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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256949, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360214

RESUMO

Abstract Among Bemisia tabaci species, the invasive MEAM1 and MED species are key agricultural pests for many crops. In Brazil, most part of B. tabaci population outbreaks were associated with MEAM1, which, since 1990s quickly spread across the entire country. Later in 2014, the MED was identified in Brazil, initially more restricted to greenhouses, but suddenly reaching new areas in the South and Southeast open regions. Thus, our objective was to investigate the geographical distribution of MEAM1 and MED on open field crops in Brazil. MEAM1 is still the predominant species on open field crops such as soybean, cotton, and tomato. The sequencing of a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene fragment revealed a single haplotype of MEAM1, suggesting the establishment of a single MEAM1 strain in the country. The haplotypes found for MEAM1 and MED are genetically related to the globally dispersed strains, Jap1 and Mch1, respectively. Continuous monitoring of B. tabaci species is crucial because landscape alterations, climatic changes, and pest management methods may shift the B. tabaci species distribution and dominance in Brazilian crop areas.


Resumo Dentre as espécies de Bemisia tabaci, as espécies invasoras MEAM1 e MED se destacam como pragas de grande importância para várias culturas. No Brasil, a maior parte dos surtos populacionais de mosca-branca são associados a presença da espécie MEAM1, que a partir 1990 se espalhou por todo o país. Por outro lado, em 2014 a espécie MED foi identificada no Brasil, inicialmente restrita a casas de vegetação, mas rapidamente se difundindo em novas áreas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Assim, nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição geográfica das espécies MEAM1 e MED em grandes culturas no Brasil. A espécie MEAM1 continua sendo predominante nas monoculturas como algodão, soja e tomate. O sequenciamento de um fragmento do gene citocromo c oxidase subunidade I (COI) revelou a presença de um haplótipo para MEAM1, sugerindo o estabelecimento de apenas uma linhagem no país. Os haplótipos encontrados para MEAM1 e MED são geneticamente relacionados as linhagens globalmente dispersas Jap1 e Mch1, respectivamente. O monitoramento contínuo das espécies de B. tabaci é crucial pois as mudanças na paisagem, mudanças climáticas e métodos de manejo das pragas podem alterar a dominância e a distribuição dessas espécies nas áreas agrícolas do Brasil.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253215, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360216

RESUMO

Abstract Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem can be worse or the solution better if greater frequencies and magnitudes are presented with aggregated distribution in the production system. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision-making on certain issues. The system formed by Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), a typical and economically important Brazilian Cerrado tree species, and its several arthropods are adequate to evaluate a new index. This study aimed to test an index to identify the loss and solution sources and their importance in the system's loss or income gain. The index is: Percentage of Importance Indice % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. T h e % I . I . separated the loss sources [e.g., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on fruits = 41.90%)] on the percentage of reduction of fruit production (e.g., 0.13%), calculated the attention level (e.g., 0.10/fruit), with a total lost production of 1.35% (≈ 307 total lost fruits). The % I.I. also separated the solution sources [e.g., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55.48%), the non-attention level (e.g., Z. armillatus: 0.394 for E. rufomarginata on fruit), with total income gain of 0.56% (≈ 128 total saved fruits) on the natural system (e.g., C. brasiliense trees). This index can calculate losses or the effectiveness of the solutions monetarily. Here I test the % I.I., an index that can detect the key loss and solution sources on the system, which can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Frequências, magnitudes e distribuição de ocorrência pode afetar os eventos. O problema pode ser pior ou a solução melhor se maiores frequências e magnitudes forem apresentadas com distribuição agregada no sistema de produção. Índices, então, são usados para assistir na decisão de certas questões. O sistema formado pelo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), uma espécie arbórea típica e economicamente importante do Cerrado brasileiro, e seus diversos artrópodes são adequados para avaliar um novo índice. A motivação deste trabalho foi testar um índice capaz de identificar as fontes de perda e de soluções, e suas importâncias em termos de perdas ou ganhos no sistema. O índice é: percentagem de importância % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. O % I . I . separou as fontes de perda [ex., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em frutos = 41,90%)] na percentagem de redução na produção de frutos (ex., 0,13%), calculando o nível de atenção (ex., 0,10/fruto), com um total de perda de produção de 1,35% (≈ 307 frutos totais perdidos). O % I.I. também separou as fontes de solução [ex., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55,48%)], o nível de não atenção (ex., Z. armillatus: 0,394 para E. rufomarginata em fruto), com total de ganho de 0,56% (≈ 128 total de frutos salvos) no sistema natural (ex., árvores de C. brasiliense). Esse índice pode calcular essas perdas ou a eficácia das soluções monetariamente. Aqui eu testo o % I.I., um índice capaz de detectar fatores chaves de perda e de soluções no sistema, capaz de ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248975, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339377

RESUMO

Abstract Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important fungal genera, which affects a wide range of hosts, specifically tropical and subtropical crops. Thus far, there have been several records of mycovirus infection in Colletotrichum spp., primarily by viruses of the Partitiviridae family. There have also been records of infections by mycoviruses of the Chrysoviridae family. Mycoviruses are (+)ssRNA and dsRNA genome viruses, which may or may not be enveloped. To date, no mycovirus with a DNA genome has been isolated from Colletotrichum spp. Typically, mycoviruses cause latent infections, although hypo- and hypervirulence have also been reported in Colletotrichum spp. In addition to its effects on pathogenic behavior, mycovirus infection can lead to important physiological changes, such as altered morphological characteristics, reduced vegetative growth, and suppressed conidia production. Therefore, research on mycoviruses infecting phytopathogenic fungi can help develop alternative methods to chemical control, which can cause irreversible damage to humans and the environment. From an agricultural perspective, mycoviruses can contribute to sustainable agriculture as biological control agents via changes in fungal physiology, ultimately resulting in the total loss of or reduction in the virulence of these pathogens.


Resumo Colletotrichum é um dos gêneros fúngicos mais importantes economicamente, afetando uma ampla gama de hospedeiros, especialmente em cultivos tropicais e subtropicais. Atualmente já existem diversos registros de infecção por micovírus em Colletotrichum spp., sendo a maioria dos já identificados classificados na família Partitiviridae. Ocorrem registros também de micovírus pertencentes à família Chrysoviridae. Compreendem vírus de genoma de (+)ssRNA e dsRNA que podem ser ou não envelopados. Ainda não foram identificados micovírus com genoma de DNA isolados de Colletotrichum. A infecção por micovírus pode ocorrer de forma latente, mas já foi observado em Colletotrichum spp. o fenômeno de hipo e hipervirulência. Além de influenciar no comportamento patogênico, a infecção pode causar mudanças fisiológicas importantes como alterações das características morfológicas, redução do crescimento vegetativo e redução na produção de conídios. O estudo com micovírus em fungos fitopatogênicos traz uma alternativa ao controle químico que é um método capaz de causar danos irreversíveis ao homem e o meio ambiente. Sob a perspectiva agrícola, os micovírus podem contribuir para agricultura sustentável como agentes de controle biológico. Isso porque obsevam-se mudanças importantes na fisiologia fúngica resultando na perda total ou redução da virulência desses patógenos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus de RNA , Colletotrichum , Micovírus/genética , Filogenia , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156604, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691347

RESUMO

The Italian rice agroecosystem plays a key role in the European production and provides a unique range of rice varieties. As productive man-made wetlands, rice paddies are strategic and economic components in the habitat provision for migratory wildlife at the European scale. However, the characteristic of being a "temporary wetland" causes the creation of an ecological trap for a number of living organisms. For this reason, agricultural practices adopted for the management of rice paddies are essential to move towards more sustainable cultivations capable of promoting biodiversity and to minimising negative environmental impacts. This study proposes an ecologically-oriented strategy to implement a circular and self-regulating farming system designed considering the role of constructed wetlands in providing ecosystem services in rice agroecosystems. It demonstrates the economic feasibility and benefits provided by a self-regulating biosystem based on an integrated wetland for a small-size rice farm of the Vercelli province (Piedmont Region, Italy). The study was conducted in collaboration with the rice farm, which already experiments with organic farming techniques. The investigation focuses on the current management structure of the farm and develops an ecologically-oriented business strategy to sustain local biodiversity. This strategy rediscovers and improves the traditional co-culture technique through the development of a permanent pond. It explores the potential benefits generated by the approach, in terms of biodiversity conservation, biological control of pests and weeds and habitat provision for wildlife. The study presents a real case study of economic sustainability of the business strategy through financial analysis. The findings highlight promising economic outcomes compared to the conventional rice cultivation systems. The diversification of marketing strategy and the reduction of operating costs are key factors in the success of the strategy. The ecologically-oriented design methodology presented in this article can easily be applied to other small-scale farms in the agrifood sector.

6.
Environ Res ; : 113726, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750125

RESUMO

In view of the environmental issues caused by antibiotics, this research studies competitive adsorption/desorption for tetracycline (TC) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) in agricultural soils. Competitive adsorption was studied in binary systems (adding equal concentrations of both antibiotics). In addition, it was compared with results from simple systems. In all cases, batch-type adsorption/desorption experiments were carried out. In the binary systems, for the highest antibiotic concentration added, adsorption percentages were always higher for TC (close to 100%) than for SDZ (10-90%). In these systems, TC desorption was lower than 5% for all soils, and generally <10% for SDZ. Comparing TC and SDZ adsorption for the different systems, SDZ was clearly affected by the presence of TC, with SDZ adsorption percentages being was much higher (with differences generally above 65%) in the binary than in the simple systems. On the contrary, comparing the results of TC adsorption in simple and binary systems, TC was not affected by the presence of SDZ, obtaining similar adsorption percentages in both systems. Kd and KF values (in the Linear and Freundlich models), were higher in the simple systems in the case of TC, which could be due to competition with SDZ, while for SDZ Kd and KF were higher in the binary systems, with a synergistic effect of TC favoring SDZ adsorption. Regarding desorption, it reached 100% for SDZ in some soils in simple systems, dropping to 10% in the presence of TC. TC desorption was <4%, not affected by SDZ. The results indicate that environmental risks would be higher for SDZ, showing differences when both antibiotics are present. This can be considered relevant as regards public health and environmental preservation, in view of direct toxicities and the promotion of resistance to antibiotics associated with the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115365, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642822

RESUMO

Integrated pest management (IPM) practices proved to be efficient in reducing pesticide use and ensuring economic farming sustainability. Digital decision support systems (DSS) to support the adoption of IPM practices from plant protection services are required by European legislation. Available DSSs used by Italian plant protection services are heterogeneous with regards to disease forecasting models, datasets for their calibration, and level of integration in operational decision-making. This study presents the MISFITS-DSS, which has been jointly developed by a public research institution and nine regional plant protection services with the objective of harmonizing data collection and decision support for Italian farmers. Participatory approach allowed designing a predictive workflow relying on specific domain expertise, in order to explicitly match actual user needs. The DSS calibration entailed the risk of grapevine downy mildew infection (5-point scale from very low to very high), and phenological observations in 2012-2017 as reference data. Process-based models of primary and secondary infections have been implemented and tested via sensitivity analysis (Morris method) under contrasting weather conditions. Hindcast simulations of grapevine phenology, host susceptibility and disease pressure were post-processed by machine-learning classifiers to predict the reference infection risk. Results indicate that IPM principles are implemented by plant protection services since years. The accurate reproduction of grapevine phenology (RMSE = 4-14 days), which drove the dynamic of host susceptibility, and the use of weather forecasts as model inputs contributed to reliably predict the reference infection risk (88% balanced accuracy). We did a pioneering effort to homogenize the methodology to deliver decision support to Italian farmers, by involving plant protection services in the DSS definition, to foster a further adoption of IPM practices.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas , Doenças das Plantas , Agricultura/métodos , Fazendas , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115334, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662046

RESUMO

Nutrient pollution from farm fertilizers and manure is a global concern. Excess nitrogen and phosphorous has been linked to algal blooms and a host of other water quality issues. In the U.S., most animal production occurs in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) housing a significant number of animals in a confined space. CAFOs tend to cluster in space and thus generate large quantities of manures within a small area. Liquid manure from CAFOs is often stored in open-air lagoons and then applied via irrigation to crops on nearby 'sprayfields'. The full scope and extent of CAFO impacts remain unclear because of the paucity of public information regarding animal numbers, barn and lagoon locations, and manure management practices. Where and when manure is applied on the landscape is key missing data that is needed to better understand and mitigate consequences of CAFO management practices. The aim of this study was to detect land applications of liquid manure using a remote sensing approach. We used random forest models incorporating C-Band synthetic-aperture radar, multispectral imagery, and other predictors to examine soil moisture conditions indicating probable liquid manure applications across known sprayfields in eastern North Carolina. Our models successfully distinguished saturated and unsaturated soils within corn, soybean, grassland, and 'other' crops, with 93-98% accuracy against validation for clear weather periods during the dormant, early, and late growing seasons. A Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that the mean soil saturation frequency was significantly higher on sprayfields than non-sprayfields of the same crop type (p < 2.2e-16). We also found that manure applications were concentrated within ∼1 km from the point of generation. This is the first application of satellite-based radar for identifying the location and timing of manure applications over broad areas. Future work can build on these methods to further understand manure management at CAFOs, as well as to improve pollution source tracking and modeling.


Assuntos
Esterco , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Agricultura , Animais , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , North Carolina , Solo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156385, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660431

RESUMO

The accelerated use of plastic products for agricultural practices has raised global concern regarding their negative impacts on soil health. This study aims to better understand the combined influence of polymer characteristics and environmental conditions on microplastic photodegradation within the agricultural soil system. For this purpose, the photodegradation behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics was studied through accelerated UVA radiation experiments under two different relative humidity (RH10 and RH70) and soil deposition conditions. The variations of plastics' surface physiochemistry due to the accelerated photodegradation were studied using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). The carbonyl and vinyl indices were calculated using the ATR-FTIR information to compare the degree of microplastics' photodegradation. The plastics' bulk characteristics, including the percentage of crystallinity and molecular weight distributions, were examined using the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Furthermore, the extent of UVA light interaction with the microplastics was studied by determining spectral quantum yield. The results demonstrated that new LDPE microplastics with a lower molecular weight (Mw = 233 kD) were subjected to a greater extent of photodegradation than those with greater molecular weight (Mw = 515 kD). Elevated relative humidity (RH70) limited the photooxidation process of microplastics and consequently reduced the surface chemistry alterations. Deposition of soil particles with respect to the plastic particles impacted the photodegradation behavior. The microplastics covered by soil particles were not degraded, unlike those deposited next to the soil particles. The knowledge developed through this study could encourage the farmers and agricultural stakeholders to apply more efficient practices to remove plastic residuals after harvesting and conduct proper plastic disposal practices to protect soil health.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise , Polietileno/análise , Polímeros , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739938

RESUMO

Cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var altilis) is a Mediterranean traditional food crop. It is adapted to xerothermic conditions and also grows in marginal lands, producing a large biomass rich in phenolic bioactive metabolites and has therefore received attention for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and innovative materials applications. Cardoon cell cultures can be used for the biotechnological production of valuable molecules in accordance with the principles of cellular agriculture. In the current study, we developed an elicitation strategy on leaf-derived cardoon calli for boosting the production of bioactive extracts for cosmetics. We tested elicitation conditions that trigger hyper-accumulation of bioactive phenolic metabolites without compromising calli growth through the application of chilling and salt stresses. We monitored changes in growth, polyphenol accumulation, and antioxidant capability, along with transcriptional variations of key chlorogenic acid and flavonoids biosynthetic genes. At moderate stress intensity and duration (14 days at 50-100 mM NaCl) salt exerted the best eliciting effect by stimulating total phenols and antioxidant power without impairing growth. Hydroalcoholic extracts from elicited cardoon calli with optimal growth and bioactive metabolite accumulation were demonstrated to lack cytotoxicity by MTT assay and were able to stimulate pro-collagen and aquaporin production in dermal cells. In conclusion, we propose a "natural" elicitation system that can be easily and safely employed to boost bioactive metabolite accumulation in cardoon cell cultures and also in pilot-scale cell culture production.

11.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 904230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720549

RESUMO

To feed the fast growing global population with sufficient food using limited global resources, it is urgent to develop and utilize cutting-edge technologies and improve efficiency of agricultural production. In this review, we specifically introduce the concepts, theories, methods, applications and future implications of association studies and predicting unknown genetic value or future phenotypic events using genomics in the area of breeding in agriculture. Genome wide association studies can identify the quantitative genetic loci associated with phenotypes of importance in agriculture, while genomic prediction utilizes individual genetic value to rank selection candidates to improve the next generation of plants or animals. These technologies and methods have improved the efficiency of genetic improvement programs for agricultural production via elite animal breeds and plant varieties. With the development of new data acquisition technologies, there will be more and more data collected from high-through-put technologies to assist agricultural breeding. It will be crucial to extract useful information among these large amounts of data and to face this challenge, more efficient algorithms need to be developed and utilized for analyzing these data. Such development will require knowledge from multiple disciplines of research.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 898131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720554

RESUMO

Field crops are generally planted in rows to improve planting efficiency and facilitate field management. Therefore, automatic detection of crop planting rows is of great significance for achieving autonomous navigation and precise spraying in intelligent agricultural machinery and is an important part of smart agricultural management. To study the visual navigation line extraction technology of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in farmland environments and realize real-time precise farmland UAV operations, we propose an improved ENet semantic segmentation network model to perform row segmentation of farmland images. Considering the lightweight and low complexity requirements of the network for crop row detection, the traditional network is compressed and replaced by convolution. Based on the residual network, we designed a network structure of the shunting process, in which low-dimensional boundary information in the feature extraction process is passed backward using the residual stream, allowing efficient extraction of low-dimensional information and significantly improving the accuracy of boundary locations and row-to-row segmentation of farmland crops. According to the characteristics of the segmented image, an improved random sampling consensus algorithm is proposed to extract the navigation line, define a new model-scoring index, find the best point set, and use the least-squares method to fit the navigation line. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm allows accurate and efficient extraction of farmland navigation lines, and it has the technical advantages of strong robustness and high applicability. The algorithm can provide technical support for the subsequent quasi-flight of agricultural UAVs in farmland operations.

13.
Precis Agric ; : 1-26, 2022 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645604

RESUMO

Many farmers hesitate to adopt new management strategies with actual or perceived risks and uncertainties. Especially in ornamental plant production, farmers often stick to current production strategies to avoid the risk of economically harmful plant losses, even though they may recognize the need to optimize farm management. This work focused on the economically important and little-researched production system of ornamental heather (Calluna vulgaris) to help farmers find appropriate measures to sustainably improve resource use, plant quality, and profitability despite existing risks. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis was applied to simulate alternative disease monitoring strategies. The outcomes for more intensive visual monitoring, as well as sensor-based monitoring using hyperspectral imaging were simulated. Based on the results of the probabilistic cost-benefit analysis, the expected utility of the alternative strategies was assessed as a function of the farmer's level of risk aversion. The analysis of expected utility indicated that heather production is generally risky. Concerning the alternative strategies, more intensive visual monitoring provides the highest utility for farmers for almost all levels of risk aversion compared to all other strategies. Results of the probabilistic cost-benefit analysis indicated that more intensive visual monitoring increases net benefits in 68% of the simulated cases. The application of sensor-based monitoring leads to negative economic outcomes in 85% of the simulated cases. This research approach is widely applicable to predict the impacts of new management strategies in precision agriculture. The methodology can be used to provide farmers in other data-scarce production systems with concrete recommendations that account for uncertainties and risks. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11119-022-09909-z.

14.
Freshw Sci ; 41(1): 100-112, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646474

RESUMO

Observational data are frequently used to better understand the effects of changes in P and N on stream biota, but nutrient gradients in streams are usually associated with gradients in other environmental factors, a phenomenon that complicates efforts to accurately estimate the effects of nutrients. Here, we propose a new approach for analyzing observational data in which we compare the effects of changes in nutrient concentrations in time within individual sites and in space among many sites. Covarying relationships between other, potentially confounding environmental factors and nutrient concentrations are unlikely to be the same in both time and space, and, therefore, estimated effects of nutrients that are similar in time and space are more likely to be accurate. We applied this approach to diatom rbcL metabarcoding data collected from streams in the East Fork of the Little Miami River watershed, Ohio, USA. Changes in diatom assemblage composition were consistently associated with changes in the concentration of total reactive P in both time and space. In contrast, despite being associated with spatial differences in ammonia and urea concentrations, diatom assemblage composition was not associated with temporal changes in these nitrogen species. We suggest that the results of this analysis provide evidence of a causal effect of increased P on diatom assemblage composition. We further analyzed the effects of temporal variability in measurements of total reactive P and found that averaging periods greater than ~1 wk prior to sampling best represented the effects of P on the diatom assemblage. Comparisons of biological responses in space and time can sharpen insights beyond those that are based on analyses conducted on only 1 of the 2 dimensions.

15.
Front Genome Ed ; 4: 876697, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647578

RESUMO

Sustainable intensification of agriculture in Africa is essential for accomplishing food and nutritional security and addressing the rising concerns of climate change. There is an urgent need to close the yield gap in staple crops and enhance food production to feed the growing population. In order to meet the increasing demand for food, more efficient approaches to produce food are needed. All the tools available in the toolbox, including modern biotechnology and traditional, need to be applied for crop improvement. The full potential of new breeding tools such as genome editing needs to be exploited in addition to conventional technologies. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas)-based genome editing has rapidly become the most prevalent genetic engineering approach for developing improved crop varieties because of its simplicity, efficiency, specificity, and easy to use. Genome editing improves crop variety by modifying its endogenous genome free of any foreign gene. Hence, genome-edited crops with no foreign gene integration are not regulated as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in several countries. Researchers are using CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing for improving African staple crops for biotic and abiotic stress resistance and improved nutritional quality. Many products, such as disease-resistant banana, maize resistant to lethal necrosis, and sorghum resistant to the parasitic plant Striga and enhanced quality, are under development for African farmers. There is a need for creating an enabling environment in Africa with science-based regulatory guidelines for the release and adoption of the products developed using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Some progress has been made in this regard. Nigeria and Kenya have recently published the national biosafety guidelines for the regulation of gene editing. This article summarizes recent advances in developments of tools, potential applications of genome editing for improving staple crops, and regulatory policies in Africa.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684692

RESUMO

Vibration monitoring provides a good-quality source of information about the health condition of machines, and it is often based on the use of accelerometers. This article focuses on the use of accelerometer sensors in fabricating a low-cost system for monitoring vibrations in agricultural machines, such as rotary tedders. The aim of the study is to provide useful data on equipment health for improving the durability of such machinery. The electronic prototype, based on the low-cost AVR microcontroller ATmega128 with 10-bit ADC performing a 12-bit measurement, is able to acquire data from an accelerometer weighing up to 10 g. Three sensors were exposed to low accelerations with the use of an exciter, and their static characteristics were presented. Standard experimental tests were used to evaluate the constructed machine monitoring system. The self-contained prototype system was calibrated in a laboratory test rig, and sinusoidal and multisinusoidal excitations were used. Measurements in time and frequency domains were carried out. The amplitude characteristic of the preformed system differed by no more than 15% within a frequency range of 10 Hz-10 kHz, compared to the AVM4000 commercial product. Finally, the system was experimentally tested to measure acceleration at three characteristic points in a rotational tedder, i.e., the solid grease gearbox, the drive shaft bearing and the main frame. The RMS amplitude values of the shaft vibrations on the bearing in relation to the change in the drive shaft speed of two tedders of the same type were evaluated and compared. Additionally, the parameters of kurtosis and crest factor were compared to ascertain the bearing condition.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Vibração , Eletrocardiografia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684715

RESUMO

Plant-available nitrogen, often in the form of nitrate, is an essential nutrient for plant growth. However, excessive nitrate in the environment and watershed has harmful impacts on natural ecosystems and consequently human health. A distributed network of nitrate sensors could help to quantify and monitor nitrogen in agriculture and the environment. Here, we have developed fully printed potentiometric nitrate sensors and characterized their sensitivity and selectivity to nitrate. Each sensor comprises an ion-selective electrode and a reference electrode that are functionalized with polymeric membranes. The sensitivity of the printed ion-selective electrodes was characterized by measuring their potential with respect to a commercial silver/silver chloride reference electrode in varying concentrations of nitrate solutions. The sensitivity of the printed reference electrodes to nitrate was minimized with a membrane containing polyvinyl butyral (PVB), sodium chloride, and sodium nitrate. Selectivity studies with sulphate, chloride, phosphate, nitrite, ammonium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium showed that high concentrations of calcium can influence sensor behavior. The printed ion-selective and reference electrodes were combined to form a fully printed sensor with sensitivity of -48.0 ± 3.3 mV/dec between 0.62 and 6200 ppm nitrate in solution and -47 ± 4.1 mV/dec in peat soil.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Solo , Cálcio/análise , Ecossistema , Humanos , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos , Nitrogênio
18.
J Exp Bot ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727101

RESUMO

The five Nordic countries span the most northern region for field cultivation in the world. This presents challenges per se with short growing seasons, long days and a need for frost tolerance. Climate change has additionally increased risks for micro-droughts and water logging as well as pathogens and pests expanding northwards. Thus, Nordic agriculture demands crops that are adapted to the special Nordic growth conditions and future climate scenarios. A focus on crop varieties and traits important to Nordic agriculture, including the unique resource of nutritious wild crops, can meet these needs. In fact, with a future longer growing season due to climate change the region could contribute proportionally more to the global agricultural production. This also applies to other northern regions, including the Arctic. To address current growth conditions, mitigate impacts of climate change and meet market demands, the adaptive capacity of crops that both perform well in northern latitudes and are more climate resilient has to be increased, and better crop management systems be built. This requires functional phenomics approaches that integrate versatile high-throughput phenotyping, physiology and bioinformatics. This review stresses key target traits, the opportunities of latitudinal studies and infrastructure needs for phenotyping to support Nordic agriculture.

19.
Field Crops Res ; 282: 108449, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663617

RESUMO

Mapping crop within-field yield variability provide an essential piece of information for precision agriculture applications. Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter that describes maize growth, vegetation structure, light absorption and subsequently maize biomass and grain yield (GY). The main goal for this study was to estimate maize biomass and GY through LAI retrieved from hyperspectral aerial images using a PROSAIL model inversion and compare its performance with biomass and GY estimations through simple vegetation index approaches. This study was conducted in two separate maize fields of 12 and 20 ha located in north-west Mexico. Both fields were cultivated with the same hybrid. One field was irrigated by a linear pivot and the other by a furrow irrigation system. Ground LAI data were collected at different crop growth stages followed by maize biomass and GY at the harvesting time. Through a weekly/biweekly airborne flight campaign, a total of 19 mosaics were acquired between both fields with a micro-hyperspectral Vis-NIR imaging sensor ranging from 400 to 850 nanometres (nm) at different crop growth stages. The PROSAIL model was calibrated and validated for retrieving maize LAI by simulating maize canopy spectral reflectance based on crop-specific parameters. The model was used to retrieve LAI from both fields and to subsequently estimate maize biomass and GY. Additionally, different vegetation indices were calculated from the aerial images to also estimate maize yield and compare the indices with PROSAIL based estimations. The PROSAIL validation to retrieve LAI from hyperspectral imagery showed a R2 value of 0.5 against ground LAI with RMSE of 0.8 m2/m2. Maize biomass and GY estimation based on NDRE showed the highest accuracies, followed by retrieved LAI, GNDVI and NDVI with R2 value of 0.81, 0.73, 0.73 and 0.65 for biomass, and 0.83, 0.69, 0.73 and 0.62 for GY estimation, respectively. Furthermore, the late vegetative growth stage at V16 was found to be the best stage for maize yield prediction for all studied indices.

20.
Brain Behav ; : e2641, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure has affected humans' health, especially those directly in contact with a pesticide like agricultural workers. Here, we sought to see a link between pesticide exposure and cognitive impairment among male agricultural workers. METHODS: We selected 18-60 years old 100 male agricultural workers who came for their health check-up in the hospital's out-patient department from August 2020 to May 2021. Standardized questionnaires (German Q18 questionnaire) and WHO Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery were used to examine the neurobehavioral performance of the individuals. The data were presented in a descriptive manner and statistically examined using the chi-square test. RESULTS: The male agricultural workers' neurobehavioral performance was 46% normal and 54% abnormal. Headaches, impaired focus, short memory, weariness, palpitation, and numbness were the most prevalent neurobehavioral impairments. The chi-square test revealed that spraying frequency (p =.010), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (p < .001), and smoking habits (p =.006) were all linked to neurobehavioral performance, while spraying duration (p =.804), working years (p =.234), pesticide types (p =.816), and spraying time (p =.867) were not linked to neurobehavioral performance. CONCLUSION: We found that pesticide exposure has a certain role on neurobehavioral performance in adult male agricultural workers as more people have been affected; however, a considerable number of confounding factors might have played a significant role in giving rise to such results. The government should be concerned about farmer's neurobehavioral performance and implement different approaches to minimize the use of pesticides so that agricultural workers can work without any mental health problems.

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