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1.
Med. clín. soc ; 8(1)abr. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550533

RESUMO

Introducción: Las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud primario conforman estructuras sociales que agravan la situación de salud de los adolescentes, impactando negativamente en el ejercicio pleno de la salud sexual reproductiva, situando a los adolescentes en una población de riesgo social. Objetivo: Determinar las barreras en el acceso a los servicios primarios de Salud Sexual y Reproductiva de atención diferenciada a los adolescentes del Centro de Salud I - 4 Pampa Grande Tumbes 2018. Metodología: Estudio analítico de caso control, se entrevistaron a 288 adolescentes del tercero, cuarto y quinto de secundaria de la institución educativa pública Túpac Amaru del centro poblado Pampa Grande de Tumbes en el año 2019, entre experimento y control con una razón de 1 a 1. Se aplicaron cuestionarios anónimos para evaluar las barreras de accesibilidad a los servicios primarios de salud. Se recogieron variables: características sociodemográficas y culturales que son consideradas, como barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo e inferencial con el programa SPSS® v.23. Resultados: La edad, sexo e ingreso económico están directa y significativamente relacionadas con la accesibilidad a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva (p<0.01 IC 95 %); La disposición de recursos económicos para asumir los costos de traslado al centro de salud (OR = 4,23); la utilización del transporte público (OR = 1,58), el conocimiento de los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva (OR = 1,15) incrementan la probabilidad de acceder a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva de los adolescentes. Discusión: Las barreras socioeconómicas a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva de los adolescentes son modificables y dependen de la gestión en salud pública.


Introduction: The barriers to access to primary health services make up social structures that aggravate the health situation of adolescents, negatively impacting the full exercise of reproductive sexual health, placing adolescents in a population at social risk. Objective: To determine the barriers in the access to the primary services of Sexual and Reproductive Health of differentiated attention to the adolescents of the Health Center I - 4 Pampa Grande Tumbes 2018. Methods: Analytical case control study, 288 adolescents from the third, fourth and fifth grade of secondary school of the public educational institution Túpac Amaru in the Pampa Grande de Tumbes town center were interviewed in 2019, between experiment and control with a ratio of 1 to 1. Anonymous questionnaires were applied to assess accessibility barriers to primary health services. Variables were collected: sociodemographic and cultural characteristics that are considered as barriers to access to health services. A descriptive and inferential analysis was carried out with the SPSS® v.23 program. Results: Age, sex and economic income are directly and significantly related to accessibility to sexual and reproductive health services (p<0.01 95% CI); The availability of economic resources to assume the costs of transportation to the health center (OR = 4.23); the use of public transport (OR = 1.58), knowledge of sexual and reproductive health services (OR = 1.15) increase the probability of accessing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents. Discussion: Socioeconomic barriers to sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents are modifiable and depend on public health management.

2.
J Neuropsychol ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628148

RESUMO

Behavioural disturbances are often observed, but (to our knowledge) not systematically assessed, in children who are in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, we aimed to develop a prototype scale that measures the full range of behavioural disturbances exhibited by school-aged children in PTA. Quantitative and qualitative feedback was collected via online surveys. First, experts (n = 7) evaluated the relevance and developmental appropriateness of 37 behavioural items, extracted from the scoping literature review. Second, clinicians (n = 20) evaluated the preliminary scale for its suitability (acceptability, feasibility and usability). Analyses included descriptive statistics and qualitative analyses. First, experts eliminated nine items, adjusted the wording of three retained items and categorised 18 of the remaining 28 items into one of eight categories. Ten items were not consistently categorised. All experts highlighted that the scale needed to be short and easy to administer. Hence, categorised items were bundled, arriving at an 18-item preliminary scale. Second, clinicians deemed the preliminary scale highly suitable, easy to implement and addressing a gap in current clinical practice. The layout of the scale and wording of three items was modified according to qualitative feedback, arriving at an 18-item prototype. To our knowledge, this is the first scale designed to assess the full range of behavioural disturbances in children in PTA. The scale has the potential to systematically assess behaviour and streamline documentation of behavioural recovery in this population, inform management and rehabilitation, track responses to interventions and facilitate discussion with affected families.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629470

RESUMO

Objective: To examine claims for reversible prescription contraceptives and chlamydia and gonorrhea testing among commercially and Medicaid-insured adolescent and young adult (AYA) females in the United States. Methods: Using IBM MarketScan Research Databases, we identified sexually active, nonpregnant AYA (15- to 24-year-old) females enrolled in 2018. We examined claims for reversible prescription contraceptives and chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, using drug names and diagnosis/procedure codes, by age-group in commercially and Medicaid-insured separately and by race/ethnicity in Medicaid-insured. Results: Among 15- to 19-year-old and 20- to 24-year-old females, 67.2% and 67.9% of commercially insured and 57.3% and 54.0% of Medicaid-insured, respectively, had claims for reversible prescription contraceptives in 2018. Across insurance types among both age-groups, the most common claim for contraceptives was prescription for combined oral contraceptives. Among Medicaid-insured 15- to 19-year-olds, claims for contraceptives ranged from 42.6% for Hispanic females to 63.4% for non-Hispanic White females; among Medicaid-insured 20- to 24-year-olds, claims ranged from 50.4% for non-Hispanic Black females to 57.0% for non-Hispanic White females. Approximately half of the commercially and Medicaid-insured females had claims for chlamydia and gonorrhea testing. Non-Hispanic Black females had the highest percentages of claims for chlamydia testing (56.3% among 15- to 19-year-olds and 61.1% among 20- to 24-year-olds) and gonorrhea testing (61.6% among 15- to 19-year-olds and 64.9% among 20- to 24-year-olds). Conclusion: Approximately, two-thirds of commercially insured and more than half of Medicaid-insured, sexually active, nonpregnant AYA females had claims for reversible prescription contraceptives. Race/ethnicity data were available for Medicaid-insured females, and there were differences in claims for contraceptives and chlamydia and gonorrhea testing by race/ethnicity. Half of the AYA females had claims for chlamydia and gonorrhea testing suggesting missed opportunities.

4.
J Child Health Care ; : 13674935241239837, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629615

RESUMO

Adolescents face issues regarding physical health, mental health, sexual health, drug and alcohol problems, stress, and peer pressure. Little is known about adolescents' help-seeking behaviours in relation to health concerns. The general practitioner (GP) is usually the first point of contact for adolescents. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, describe, and summarize evidence on barriers and enablers experienced by adolescents when accessing GP-led primary care services. Systematic searches using four electronic databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SocINDEX) were conducted and the quality of the included studies was appraised. Six studies were included in this review. Findings indicate that barriers to GP access relate to trust, confidentiality, privacy, and communication. Adolescents also reported barriers such as transport, cost, and lack of information. Adolescents reported enablers being services that are sensitive to their needs, healthcare professionals who understand them, and services that are flexible regarding out of hours access. Listening to and acting on the voice of adolescents is important to developing youth-friendly services.

5.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to clarify the incidence, severity, and clinical risk factors for white spot lesions (WSLs) in adolescent patients treated with clear aligners. METHODS: Pre-treatment and post-treatment intraoral photographs of 203 adolescent patients undergoing clear aligner therapy were retrospectively evaluated to assess the occurrence and severity of WSLs. Information on patients' general oral condition and orthodontic treatment was collected from clinical medical documents, retrospective questionnaires, and ClinCheck® software. Independent risk factors and model performance were determined by multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-five percent of adolescent patients developed WSLs during clear aligner treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of WSLs before treatment (OR 2.484, 95% CI 1.245-4.957), frequency of drinking carbonated beverages (OR 1.508, 95% CI 1.045-2.177), and number of anterior attachments (OR 2.192, 95% CI 1.502-3.198) were risk factors for the occurrence of WSLs in adolescent patients treated with clear aligners (P < .05), whereas the number of times they brushed each day (OR 0.656, 95% CI 0.454-0.947) and frequency of aligner cleaning after eating while wearing them (OR 0.611, 95% CI 0.433-0.861) were protective factors against WSLs (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of WSLs was high in adolescent patients treated with clear aligners. Few brushings each day, pre-treatment WSLs, a high frequency of drinking carbonated beverages, a low frequency of aligner cleaning after eating while wearing them, and a high number of anterior attachments are strongly associated with the development of WSLs in adolescent patients treated with clear aligners.

6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 73(2): 114-129, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569151

RESUMO

Development and Evaluation of an Information Brochure on Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders for Adolescents Low mental health literacy and fear of being stigmatized are two main barriers that detain adolescents fromseeking professional help. An information brochure about anxiety disorders for adolescents was developed. To make a first statement about the quality of the brochure, 19 experts, consisting of (child and adolescents) psychotherapists, psychiatrists, and psychologists, rated a first version of the brochure regarding content validity and age-appropriatness. To evaluate the efficacy in knowledge and the acceptance of the brochure, a revised version was evaluated by N = 174 adolscents (106 female-, 66 male- and two non-binary) between 14 and 17 years of age (M = 16.56 years.; SD = 0.57).The experts' approval of all content items totals a mean average of 95.2 % (range: 84.2-100 %). In the adolescent sample, the intervention increased knowledge about anxiety disorders (d = 1.04) and improved attitudes about coping strategies (d = 0.99). Results of the experts' rating showed that content validity of the brochure can be assumed.The revised brochure seems to be a useful and effective tool to inform adolescents about anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Folhetos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Escolaridade , Medo
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 145-152, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615176

RESUMO

Childhood household dysfunction (CHD) is a common adverse childhood experience, which brings the heavy physical and mental afflictions to children and adolescents. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy that helps children and adolescents who have experienced childhood trauma with traumatic memories. It aims to enhance the coping abilities of CHD children and adolescents, thereby improving the negative effects caused by trauma and effectively reducing psychological burden. TF-CBT can effectively improve post-traumatic stress disorder, emotional and behavioral problems, and family function in children and adolescents with CHD. It is recommended to conduct high-quality original research in the future, develop targeted TF-CBT intervention plans based on potential predictive factors, adopt a combination of online and offline methods, and construct TF-CBT interventions suitable for the Chinese CHD population to meet the mental health service needs of CHD children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , 60670 , Emoções , Exame Físico , População do Leste Asiático
8.
J Res Adolesc ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624104

RESUMO

Despite purpose measures being developed for adolescents, quantitative research investigating purposes prior to late adolescence and in non-Western societies remains nascent. This study evaluated the psychometric soundness of the Claremont Purpose Scale among Chinese adolescents. An initial prestudy (n = 34) was conducted to ensure linguistic equivalence. Subsequently, Study 1 (n = 1691) assessed the scale's reliability and factor structure, also investigating its functional equivalence across gender, adolescence stages, and language versions at the item level. Study 2 (n = 7842) investigated the scale's construct, convergent, predictive, and incremental validity, as well as tested for the scale's measurement invariance across different groups at the scale level. The results support the scale's use as a tool for researchers and practitioners to understand and cultivate purpose in adolescents.

9.
Res Nurs Health ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624254

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess family-related predictors of self-management trajectories in youth with spina bifida (SB). Participants with SB completed the Adolescent/Young Adult Self-Management and Independence Scale (AMIS II) interview across four time points. Family functioning, family-related stress, and perceived family support were assessed by multiple reporters and multiple methods. Growth in AMIS II total self-management and the AMIS II subscales (Condition and Independent Living) were estimated using linear mixed effect models as a function of family factors, after controlling for socio-demographic, condition-related, and neuropsychological variables that had been found to be significant predictors of self-management in prior studies. Model fit and parsimony were assessed using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). This diverse community sample included 99 respondents aged 18-27 years old. About half were female (52.5%) and White (52.5%); 15.2% were Black, and 32.3% were Hispanic/Latino. Observed family cohesion at baseline was associated with all self-management scales at age 18 (all p < 0.05). Growth in self-management was associated with parent-reported number of family stress events. For growth in total self-management, the best model included age, race/ethnicity, family income, shunt status, lesion level, neuropsychological function, observed family cohesion, and an age-by-number of family stress events interaction effect. The study findings suggested that family factors were important predictors of self-management trajectories, even after controlling for socio-demographic, condition-related, and neuropsychological covariates. Risk and protective factors identified in families of youth with SB can inform family-focused interventions for self-management.

10.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625388

RESUMO

Sleeping problems are prevalent among children and adolescents, often leading to frequent consultations with pediatricians. While cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown effectiveness, especially in the short term, there is a lack of globally endorsed guidelines for the use of pharmaceuticals or over-the-counter remedies in managing sleep onset insomnia. An expert panel of pediatric sleep specialists and chronobiologists met in October 2023 to develop practical recommendations for pediatricians on the management of sleep onset insomnia in typically developing children. When sleep onset insomnia is present in otherwise healthy children, the management should follow a stepwise approach. Practical sleep hygiene indications and adaptive bedtime routine, followed by behavioral therapies, must be the first step. When these measures are not effective, low-dose melatonin, administered 30-60 min before bedtime, might be helpful in children over 2 years old. Melatonin use should be monitored by pediatricians to evaluate the efficacy as well as the presence of adverse effects.    Conclusion: Low-dose melatonin is a useful strategy for managing sleep onset insomnia in healthy children who have not improved or have responded insufficiently to sleep hygiene and behavioral interventions.

11.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 213, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a pivotal stage vulnerable to mental health issues like anxiety and depression. While family relationships, mental toughness, and personality traits are known to impact adolescent mental health, their interactive and moderating roles are not fully understood. AIM: This study aims to investigate the mediating role of mental toughness in the relationship between family relationships and depression among high school students, and to examine the varying impacts of personality traits on this mediation. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 734 adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing family relationships, mental toughness, personality traits, and mental health outcomes (depression). Latent Profile Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling, to investigate these relationships. RESULTS: The study found that mental toughness significantly mediates the relationship between family relationships and depression. Notably, this mediating effect varied between personality type; it was more pronounced in the moderate-reserved type compared to the proactive-engaged type. LPA identified two distinct personality types of students based on their personality traits, with differential patterns of family relationships, mental toughness, and depression. Multiple regression analysis indicated that character and adaptability, components of mental toughness, were significant negative predictors of depression. CONCLUSION: The study contributes to understanding the dynamics of adolescent mental health, particularly in the context of Chinese high school students. It underscores the importance of considering family dynamics, personality traits, and mental toughness in developing effective mental health interventions for adolescents.

12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1362718, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633229

RESUMO

Background: The 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (24-HMG) recommend a balanced combination of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and sleep (SLP) for optimal health. However, there is limited understanding of how well U.S. adolescents adhere to these guidelines. This study aims to analyze the prevalence trends of meeting the 24-HMG among a nationally representative sample of U.S. general adolescents. Methods: The study included 2,273 adolescents (55.3% boys) aged 16-19 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2007 to 2016. The researchers categorized the adolescents based on whether they met various PA, SB, and SLP recommendations, as well as different combinations of these recommendations, separately for boys and girls. The prevalence rate, weighted by survey data, was calculated along with a 95% confidence interval (CI) to assess the changes in meeting the 24-HMG among U.S. adolescents across different survey years and sociodemographic subgroups. Results: In the 2015-2016 cycle, approximately 6.3% of adolescents did not meet any of the three recommendations, while only 19.2% of adolescents achieved all three guidelines. Compliance with PA and SB recommendations among adolescents has decreased over time, from 72.5% (65.9% to 79.2%) to 64.2% (57.4% to 70.9%) for PA, and from 59.0% (49.6% to 68.4%) to 46.6% (37.8% to 55.5%) for SB, respectively, from 2007-2008 cycle to 2015-2016 cycle. Boys exhibited more favorable patterns in meeting different sets of recommendations compared to girls (p-value <0.001). This includes meeting both PA and SB guidelines (15.5% for boys and 11.1% for girls) and meeting both PA and SLP guidelines (19.5% for boys and 15.7% for girls). The level of parental education was found to have effect on meeting all three guidelines (Ptrend < 0.05). Conclusion: We analyzed ten consecutive years of representative NHANES data to evaluate the prevalence meeting 24-HMG and found that the proportion of adolescents aged 16-19 in the U.S. who adhered to all three movement guidelines simultaneously has consistently remained low throughout each survey cycle. Notably, there has been a significant decline in the proportion of adolescents meeting the SB guideline.

13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1332095, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633232

RESUMO

Introduction: Adolescent suicide is a prevalent issue globally, with various factors contributing to this phenomenon. This study aimed to investigate these factors and their interrelationships to better understand the causes of adolescent suicide and provide evidence for its prevention. Methods: This study conducted among middle school students in Liaoning Province, China, from April to May 2016, A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1,028 students aged 10-19, using instruments such as the Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC), and revised version of Inventory of Parent Attachment (IPPA-R). Result: Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescents aged 15-19, adolescents with strong perceptions of parental conflict were at high risk of suicide intention. Adolescents living in rural areas, adolescents with high mother-child attachment, adolescents with high father-child attachment were at low risk of suicide intention. Furthermore, parent-child attachment played a mediating role between two dimensions of parental conflict perception (resolved situations and response effect) and suicide intention. Discussion: The study concludes that adolescents living in urban areas, older adolescents, adolescents with a high level of parental conflict intensity, and those with low levels of parent-child attachment are at high risk of suicide intention. parent-child attachment played a mediating role between two dimensions of parental conflict perception (resolved situations and response effect) and suicide intention. Interventions aimed at reducing family conflicts and improving parent-child relationships are recommended to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide.

14.
J Clin Med ; 13(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610619

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is invariably accompanied by autonomic dysfunction, although data in pediatric populations are conflicting. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 studies (totaling 1102 participants) comparing obese and normal-weight subjects (5-18 years of age), defined as body mass index >95th or <85th percentile, respectively. Using a random-effects model, we report the standardized mean differences (SMD) of sympathetic and vagal indices of heart rate variability. Results: Autonomic dysfunction was present in the obesity group, based on the average SMD in the standard deviation of sinus intervals (at -0.5340), and on the ratio of low (LF)- to high (HF)-frequency spectra (at 0.5735). There was no difference in sympathetic activity, but the heterogeneity among the relevant studies weakens this result. SMD in HF (at 0.5876), in the root mean square of successive differences between intervals (at -0.6333), and in the number of times successive intervals exceeded 50 ms divided by the total number of intervals (at -0.5867) indicated lower vagal activity in the obesity group. Conclusions: Autonomic dysfunction is present in obese children and adolescents, attributed to lower vagal activity. Further studies are needed in various pediatric cohorts, placing emphasis on sympathetic activity.

15.
J Clin Med ; 13(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610812

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, the prognosis in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has significantly improved. The standard intensive cytotoxic treatment approach for AYAs with AML, consisting of induction chemotherapy with anthracycline/cytarabine combination followed by consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, has lately been shifting toward novel targeted therapies, mostly in the fields of clinical trials. One of the most recent advances in treating AML is the combination of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) inhibitor venetoclax with hypomethylating agents, which has been studied in elderly populations and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients over 75 years of age or patients excluded from intensive chemotherapy induction schemas due to comorbidities. Regarding the AYA population, venetoclax combination therapy could be a therapeutic option for patients with refractory/relapsed (R/R) AML, although data from real-world studies are currently limited. Venetoclax is frequently used by AYAs diagnosed with advanced hematologic malignancies, mainly acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, as a salvage therapeutic option with considerable efficacy and safety. Herein, we aim to summarize the evidence obtained from clinical trials and observational studies on venetoclax use in AYAs with AML. Based on the available evidence, venetoclax is a safe and effective therapeutic option for R/R AML AYA patients. However, further research in larger cohorts is needed to confirm these data, establishing the benefits of a venetoclax-based regimen for this special population.

16.
J Clin Med ; 13(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610833

RESUMO

Background: The current study aims to assess the psychological conditions of Italian adolescents with obesity seeking an in-hospital multidisciplinary body weight reduction program, by exploring their psychological adjustment, emotional states, and co-occurring eating disorder symptoms. Methods: The study involved ninety-two consecutive Italian adolescents with obesity (31 males, 61 females), with a mean age ± SD: 16.4 ± 1.1 years and body mass index (BMI): 38.3 ± 6.04 kg/m2). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were used for the evaluations. Differences between genders, degrees of obesity (Group 1 = BMI SDS 2-2.99 and Group 2: BMI SDS > 3), and those with or without eating disorder symptoms (Group 1: EAT-26 ≤ 20 and Group 2: EAT-26 > 20) were explored. Results: The results showed that females reported higher scores on the Emotional Symptoms, Prosocial Behaviors, Total Difficulties, and Total Impact subscales of the SDQ, the BDI, both subscales of the STAI, and the Bulimia subscales of the EAT-26 than males, independently from the degrees of obesity. Participants with eating disorder symptoms (Group 2: EAT-26 > 20) showed higher scores on the Emotional Symptoms and Total Difficulties subscales of the SDQ, the BDI, and both subscales of the STAI than those of Group 1 (EAT-26 ≤ 20). Conclusions: The study explores the psychological conditions of adolescents with obesity. The results can inform appropriate treatment approaches for the management of obesity in developmental age groups, which not only take into account the medical and physical aspects of obesity, but also the behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties expressed by adolescents, in addition to specific eating disorder symptoms.

17.
J Clin Med ; 13(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610885

RESUMO

Background: Childhood obesity is a globally increasing pathological condition leading to long-term health issues such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the clinical value of the Complete Blood Count-derived inflammation indexes Monocyte/HDL-C ratio (MHR), Lymphocyte/HDL-C ratio (LHR), Neutrophil/HDL-C ratio (NHR), and System Inflammation Response Index (SIRI) to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome and its association with cardiovascular risk markers (HOMA-IR, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C) in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods: The study included a total of 552 children/adolescents with severe obesity (BMI: 36.4 [32.7-40.7] kg/m2; 219 males, 333 females; age: 14.8 [12.9-16.3] years), who were further subdivided based on the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS+ and MetS respectively). Results: The MHR, LHR, and NHR indexes (p < 0.0001), but not SIRI (p = 0.524), were significantly higher in the MetS+ compared to the MetS- subgroup, showing a positive correlation with the degree of MetS severity (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, MHR, LHR, and NHR were positively associated with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers (HOMA-IR: MHR p = 0.000, LHR p = 0.001, NHR p < 0.0001; TG/HDL-C: MHR, LHR, NHR p < 0.000; non-HDL-C: MHR, LHR p < 0.0001, NHR p = 0.000). Finally, the ROC curve analysis demonstrated that among the analyzed indexes, only MHR, LHR, and NHR had diagnostic value in distinguishing MetS patients among children and adolescents with obesity (MHR: AUC = 0.7045; LHR: AUC = 0.7205; NHR: AUC = 0.6934; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In conclusion, the MHR, LHR, and NHR indexes, but not the SIRI index, can be considered useful tools for pediatricians to assess the risk of MetS and cardiometabolic diseases in children and adolescents with obesity and to develop multidisciplinary intervention strategies to counteract the widespread disease.

18.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080612, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This modelling study aimed to estimate the burden for allergic diseases in children during a period of 30 years. DESIGN: Population-based observational study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The data on the incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for childhood allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma, were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019 online database. This data set spans various groups, including different regions, ages, genders and Socio-Demographic Indices (SDI), covering the period from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, there were approximately 81 million children with asthma and 5.6 million children with AD worldwide. The global incidence of asthma in children was 20 million. Age-standardised incidence rates showed a decrease of 4.17% for asthma, from 1075.14 (95% uncertainty intervals (UI), 724.63 to 1504.93) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 1030.33 (95% UI, 683.66 to 1449.53) in 2019. Similarly, the rates for AD decreased by 5.46%, from 594.05 (95% UI, 547.98 to 642.88) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 561.61 (95% UI, 519.03 to 608.29) in 2019. The incidence of both asthma and AD was highest in children under 5 years of age, gradually decreasing with age. Interestingly, an increase in SDI was associated with a rise in the incidence of both conditions. However, the mortality rate and DALYs for asthma showed a contrasting trend. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past three decades, there has been a worldwide increase in new asthma and AD cases, even though mortality rates have significantly declined. However, the prevalence of these allergic diseases among children varies considerably across regions, countries and age groups. This variation highlights the need for precise prevalence assessments. These assessments are vital in formulating effective strategies for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Asma , Dermatite Atópica , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Carga Global da Doença , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Prevalência , Incidência , Asma/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Fatores de Risco
19.
Autism Res ; 17(4): 728-738, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590022

RESUMO

A core feature of autism is deficits in executive functioning (EF), including difficulty with planning, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Despite a growing need for evidence-based assessments of EF for autism populations, statistical models of many commonly used measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), have not been investigated for a sample of autistic participants. The purpose of this study was to address a gap in the literature regarding the latent structure of the D-KEFS in a sample of autistic individuals. The D-KEFS is one of the most widely used clinical assessments of executive function, but its factor structure has not been examined in a sample of autistic participants. Reliability analyses were performed for sample subgroups based on participants' clinical and demographic characteristics, including IQ, autism severity, age, and race/ethnicity. Verbal Fluency (VF) was found to consistently decrease or not affect the overall reliability score. Additionally, one- and two-factor structure models were tested for the D-KEFS with a sample of autistic participants. The one-factor model was not found to be a good fit for the data. However, the two-factor model, with Cognitive Flexibility and Abstraction latent factors, was found to fit the data relatively well. This two-factor model was reexamined excluding the VF observed variable, resulting in a better overall model fit. Communication deficits are a common feature of autism, which explains why the VF task, that requires participants to produce novel words, may not be an adequate measure of executive function for autism populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Função Executiva
20.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 17: 1477-1485, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606089

RESUMO

Objective: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior is very common in adolescents with depression, and childhood trauma is considered one of the distal risk factors for its exacerbation. Rumination caused by adverse traumatic experiences, which can be transferred through NSSI behavior, can alleviate symptoms of depression in adolescents. The current research focuses on the relationship between the three, further exploring whether rumination is a mediator in the relationship between childhood trauma and NSSI behavior on the basis of previous studies, and provides some suggestions for future early intervention for adolescents with depression. Methods: A total of 833 adolescent patients with depression who met the DSM-5 criteria for depressive episode were recruited from 12 hospitals in China. The Chinese version of the Function Assessment of Self-mutilation, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and Rumination Inventory were used as research tools. Results: The scores of childhood trauma and rumination in adolescents with depression in the NSSI group were higher than those in the non-NSSI group. A Pearson's correlation analysis showed that childhood trauma was positively correlated with rumination (r=0.165, P<0.01), different types of childhood trauma were significantly positively correlated with rumination and its three factors, and these results were statistically significant. Rumination partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and NSSI behavior in depressed adolescent patients (effect size=0.002), and the effect in female participants (effect size=0.003), was greater than that in male participants (effect size=0.002). Conclusion: Childhood trauma and rumination were key factors for NSSI behavior in adolescents with depression. Childhood trauma not only has a direct effect on NSSI behavior in adolescent depression, but also plays an indirect effect on NSSI behavior through rumination.

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