective birth histories collected through surveys in countries with unreliable civil registration and vital statistics systems. Yet such data are subject to biases, including under-reporting of deaths and age misreporting, which impact mortality estimates. Prospective population-based cohort studies are an underutilized data source for mortality estimation that may offer strengths that avoid biases. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group, including 11 population-based pregnancy or birth cohort studies, to evaluate the appropriateness of vital event data for mortality estimation. Analyses were descriptive, summarizing study designs, populations, protocols, and internal checks to assess their impact on data quality. We calculated infant and neonatal morality rates and compared patterns with Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. RESULTS: Studies yielded 71,760 pregnant women and 85,095 live births. Specific field protocols, especially pregnancy enrollment, limited exclusion criteria, and frequent follow-up visits after delivery, led to higher birth outcome ascertainment and fewer missing deaths. Most studies had low follow-up loss in pregnancy and the first month with little evidence of date heaping. Among studies in Asia and Latin America, neonatal mortality rates (NMR) were similar to DHS, while several studies in Sub-Saharan Africa had lower NMRs than DHS. Infant mortality varied by study and region between sources. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective, population-based cohort studies following rigorous protocols can yield high-quality vital event data to improve characterization of detailed mortality patterns of infants in low- and middle-income countries, especially in the early neonatal period where mortality risk is highest and changes rapidly.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Perinatal , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , América Latina/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África Subsaariana , Ásia/epidemiologia
17.
Percept Mot Skills ; 130(5): 2106-2122, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37291970

RESUMO

In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, perceived pain, and physical activity level among Brazilian practitioners of strength training (ST) and functional fitness (FF). Participants were 311 men and women who trained in 10 FF training centers and seven ST gyms. Each participant completed surveys of the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, their pain perception, and their physical activity level. A chi square test was used to analyze associations between groups and distributions of injuries. When any significant difference was observed, the difference score was analyzed through the adjusted residual values. Fisher's exact test was used to determined the associations between musculoskeletal injury prevalence and training modality (FF and ST) and between musculoskeletal injury prevalence and practice frequency (times/wk). To measure the magnitude of association between variables, the Phi coefficient was calculated for 2x2 associations and Cramer's V was used whenever the distributions were outside this standard. When the dependent variable presented a dichotomous characteristic, an Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated with a confidence interval of 95%. We found a higher musculoskeletal injury prevalence in the axial skeleton (n = 52; 83.88%) in FF practitioners and in the lower limbs of ST practitioners (n = 9; 52.96%). When the physical activity level cutoff point was set at 300 minutes per week, there was a significant relationship between physical activity and training modality (p = 0.005). There was also a significant association between pain perception and musculoskeletal injury (p < 0.001). Clinical follow-up was a protective factor to being injured (OR = 0.18; CI = 0.06-0.49), and, even after multivariate analysis this significant association was maintained (OR = 0.03; CI = 0.01 - 0.08). Thus, FF practitioners reported more musculoskeletal injuries than STs, and follow-up medical or physical therapy was a protective factor to these injuries. FF practitioners also had a higher level of weekly physical activity weekly than ST practitioners. Functional fitness practitioners may be at a higher risk of injuries than those who participate in traditional strength training.


Assuntos
Sistema Musculoesquelético , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Prevalência , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Percepção da Dor
18.
J Appl Psychol ; 108(10): 1573-1597, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37289533

RESUMO

Although cross-national work-family research has made great strides in recent decades, knowledge accumulation on the impact of culture on the work-family interface has been hampered by a limited geographical and cultural scope that has excluded countries where cultural expectations regarding work, family, and support may differ. We advance this literature by investigating work-family relationships in a broad range of cultures, including understudied regions of the world (i.e., Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia). We focus on humane orientation (HO), an overlooked cultural dimension that is however central to the study of social support and higher in those regions. We explore its moderating effect on relationships between work and family social support, work-family conflict, and work-family positive spillover. Building on the congruence and compensation perspectives of fit theory, we test alternative hypotheses on a sample of 10,307 participants from 30 countries/territories. We find HO has mostly a compensatory role in the relationships between workplace support and work-to-family conflict. Specifically, supervisor and coworker supports were most strongly and negatively related to conflict in cultures in which support is most needed (i.e., lower HO cultures). Regarding positive spillover, HO has mostly an amplifying role. Coworker (but not supervisor) support was most strongly and positively related to work-to-family positive spillover in higher HO cultures, where providing social support at work is consistent with the societal practice of providing support to one another. Likewise, instrumental (but not emotional) family support was most strongly and positively related to family-to-work positive spillover in higher HO cultures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Conflito Familiar , Humanos , Relações Familiares , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho
19.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0283235, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37289671

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study aimed to analyze the influence of chemotherapy on health biomarkers and examine the relationship between phase angle (PhA) and oxidative stress. METHODS: A prospective study was performed. Women who were starting chemotherapy were recruited. Also, this study included a control group of women without cancer. Bioelectrical impedance multiple-frequency (BIS) analysis, 24h food recall, and blood samples were collected at 2-time points: diagnosis (T0) and after one month of completion of therapy (T1) for the main study group and one-time point for the control group. T-tests or Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Test was used to compare variables. Linear regression analysis was conducted to test if PhA is related to the dependent variables after adjusting for age and body mass index. RESULTS: 119 women were included (61 with breast cancer and 58 healthy). There was no difference between the groups concerning anthropometrics, fat mass, and fat-free mass. Breast cancer patients had a worsening in PhA (p<0.001) after chemotherapy completion. PhA was positive statistically correlated with extracellular water, albumin, and the antioxidant markers at both times. The linear model showed that PhA was significantly predicted by C reactive protein, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Malondialdehyde (MDA), total body water/extracellular water, and body mass index fat mass. This model explained 58% of PhA variability (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that PhA is an easy and affordable tool that correlates oxidative stress markers in breast cancer patients, regardless of age or body mass index.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Composição Corporal , Estresse Oxidativo , Biomarcadores , Água , Impedância Elétrica
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 55: 208-211, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37202048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Phase angle (PhA) obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an indicator of cellular integrity and relates to several chronic conditions. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the association of PhA with health-related physical fitness, namely, cardiorespiratory fitness, skeletal muscle volume, and myosteatosis (i.e. muscle health) in older breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Twenty-two women ≥60 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and who completed chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer were included. BIA, cardiopulmonary exercise tests and magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed before and after eight weeks of time-restricted eating. RESULTS: At baseline, PhA was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (R2 = 0.54, p < 0.01) and skeletal muscle volume (R2 = 0.83, p < 0.01) and myosteatosis (R2 = 0.25, p = 0.02). Results were similar at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Findings from this pilot study suggest that higher values of PhA are associated with better health-related physical fitness among older breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...