Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 182
Filtrar
1.
Epigenetics ; 19(1): 2333668, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571307

RESUMO

Systemic low-grade inflammation is a feature of chronic disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a common biomarker of inflammation and used as an indicator of disease risk; however, the role of inflammation in disease is not completely understood. Methylation is an epigenetic modification in the DNA which plays a pivotal role in gene expression. In this study we evaluated differential DNA methylation patterns associated with blood CRP level to elucidate biological pathways and genetic regulatory mechanisms to improve the understanding of chronic inflammation. The racially and ethnically diverse participants in this study were included as 50% White, 41% Black or African American, 7% Hispanic or Latino/a, and 2% Native Hawaiian, Asian American, American Indian, or Alaska Native (total n = 13,433) individuals. We replicated 113 CpG sites from 87 unique loci, of which five were novel (CADM3, NALCN, NLRC5, ZNF792, and cg03282312), across a discovery set of 1,150 CpG sites associated with CRP level (p < 1.2E-7). The downstream pathways affected by DNA methylation included the identification of IFI16 and IRF7 CpG-gene transcript pairs which contributed to the innate immune response gene enrichment pathway along with NLRC5, NOD2, and AIM2. Gene enrichment analysis also identified the nuclear factor-kappaB transcription pathway. Using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) we inferred methylation at three CpG sites as causal for CRP levels using both White and Black or African American MR instrument variables. Overall, we identified novel CpG sites and gene transcripts that could be valuable in understanding the specific cellular processes and pathogenic mechanisms involved in inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Epigênese Genética , DNA , Inflamação/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ilhas de CpG , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética
2.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100717, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328276

RESUMO

Background: Temstem is a smartphone app developed with and for clinical voice hearing individuals with the aim to reduce their voice hearing distress and improve social functioning. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with adult outpatients suffering from distressing and frequent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) was conducted. Participants were randomized to unguided 'Temstem+AVH monitoring' or unguided 'AVH monitoring only' (control condition). Assessments were performed at baseline, post-intervention (week 5-6), and follow-up (week 9-10). Primary outcomes were voice hearing distress and social functioning, as measured with Experience Sampling Method (ESM), consisting of multiple daily questionnaires during six days. In addition, voices and mood were self-monitored with help of a daily reflective questionnaire. Analyses were linear regression models (intention-to-treat). Results: 44 Participants were allocated to Temstem and 45 to the control condition. No significant differences between the groups were found on both primary outcomes. Conclusion: Our results do not support the effectiveness of stand-alone use of Temstem versus symptom monitoring on voice hearing distress or social functioning in voice hearing individuals. In order to potentially improve effectiveness of an mHealth tool in a population of people with frequent and distressing voices, we recommend to involve persons with lived experience in all stages of development and research; to thoroughly test the (technological) usability before performing an RCT; to test whether guidance of a therapist is needed to optimize effectiveness; and to provide prompts to remind the user to actually use the tool.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 111(1): 133-149, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181730

RESUMO

Bulk-tissue molecular quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been the starting point for interpreting disease-associated variants, and context-specific QTLs show particular relevance for disease. Here, we present the results of mapping interaction QTLs (iQTLs) for cell type, age, and other phenotypic variables in multi-omic, longitudinal data from the blood of individuals of diverse ancestries. By modeling the interaction between genotype and estimated cell-type proportions, we demonstrate that cell-type iQTLs could be considered as proxies for cell-type-specific QTL effects, particularly for the most abundant cell type in the tissue. The interpretation of age iQTLs, however, warrants caution because the moderation effect of age on the genotype and molecular phenotype association could be mediated by changes in cell-type composition. Finally, we show that cell-type iQTLs contribute to cell-type-specific enrichment of diseases that, in combination with additional functional data, could guide future functional studies. Overall, this study highlights the use of iQTLs to gain insights into the context specificity of regulatory effects.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
4.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 81(3): 227-239, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38019495

RESUMO

Importance: Targeting low self-esteem in youth exposed to childhood adversity is a promising strategy for preventing adult mental disorders. Ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) allow for the delivery of youth-friendly, adaptive interventions for improving self-esteem, but robust trial-based evidence is pending. Objective: To examine the efficacy of SELFIE, a novel transdiagnostic, blended EMI for improving self-esteem plus care as usual (CAU) compared with CAU only. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a 2-arm, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial conducted from December 2018 to December 2022. The study took place at Dutch secondary mental health services and within the general population and included youth (aged 12-26 years) with low self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSES] <26) exposed to childhood adversity. Interventions: A novel blended EMI (3 face-to-face sessions, email contacts, app-based, adaptive EMI) plus CAU or CAU only. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was RSES self-esteem at postintervention and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included positive and negative self-esteem, schematic self-beliefs, momentary self-esteem and affect, general psychopathology, quality of life, observer-rated symptoms, and functioning. Results: A total of 174 participants (mean [SD] age, 20.7 [3.1] years; 154 female [89%]) were included in the intention-to-treat sample, who were primarily exposed to childhood emotional abuse or neglect, verbal or indirect bullying, and/or parental conflict. At postintervention, 153 participants (87.9%) and, at follow-up, 140 participants (80.5%), provided primary outcome data. RSES self-esteem was, on average, higher in the experimental condition (blended EMI + CAU) than in the control condition (CAU) across both postintervention and follow-up as a primary outcome (B = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.14-3.50; P < .001; Cohen d-type effect size [hereafter, Cohen d] = 0.54). Small to moderate effect sizes were observed suggestive of beneficial effects on positive (B = 3.85; 95% CI, 1.83-5.88; P < .001; Cohen d = 0.53) and negative (B = -3.78; 95% CI, -6.59 to -0.98; P = .008; Cohen d = -0.38) self-esteem, positive (B = 1.58; 95% CI, 0.41-2.75; P = .008; Cohen d = 0.38) and negative (B = -1.71; 95% CI, -2.93 to -0.48; P = .006; Cohen d = -0.39) schematic self-beliefs, momentary self-esteem (B = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.01-0.57; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.24), momentary positive affect (B = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-0.45; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.20), momentary negative affect (B = -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59 to -0.03, P = .01, Cohen d = -0.27), general psychopathology (B = -17.62; 95% CI, -33.03 to -2.21; P = .03; Cohen d = -0.34), and quality of life (B = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.18-2.13; P = .02; Cohen d = 0.33) across postintervention and follow-up. No beneficial effects on symptoms and functioning were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: A transdiagnostic, blended EMI demonstrated efficacy on the primary outcome of self-esteem and signaled beneficial effects on several secondary outcomes. Further work should focus on implementing this novel EMI in routine public mental health provision. Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register Identifier:NL7129(NTR7475).

5.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 18(3): 217-225, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37474338

RESUMO

AIM: Identifying multimorbid psychopathology is necessary to offer more adequate treatment and ultimately reduce the prevalence of persistent mental illnesses. Psychotic symptoms are increasingly seen as a transdiagnostic indicator of multimorbidity, severity and complexity of non-psychotic psychopathology. This study aims to investigate whether psychotic-like experiences and subclinical psychotic symptoms as measured by the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire are also associated with multimorbid psychopathology. METHODS: Participants were help-seeking individuals from outpatient mental healthcare settings and intensive home-treatment teams, aged 17-35. Assessment included the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire to measure psychotic-like experiences, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I, and three sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders to determine DSM-IV-TR classifications. The final sample comprised of 160 participants who scored above a cutoff of 6 items on the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (HIGH-score) and 60 participants who scored below cutoff (LOW-score). A Poisson Regression was executed to determine the association between the PQ-16 and DSM-IV-TR classifications. RESULTS: The HIGH-score group had a mean of 2.76 multimorbid disorders (range 0-7), while the LOW-score group had a mean of 1.45 disorders (range 0-3). Participants with four to seven disorders scored high on the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that psychotic-like experiences are associated with multimorbidity and severity of psychopathology. Screening for psychotic-like experiences via the PQ-16 in a help-seeking population may help prevent under-diagnosis and under-treatment of comorbid psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Multimorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sintomas Prodrômicos
6.
Psychol Psychother ; 97(1): 74-90, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic events, particularly childhood interpersonal victimisation, have been found to play a causal role in the occurrence of psychosis and shape the phenomenology of psychotic experiences. Higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related mental health problems are also found in people with psychosis diagnoses compared to the general population. It is, therefore, imperative that therapists are willing and able to address trauma and its consequences when supporting recovery from distressing psychosis. METHOD: This paper will support this need by providing a state-of-the-art overview of the safety, acceptability and effects of trauma therapies for psychosis. RESULTS: We will first introduce how seminal cognitive-behavioural models of psychosis shed light on the mechanisms by which trauma may give rise to psychotic experiences, including a putative role for trauma-related emotions, beliefs and episodic memories. The initial application of prolonged exposure and eye movement and desensitation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) for treating PTSD in psychosis will be described, followed by consideration of integrative approaches. These integrative approaches aim to address the impact of trauma on both post-traumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related psychosis. Integrative approaches include EMDR for psychosis (EMDRp) and trauma-focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (tf-CBTp). Finally, emerging dialogic approaches for targeting trauma-related voice-hearing will be considered, demonstrating the potential value of adopting co-produced (Talking with Voices) and digitally augmented (AVATAR) therapies. CONCLUSION: We will conclude by reflecting on current issues in the area, and implications for research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Criança , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Emoções
8.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0293200, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943819

RESUMO

One hypothesis flowing from the network theory of psychopathology is that symptom network structure is associated with psychopathology severity and in turn, one may expect that individual network structure changes with the level of psychopathology severity. However, this expectation has rarely been addressed directly. This study aims to examine (1) the stability of individual contemporaneous symptom networks over a one-year period and (2) whether network stability is associated with a change in psychopathology. We used daily diary data of n = 66 individuals, located along the psychosis severity continuum, from two separate 90-day periods, one year apart (t = 180). Based on the newly developed Individual Network Invariance Test (INIT) to assess symptom-network stability, participants were divided into two groups with stable and unstable networks and we tested whether these groups differed in their absolute change in psychopathology severity. The majority of the sample (n = 51, 77.3%) showed a stable network over time while most individuals showed a decrease in psychopathological severity. We found no significant association between a change in psychopathology severity and individual network stability. Our results call for further critical evaluation of the association between networks and psychopathology to optimize the implementation of clinical applications based on current methods.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos
9.
Schizophr Res ; 262: 67-75, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37925753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social functioning is often impaired during the ultra-high risk (UHR) phase for psychosis, but group-level studies regarding the role of social functioning in transition to psychosis are inconsistent. Exploring the inter-individual differences which underlie the association between social functioning and psychotic symptoms in this phase could yield new insights. OBJECTIVE: To examine the idiographic and dynamic association between social activation and suspiciousness in individuals at UHR for psychosis using time-series analysis. METHODS: Twenty individuals at UHR for psychosis completed a diary application every evening for 90 days. Two items on social activation (quantity: 'time spent alone' and quality: 'feeling supported') and two items on suspiciousness ('feeling suspicious' and 'feeling disliked') were used. Time series (T = 90) of each individual were analyzed using vector auto regression analysis (VAR), to estimate the lagged (over 1 day) effect of social activation on suspiciousness, and vice versa, as well as their contemporaneous associations. RESULTS: Heterogeneous person-specific associations between social activation and suspiciousness were found in terms of strength, direction and temporal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: The association between social activation and suspiciousness differs amongst individuals who are at UHR for psychosis. These findings underline the importance of tailoring psychosocial interventions to the individual. Future studies may examine whether using results of single-subject studies in clinical practice to personalize treatment goals leads to better treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2023 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37882058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma is prevalent amongst early psychosis patients and associated with adverse outcomes. Past trials of trauma-focused therapy have focused on chronic patients with psychosis/schizophrenia and comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We aimed to determine the feasibility of a large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for psychosis (EMDRp) intervention for early psychosis service users. METHODS: A single-blind RCT comparing 16 sessions of EMDRp + TAU v. TAU only was conducted. Participants completed baseline, 6-month and 12-month post-randomization assessments. EMDRp and trial assessments were delivered both in-person and remotely due to COVID-19 restrictions. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment and retention, therapy attendance/engagement, adherence to EMDRp treatment protocol, and the 'promise of efficacy' of EMDRp on relevant clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty participants (100% of the recruitment target) received TAU or EMDR + TAU. 83% completed at least one follow-up assessment, with 74% at 6-month and 70% at 12-month. 74% of EMDRp + TAU participants received at least eight therapy sessions and 97% rated therapy sessions demonstrated good treatment fidelity. At 6-month, there were signals of promise of efficacy of EMDRp + TAU v. TAU for total psychotic symptoms (PANSS), subjective recovery from psychosis, PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and general health status. Signals of efficacy at 12-month were less pronounced but remained robust for PTSD symptoms and general health status. CONCLUSIONS: The trial feasibility criteria were fully met, and EMDRp was associated with promising signals of efficacy on a range of valuable clinical outcomes. A larger-scale, multi-center trial of EMDRp is feasible and warranted.

11.
Cell Genom ; 3(10): 100401, 2023 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37868038

RESUMO

Each human genome has tens of thousands of rare genetic variants; however, identifying impactful rare variants remains a major challenge. We demonstrate how use of personal multi-omics can enable identification of impactful rare variants by using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, which included several hundred individuals, with whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomes, methylomes, and proteomes collected across two time points, 10 years apart. We evaluated each multi-omics phenotype's ability to separately and jointly inform functional rare variation. By combining expression and protein data, we observed rare stop variants 62 times and rare frameshift variants 216 times as frequently as controls, compared to 13-27 times as frequently for expression or protein effects alone. We extended a Bayesian hierarchical model, "Watershed," to prioritize specific rare variants underlying multi-omics signals across the regulatory cascade. With this approach, we identified rare variants that exhibited large effect sizes on multiple complex traits including height, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17680, 2023 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848499

RESUMO

Despite the prognostic value of arterial stiffness (AS) and pulsatile hemodynamics (PH) for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, epigenetic modifications that contribute to AS/PH remain unknown. To gain a better understanding of the link between epigenetics (DNA methylation) and AS/PH, we examined the relationship of eight measures of AS/PH with CpG sites and co-methylated regions using multi-ancestry participants from Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with sample sizes ranging from 438 to 874. Epigenome-wide association analysis identified one genome-wide significant CpG (cg20711926-CYP1B1) associated with aortic augmentation index (AIx). Follow-up analyses, including gene set enrichment analysis, expression quantitative trait methylation analysis, and functional enrichment analysis on differentially methylated positions and regions, further prioritized three CpGs and their annotated genes (cg23800023-ETS1, cg08426368-TGFB3, and cg17350632-HLA-DPB1) for AIx. Among these, ETS1 and TGFB3 have been previously prioritized as candidate genes. Furthermore, both ETS1 and HLA-DPB1 have significant tissue correlations between Whole Blood and Aorta in GTEx, which suggests ETS1 and HLA-DPB1 could be potential biomarkers in understanding pathophysiology of AS/PH. Overall, our findings support the possible role of epigenetic regulation via DNA methylation of specific genes associated with AIx as well as identifying potential targets for regulation of AS/PH.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Epigenoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metilação de DNA , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Aterosclerose/genética
13.
Trials ; 24(1): 644, 2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37798792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persecutory delusions are strong threat beliefs about others' negative intentions. They can have a major impact on patients' day-to-day life. The Feeling Safe Programme is a new translational cognitive-behaviour therapy that helps patients modify threat beliefs and relearn safety by targeting key psychological causal factors. A different intervention approach, with growing international interest, is peer counselling to facilitate personal recovery. Combining these two approaches is a potential avenue to maximize patient outcomes. This combination of two different treatments will be tested as the Feeling Safe-NL Programme, which aims to promote psychological wellbeing. We will test whether Feeling Safe-NL is more effective and more cost-effective in improving mental wellbeing and reducing persecutory delusions than the current guideline intervention of formulation-based CBT for psychosis (CBTp). METHODS: A single-blind parallel-group randomized controlled trial for 190 out-patients who experience persecutory delusions and low mental wellbeing. Patients will be randomized (1:1) to Feeling Safe-NL (Feeling Safe and peer counselling) or to formulation-based CBTp, both provided over a period of 6 months. Participants in both conditions are offered the possibility to self-monitor their recovery process. Blinded assessments will be conducted at 0, 6 (post-treatment), 12, and 18 months. The primary outcome is mental wellbeing. The overall effect over time (baseline to 18-month follow-up) and the effects at each timepoint will be determined. Secondary outcomes include the severity of the persecutory delusion, general paranoid ideation, patient-chosen therapy outcomes, and activity. Service use data and quality of life data will be collected for the health-economic evaluation. DISCUSSION: The Feeling Safe-NL Trial is the first to evaluate a treatment for people with persecutory delusions, while using mental wellbeing as the primary outcome. It will also provide the first evaluation of the combination of a peer counselling intervention and a CBT-based program for recovery from persecutory delusions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25766661 (retrospectively registered 7 July 2022).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Delusões/psicologia , Método Simples-Cego , Qualidade de Vida , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
EBioMedicine ; 95: 104758, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying novel epigenetic signatures associated with serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) may improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying asthma and IgE-mediated diseases. METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study using whole blood from Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 3,471, 46% females) participants and validated results using the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP; n = 674, 39% females) and the Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (CRA; n = 787, 41% females). Using the closest gene to each IgE-associated CpG, we highlighted biologically plausible pathways underlying IgE regulation and analyzed the transcription patterns linked to IgE-associated CpGs (expression quantitative trait methylation loci; eQTMs). Using prior UK Biobank summary data from genome-wide association studies of asthma and allergy, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) for causal inference testing using the IgE-associated CpGs from FHS with methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) as instrumental variables. FINDINGS: We identified 490 statistically significant differentially methylated CpGs associated with IgE in FHS, of which 193 (39.3%) replicated in CAMP and CRA (FDR < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment in pathways related to transcription factor binding, asthma, and other immunological processes. eQTM analysis identified 124 cis-eQTMs for 106 expressed genes (FDR < 0.05). MR in combination with drug-target analysis revealed CTSB and USP20 as putatively causal regulators of IgE levels (Bonferroni adjusted P < 7.94E-04) that can be explored as potential therapeutic targets. INTERPRETATION: By integrating eQTM and MR analyses in general and clinical asthma populations, our findings provide a deeper understanding of the multidimensional inter-relations of DNA methylation, gene expression, and IgE levels. FUNDING: US NIH/NHLBI grants: P01HL132825, K99HL159234. N01-HC-25195 and HHSN268201500001I.


Assuntos
Asma , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Epigenoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Asma/genética , Imunoglobulina E , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase
15.
Cell Genom ; 3(8): 100359, 2023 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37601969

RESUMO

Multi-omics datasets are becoming more common, necessitating better integration methods to realize their revolutionary potential. Here, we introduce multi-set correlation and factor analysis (MCFA), an unsupervised integration method tailored to the unique challenges of high-dimensional genomics data that enables fast inference of shared and private factors. We used MCFA to integrate methylation markers, protein expression, RNA expression, and metabolite levels in 614 diverse samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine/Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis multi-omics pilot. Samples cluster strongly by ancestry in the shared space, even in the absence of genetic information, while private spaces frequently capture dataset-specific technical variation. Finally, we integrated genetic data by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of our inferred factors, observing that several factors are enriched for GWAS hits and trans-expression quantitative trait loci. Two of these factors appear to be related to metabolic disease. Our study provides a foundation and framework for further integrative analysis of ever larger multi-modal genomic datasets.

16.
Res Sq ; 2023 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37502922

RESUMO

Despite the prognostic value of arterial stiffness (AS) and pulsatile hemodynamics (PH) for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, epigenetic modifications that contribute to AS/PH remain unknown. To gain a better understanding of the link between epigenetics (DNA methylation) and AS/PH, we examined the relationship of eight measures of AS/PH with CpG sites and co-methylated regions using multi-ancestry participants from Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with sample sizes ranging from 438 to 874. Epigenome-wide association analysis identified one genome-wide significant CpG (cg20711926-CYP1B1) associated with aortic augmentation index (AIx). Follow-up analyses, including gene set enrichment analysis, expression quantitative trait methylation analysis, and functional enrichment analysis on differentially methylated positions and regions, further prioritized three CpGs and their annotated genes (cg23800023-ETS1, cg08426368-TGFB3, and cg17350632-HLA-DPB1) for AIx. Among these, ETS1 and TGFB3 have been previously prioritized as candidate genes. Furthermore, both ETS1 and HLA-DPB1 have significant tissue correlations between Whole Blood and Aorta in GTEx, which suggests ETS1 and HLA-DPB1 could be potential biomarkers in understanding pathophysiology of AS/PH. Overall, our findings support the possible role of epigenetic regulation via DNA methylation of specific genes associated with AIx as well as identifying potential targets for regulation of AS/PH.

17.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 66, 2023 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37106434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive and reliable genome-wide variant analysis of a small number of cells has been challenging due to genome coverage bias, PCR over-cycling, and the requirement of expensive technologies. To comprehensively identify genome alterations in single colon crypts that reflect genome heterogeneity of stem cells, we developed a method to construct whole-genome sequencing libraries from single colon crypts without DNA extraction, whole-genome amplification, or increased PCR enrichment cycles. RESULTS: We present post-alignment statistics of 81 single-crypts (each contains four- to eight-fold less DNA than the requirement of conventional methods) and 16 bulk-tissue libraries to demonstrate the consistent success in obtaining reliable coverage, both in depth (≥ 30X) and breadth (≥ 92% of the genome covered at ≥ 10X depth), of the human genome. These single-crypt libraries are of comparable quality as libraries generated with the conventional method using high quality and quantities of purified DNA. Conceivably, our method can be applied to small biopsy samples from many tissues and can be combined with single cell targeted sequencing to comprehensively profile cancer genomes and their evolution. The broad potential application of this method offers expanded possibilities in cost-effectively examining genome heterogeneity in small numbers of cells at high resolution.


Assuntos
DNA , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
18.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 79: 101834, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, EMDR is not typically offered to people with PTSD who also meet the criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examines the feasibility and clinical benefits of EMDR for PTSD delivered in addition to the onset of treatment as usual (TAU) for BPD. METHODS: In a non-concurrent, multiple baseline design, 12 patients with BPD and PTSD received fifteen weekly 45-min sessions of TAU. During this period, eight weekly 90-min EMDR sessions were added. Outcome measures were obtained weekly for self-reported PTSD symptoms (PTSD checklist for DSM-5), levels of psychopathology (Brief Symptom Checklist), and the effect of psychopathology on different areas of life (Sheehan Disability Scale). RESULTS: 9 participants completed the treatment protocol. In the EMDR phase, PTSD severity scores decreased significantly between sessions, while no between-session drop in scores occurred during the TAU only phase. Similar results were obtained for general symptoms and disability. No adverse events were reported. LIMITATIONS: Results on the efficacy and safety of EMDR in patients with BPD and PTSD need to be replicated in larger samples and in RCTs before they can be generalized to the entire population. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that EMDR may be feasible and effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in patients concurrently receiving BPD treatment. EMDR appears to be a promising intervention for patients with BPD and comorbid PTSD.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/métodos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Trauma Stress ; 36(2): 299-309, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719408

RESUMO

Concern for symptom exacerbation and treatment drop-out is an important barrier to the implementation of trauma-focused therapy (TFT), especially in people with a psychotic disorder. This study, which was part of a multicenter randomized controlled trial, investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom exacerbation during eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and prolonged exposure (PE) in a sample of 99 participants with PTSD and psychosis. Symptom exacerbations during the first four sessions (early exacerbation) and between-session exacerbations over the course of therapy were monitored using the PTSD Symptom Scale-Self Report. Analyses of covariance and chi-square tests were conducted to investigate exacerbation rates and their associations with treatment response and drop-out. Both early exacerbation and between-session exacerbation were relatively common (32.3% and 46.5%, respectively) but were unrelated to poor treatment response or an increased likelihood of treatment drop-out. Both clinicians and patients need to be aware that symptom exacerbation during TFT is common and not related to poor outcomes. Symptom exacerbation can be part of the therapeutic process, should be acknowledged and guided, and should not be a barrier to the implementation of TFT in people with psychosis.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Psicoterapia
20.
Psychol Med ; 53(7): 2954-2962, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic mechanisms are theorised to contribute to voice-hearing in people with psychosis and a history of trauma. Phenomenological links between trauma and voices support this hypothesis, as they suggest post-traumatic processes contribute to the content of, and relationships with, voices. However, research has included small samples and lacked theory-based comprehensive assessments. METHOD: In people with distressing voices (n = 73) who experienced trauma prior to voice-hearing, trauma-voice links were assessed both independently and dependently (descriptions were presented and rated separately and together, respectively) by both participants and researchers. A structured coding frame assessed four types of independent links (i.e. victimisation type, physiological-behavioural, emotional, and cognitive response themes including negative self-beliefs) and three types of dependent links: relational (similar interaction with/response to, voice and trauma); content (voice and trauma content are exactly the same); and identity (voice identity is the same as perpetrator). RESULTS: Independent links were prevalent in participants (51-58%) and low to moderately present in researcher ratings (8-41%) for significant themes. Identification of negative self-beliefs in trauma was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of negative self-beliefs in voices [participants odds ratio (OR) 9.8; researchers OR 4.9]. Participants and researchers also reported many dependent links (80%, 66%, respectively), most frequently relational links (75%, 64%), followed by content (60%, 25%) and identity links (51%, 22%). CONCLUSION: Trauma appears to be a strong shaping force for voice content and its psychological impact. The most common trauma-voice links involved the experience of cognitive-affective psychological threat, embodied in relational experiences. Trauma-induced mechanisms may be important intervention targets.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Voz , Humanos , Alucinações/etiologia , Alucinações/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Emoções
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...