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1.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1360703, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725679

RESUMO

Soil degradation has been accelerated by the use of chemical pesticides and poor agricultural practices, which has had an impact on crop productivity. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the use of eco-friendly biochar applications to enhance soil quality and sequester carbon in sustainable agriculture. This study aimed to determine the individual and combined effects of Leaf Waste Biochar (LWB) and the bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum (BCA) on the development of bacterial wilt in eggplants (Solanum melongena) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The effects of LWB and BCA on eggplant physiology and defense-related biochemistry were comprehensively examined. Inoculated (+RS) and un-inoculated (-RS) eggplants were grown in potting mixtures containing 3% and 6% (v/v) LWB, both with and without BCA. The percentage disease index was considerably reduced (90%) in plants grown in the 6% LWB+ BCA amended treatments. Moreover, the plants grown in LWB and inoculated with BCA had higher phenolics, flavonoids and peroxidase contents compared to the non-amended control. The level of NPK was significantly increased (92.74% N, 76.47% P, 53.73% K) in the eggplants cultivated in the 6% LWB + BCA composition. This study has shown that the association of T. harzianum with biochar improved plant growth and reduced R. solanacearum induced wilt. Furthermore, the combined impact of biochar and T. harzianum was greater in terms of wilt suppression and increase in plant physiological measurements when the biochar concentration was 6%. Biochar and bio-control agents triggered biochemical alterations, thus enhancing the management of disease-infested soils.

2.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30543, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726109

RESUMO

The quantification of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux represents an indicator of the agro-ecosystems sustainability. However, the monitoring of these fluxes is quite challenging due to their high spatially-temporally variability and dependence on environmental variables and soil management practices.In this study, soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a low-cost accumulation chamber, that was realized ad hoc for the surveys, in an orange orchard managed under different soil management (SM, bare versus mulched soils) and water regime (WR, full irrigation versus regulated deficit irrigation) strategies. In particular, the soil CO2 flux measurements were acquired in discontinuous and continuous modes, together with ancillary agrometeorological and soil-related information, and then compared to the agrosystem scale CO2 fluxes measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique.Overall significant differences were obtained for the soil CO2 discontinuous fluxes as function of the WR (0.16 ± 0.01 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg m-2 s-1 under full irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation, respectively). For the continuous soil CO2 measurements, the response observed for the SM factor varied from year to year, indicating for the overall reference period 2022-23 higher soil CO2 flux under the mulched soils (0.24 ± 0.01 mg m-2 s-1) than under bare soil conditions (0.15 ± 0.00 mg m-2 s-1). Inter-annual variations were also observed as function of the day-of-year (DOY), the SM and their interactions, resulting in higher soil CO2 flux under the mulched soils (0.24 ± 0.02 mg m-2 s-1) than under bare soil (0.15 ± 0.01 mg m-2 s-1) in certain periods of the years, according to the environmental conditions. Results: suggest the importance of integrating soil CO2 flux measurements with ancillary variables that explain the variability of the agrosystem and the need to conduct the measurements using different operational modalities, also providing for night-time monitoring of CO2. In addition, the study underlines that the small-scale chamber measurements can be used to estimate soil CO2 fluxes at orchard scale if fluxes are properly scaled.

3.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30595, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726166

RESUMO

Malnutrition, defined as both undernutrition and overnutrition, is a major global health concern affecting millions of people. One possible way to address nutrient deficiency and combat malnutrition is through biofortification. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to explore the current state of biofortification research, including techniques, applications, effectiveness and challenges. Biofortification is a promising strategy for enhancing the nutritional condition of at-risk populations. Biofortified varieties of basic crops, including rice, wheat, maize and beans, with elevated amounts of vital micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C, have been successfully developed using conventional and advanced technologies. Additionally, the ability to specifically modify crop genomes to improve their nutritional profiles has been made possible by recent developments in genetic engineering, such as CRISPR-Cas9 technology. The health conditions of people have been shown to improve and nutrient deficiencies were reduced when biofortified crops were grown. Particularly in environments with limited resources, biofortification showed considerable promise as a long-term and economical solution to nutrient shortages and malnutrition. To fully exploit the potential of biofortified crops to enhance public health and global nutrition, issues such as consumer acceptance, regulatory permitting and production and distribution scaling up need to be resolved. Collaboration among governments, researchers, non-governmental organizations and the private sector is essential to overcome these challenges and promote the widespread adoption of biofortification as a key part of global food security and nutrition strategies.

4.
Front Artif Intell ; 7: 1328530, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726306

RESUMO

Food and nutrition are a steadfast essential to all living organisms. With specific reference to humans, the sufficient and efficient supply of food is a challenge as the world population continues to grow. Artificial Intelligence (AI) could be identified as a plausible technology in this 5th industrial revolution in bringing us closer to achieving zero hunger by 2030-Goal 2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDG). This goal cannot be achieved unless the digital divide among developed and underdeveloped countries is addressed. Nevertheless, developing and underdeveloped regions fall behind in economic resources; however, they harbor untapped potential to effectively address the impending demands posed by the soaring world population. Therefore, this study explores the in-depth potential of AI in the agriculture sector for developing and under-developed countries. Similarly, it aims to emphasize the proven efficiency and spin-off applications of AI in the advancement of agriculture. Currently, AI is being utilized in various spheres of agriculture, including but not limited to crop surveillance, irrigation management, disease identification, fertilization practices, task automation, image manipulation, data processing, yield forecasting, supply chain optimization, implementation of decision support system (DSS), weed control, and the enhancement of resource utilization. Whereas AI supports food safety and security by ensuring higher crop yields that are acquired by harnessing the potential of multi-temporal remote sensing (RS) techniques to accurately discern diverse crop phenotypes, monitor land cover dynamics, assess variations in soil organic matter, predict soil moisture levels, conduct plant biomass modeling, and enable comprehensive crop monitoring. The present study identifies various challenges, including financial, infrastructure, experts, data availability, customization, regulatory framework, cultural norms and attitudes, access to market, and interdisciplinary collaboration, in the adoption of AI for developing nations with their subsequent remedies. The identification of challenges and opportunities in the implementation of AI could ignite further research and actions in these regions; thereby supporting sustainable development.

5.
Food Sci Nutr ; 12(5): 3322-3335, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726444

RESUMO

Dairy products may affect hypertension (HTN) risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fermented and nonfermented dairy foods and HTN in a sample of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD) subjects. This cross-sectional study was performed on 1854 PCAD patients. A 110-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. HTN was considered if systolic blood pressure was 140 mmHg and higher and/or diastolic blood pressure was 90 mmHg and higher. The odds ratio of HTN across the quartiles of different types of dairy products was evaluated by binary logistic regression. The mean (SD) of dairy products consumption was 339.8 (223.5) g/day, of which 285.4 g/day was fermented dairy products. In the crude model, participants in the fourth quartile of fermented dairy products had lesser risk of HTN compared to the bottom quartile (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96; p for trend = .058). However, after considering the possible confounders, the significance disappeared. Subjects in the top quartile of high-fat fermented dairy products had 34% lower risk for HTN compared to the bottom quartile (95% CI: 0.49, 0.88; p for trend < .001). Adjustment for potential risk factors weakened the association but remained significant (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.01; p for trend = .001). Nonsignificant relation was detected between low-fat fermented, low-fat nonfermented, and high-fat nonfermented dairy products and HTN. Moderate consumption of high-fat fermented dairy products, in a population with low consumption of dairy foods, might relate to reduced likelihood of HTN.

6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108693, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714130

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses like salinity and micronutrient deficiency majorly affect wheat productivity. Applying mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSiNPs) as a smart micronutrient delivery system can facilitate better stress management and nutrient delivery. In this purview, we investigated the potential of MSiNPs and Zn-loaded MSiNPs (Zn-MSiNPs) on the growth and physiology of wheat seedlings exposed to salinity stress (200 mM NaCl). Initially, the FESEM, DLS, and BET analysis portrayed nanoparticles' spherical shape, nano-size, and negatively charged mesoporous surface. A sustained release of Zn+2 from Zn-MSiNPs at 30 °C, diffused light, and pH 7 was perceived with a 96.57% release after 10 days. Further, the mitigation of NaCl stress in the wheat seedlings was evaluated with two different concentrations, each of MSiNPs and Zn-MSiNPs (1 g/L and 5 g/L), respectively. A meticulous improvement in the germination and growth of wheat seedlings was observed when treated with both MSiNPs and Zn-MSiNPs. A considerable increase in chlorophyll, total protein, and sugar content was in consort with a substantial decline in MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS accumulation, showcasing the nanomaterials' palliating effects. Most importantly, the K+/Na+ ratio in shoots increased significantly by 3.43 and 4.37 folds after being treated with 5 g/L Zn-MSiNPs, compared to their respective control sets (0 and 200 mM NaCl). Therefore, it can be concluded that the Zn-MSiNPs can effectively restrain the effects of salinity stress on wheat seedlings.

7.
Chin Herb Med ; 16(2): 248-262, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706822

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese herbal medicines not only cure human diseases, but also play an important role as insecticides. Compared with conventional chemical agents, traditional Chinese herbal medicines are characterized by low toxicity, low residues, and being eco-friendly, and they have become a research hotspot. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines have tremendous flexibility and indefinite potential. Therefore, this paper reviewed the types of insecticides belonging to traditional Chinese herbal medicines in Inner Mongolia, China, including their traditional uses, secondary metabolites, biological activities, action mechanisms, application methods, and development status. In addition, the most relevant issues involved in the development of traditional Chinese herbal medicines was discussed. We believe that traditional Chinese herbal medicines can be better implemented and developed; such that its other advantages, such as an insect repellent, can be promoted. Moreover, this study lays a solid foundation for further research on traditional Chinese herbal medicines in Inner Mongolia, China.

8.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30138, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707373

RESUMO

The agricultural value chain is underpinned by the interdependence of agricultural value added, household consumption and domestic investment. Understanding the complex interactions between these microeconomic outcomes and the uncertainties in the macroeconomic variables of exchange rates, energy prices and sectoral spending remains under-researched. Therefore, this study examines the impact of exchange rate, energy prices and sectoral spending on agricultural value added, household consumption and domestic investment in Nigeria from 1981 to 2020. Using Kernel regularized least squares (KRLS), the results show that the average pointwise marginal effects of exchange rate and agricultural spending are positive, while the average pointwise marginal effect of energy price is significantly negative for the agricultural value-added model. The results also show that the exchange rate, energy prices and agricultural expenditure all have a positive effect on household consumption. Regarding domestic investment, the effect of the exchange rate is positive and statistically insignificant, while the effects of energy prices and agricultural expenditure are negative and statistically significant. The study recommends the need to strengthen the social safety nets currently in place in Nigeria to support households that are vulnerable to exchange rate fluctuations. In addition, incentives should be given to households and farmers to help use renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power for agricultural activities. Also, investment in value chains and agribusiness initiatives should be encouraged rather than just in crop production.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2310069, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728620

RESUMO

In point-of-care diagnostics, the continuous monitoring of sweat constituents provides a window into individual's physiological state. For species like horses, with abundant sweat glands, sweat composition can serve as an early health indicator. Considering the salience of such metrics in the domain of high-value animal breeding, a sophisticated wearable sensor patch tailored is introduced for the dynamic assessment of equine sweat, offering insights into pH, potassium ion (K+), and temperature profiles during episodes of heat stress and under normal physiological conditions. The device integrates a laser-engraved graphene (LEG) sensing electrode array, a non-invasive iontophoretic module for stimulated sweat secretion, an adaptable signal processing unit, and an embedded wireless communication framework. Profiting from an admirable Truth Table capable of logical evaluation, the integrated system enabled the early and timely assessment for heat stress, with high accuracy, stability, and reproducibility. The sensor patch has been calibrated to align with the unique dermal and physiological contours of equine anatomy, thereby augmenting its applicability in practical settings. This real-time analysis tool for equine perspiration stands to revolutionize personalized health management approaches for high-value animals, marking a significant stride in the integration of smart technologies within the agricultural sector.

10.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 121046, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728981

RESUMO

The increasing concern over pesticide pollution in water bodies underscores the need for effective mitigation strategies to support the transition towards sustainable agriculture. This study assesses the effectiveness of landscape mitigation strategies, specifically vegetative buffer strips, in reducing glyphosate loads at the catchment scale under realistic conditions. Conducted over six years (2014-2019) in a small agricultural region in Belgium, our research involved the analysis of 732 water samples from two monitoring stations, differentiated by baseflow and event-driven sampling, and before (baseline) and after the implementation of mitigation measures. The results indicated a decline in both the number and intensity of point source losses over the years. Additionally, there was a general decrease in load intensity; however, the confluence of varying weather conditions (notably dry years during the mitigation period) and management practices (the introduction of buffer strips) posed challenges for a statistically robust evaluation of each contributing factor. A reduction of loads was measured when comparing mitigation with baseline, although this reduction is not statistically significant. Glyphosate loads during rainfall events correlated with a rainfall index and runoff ratio. Overall, focusing the mitigation strategy on runoff and erosion was a valid approach. Nevertheless, challenges remain, as evidenced by the continuous presence of glyphosate in baseflow conditions, highlighting the complex dynamics of pesticide transport. The study concludes that while progress has been made towards reducing pesticide pollution, the complexity of interacting factors necessitates further research. Future directions should focus on enhancing farmer engagement in mitigation programs and developing experiments with more intense data collection that help to assess underlying dynamics of pesticide pollution and the impact of mitigation strategies in more detail, contributing towards the goal of reducing pesticide pollution in water bodies.

11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 528, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724799

RESUMO

Indian agriculture transitioned from a food deficit sector to a food surplus following the Green Revolution. However, the continued progress of Indian agriculture has been hampered by climate change. This research explores the district-wise vulnerability in Madhya Pradesh, India, to climate change by assessing the composite vulnerability index using the agricultural vulnerability index (AVI) and socio-economic vulnerability index (SEVI). The study seeks to understand how agricultural and socio-economic factors lead to variations in vulnerability across districts and influence targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies. The trend analysis results present declining rainfall and inclining temperature from 1951 to 2021 in Madhya Pradesh, directly affecting the agricultural sector and human livelihood. The composite vulnerability index (CVI) results revealed that districts with low values (< 0.394), such as Burhanpur and Balaghat, demonstrate reduced susceptibility due to limited cultivation, low reliance on rainfall, lower drought susceptibility, and decreased population density. Districts such as Panna and Bhopal show moderate vulnerability (0.394-0.423), with lower fallow land, reduced rainfed agriculture, and socio-economic vulnerability. Extensive agriculture and marginalised workers' presence influence high vulnerability (0.423 to 0.456) in districts such as Tikamgarh and Indore. Districts like Barwani and Jhabua have the highest CVI values (> 0.456), indicating substantial susceptibility to climate impacts. The cluster analysis validates the results of the vulnerability index. The findings highlight the urgent need for tailored adaptation strategies to address the diverse agricultural and socio-economic indicators creating vulnerability in Madhya Pradesh. The study helps understand regional vulnerability patterns and provides evidence-based policy approaches for resilience to climate change effects.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Índia , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental
12.
Data Brief ; 54: 110469, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725550

RESUMO

This article presents the results of soil and water analysis plus the plans -or "maps"- from the Report [1] issued 1974 on salt-affected soils in a new irrigation district located in the semi-arid Bardenas area of Aragón, northern Spain (Fig. 1). The survey was carried out by the now defunct Institute for Agrarian Reform and Development (i.e., IRYDA by its Spanish acronym). Work began in January 1972, with a preliminary reconnaissance survey on 53,000 ha using aerial photographs at a scale of 1:32,000 from the USAF photogrammetric flight of 1956-57 which covered almost the whole of Spain. Photographs from this flight are available on the Spanish aerial photograph viewer (https://fototeca.cnig.es/fototeca/). At that time, levelling for irrigation had not yet begun. This reconnaissance allowed the selection of an area of 32,300 ha (Fig. 1) with relevant salinity symptoms, like irrigated fields with irregular or no crop growth. A more detailed photo interpretation of the area was carried out at 1:12,000 scale from a flight in August 1971. The new irrigation district is fed by high quality water from the Pyrenees, but soon faced salinity problems that were well known to the farmers and echoed by the media [2, 3, 4] in an environment of great social concern about increasing agricultural production [5]. The Report, written in Spanish, is dated July 1974, but the soil profiles were described and sampled between April 1972 and March 1974. The Report [1] consists of two volumes, the first is a Memoria containing data from the surveys, laboratory analyses, pedological descriptions and some photographs of the soils and other land features of agricultural importance, as well as data and calculations for designing the drainage of selected plots. The second volume consists of five folded plans: a) location of the surveyed area at the scale of 1:200,000, and four plans at the scale of 1:25,000, b) soil-geomorphologic units, c) soil units describing their characteristics, d) land use, and e) locations of the described soil profiles and other field observations. Taken together, these data, improved by our orthorectification, gives a picture of the salinity and other soil properties in this area. The reuse of the data for comparisons with the evolution of agriculture in subsequent years -especially soil salinity and sodicity- will help to evaluate the agricultural practices over the last fifty years, particularly after intensive land levelling and irrigation.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; : 172883, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697528

RESUMO

Addressing carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses through composting has emerged as a critical environmental challenge recently, and how to mitigate these losses has been a hot topic across the world. As the emissions of carbonaceous and nitrogenous gases were closely correlated with the composting process, the feasibility of composting duration shortening on C and N loss needs to be explored. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to find evidence-based approaches to reduce composting duration, utilizing the seed germination index as a metric (SCD@GI), for assessing its efficiency on C and N loss reductions as well as compost quality. Our findings reveal that the terminal seed germination index (GI) frequently surpassed the necessary benchmarks, with a significant portion of trials achieving the necessary GI within 60 % of the standard duration. Notably, an SCD@GI of 80 % resulted in a reduction of CO2 and NH3 by 21.4 % and 21.9 %, respectively, surpassing the effectiveness of the majority of current mitigation strategies. Furthermore, compost quality, maturity specifically, remained substantially unaffected at a GI of 80 %, with the composting process maintaining adequate thermophilic conditions to ensure hygienic quality and maturity. This study also highlighted the need for further studies, including the establishment of uniform GI testing standards and comprehensive life cycle analyses for integrated composting and land application practices. The insights gained from this study would offer new avenues for enhancing C and N retention during composting, contributing to the advancement of high-quality compost production within the framework of sustainable agriculture.

15.
Data Brief ; 54: 110427, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690323

RESUMO

Crop type observation is crucial for various environmental and agricultural remote sensing applications including land use and land cover mapping, crop growth monitoring, crop modelling, yield forecasting, disease surveillance, and climate modelling. Quality-controlled georeferenced crop type information is essential for calibrating and validating machine learning algorithms. However, publicly available field data is scarce, particularly in the highly dynamic smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa. For the 2020/21 main cropping season (Meher), the Ethiopian Crop Type 2020 (EthCT2020) dataset compiled from multiple sources provides 2,793 harmonized, quality-controlled, and georeferenced in-situ samples on annual crop types (7 crop groups; 22 crop classes) at smallholder field level across the complex and highly fragmented agricultural landscape of Ethiopia. The focus was on rainfed, wheat-based farming systems. A nationwide ground data collection campaign (GDCC; Source 1) was designed using a stratification approach based on wheat crop calendar information, and 1,263 in-situ data samples were collected in selected sampling regions. This in-situ data pool was enriched with 1,530 wheat samples extracted from a) the Wheat Rust Toolbox (WRTB; Source 2; 734 samples), a database for wheat disease surveillance data [1] and b) an inhouse farm household survey database (FHSD; Source 3; 796 samples). Obtained field data was labelled according to the Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) guidelines for cropland and crop type definition and field data collection [2] and the FAO Indicative Crop Classification [3]. The EthCT2020 dataset underwent extensive processing including data harmonization, mixed pixel assessment through visual interpretation using 5 m Planet satellite image composites, and quality-control using Sentinel-2 NDVI homogeneity analysis. The EthCT2020 dataset is unique in terms of crop diversity, pixel purity, and spatial accuracy while targeting a countrywide distribution. It is representative of Ethiopia's complex and highly fragmented agricultural landscape and can be useful for developing new machine learning algorithms for land use land cover mapping, crop type mapping, agricultural monitoring, and yield forecasting in smallholder cropping systems. The dataset can also serve as a baseline input parameter for crop models, climate models, and crop disease and pest forecasting systems.

16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 490, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691199

RESUMO

Forest-savanna transition zones of West Africa are uniquely characterized by forest groves, forest patches, or forest islands, the importance of which for sustainable resource management and their potential for carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling is often underrated. Our study conducted a comparative analysis of the soil organic carbon and nutrient characteristics of the Anogeissus groves in the old Opara forest reserve and their adjoining arable lands. We established 30 sampling frames of 100 m × 100 m plots with 15 frames per land use type. For each sampling frame, six observation points were randomly selected, and composite soil samples were collected at soil depths of 0-20 cm and 20-50 cm per observation point. Our results showed Anogeissus groves and their adjoining arable lands to exist on similar landscapes while the groves have enriched soil morphological characteristics (e.g., soil color), higher soil organic carbon (SOC), and better nutrient characteristics. There were strong positive relationships between SOC, effective cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and calcium, zinc, electrical conductivity, and copper. The significant soil organic matter accumulation in the groves accounts for the overall improved soil characteristics over the adjoining arable lands. Preserving the groves and similar African ecosystems may be important in climate regulation, resources and biodiversity conservation, and ethnopharmacology for rural communities. Thus, a question arises: should more land be set aside for ecological conservation or for agricultural productivity?


Assuntos
Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Nitrogênio , Solo , Solo/química , Nigéria , Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Nutrientes/análise , Agricultura
17.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732424

RESUMO

In an era dominated by conventional agricultural practices, underutilized legumes termed "Forgotten Gems" represent a reservoir of untapped benefits with the unique opportunity to diversify agricultural landscapes and enhance global food systems. Underutilized crops are resistant to abiotic environmental conditions such as drought and adapt better to harsh soil and climatic conditions. Underutilized legumes are high in protein and secondary metabolites, highlighting their role in providing critical nutrients and correcting nutritional inadequacies. Their ability to increase dietary variety and food security emerges as a critical component of their importance. Compared to mainstream crops, underutilized legumes have been shown to reduce the environmental impact of climate change. Their capacity for nitrogen fixation and positive impact on soil health make them sustainable contributors to biodiversity conservation and environmental balance. This paper identifies challenges and proposes strategic solutions, showcasing the transformative impact of underutilized legumes on agriculture, nutrition, and sustainability. These "Forgotten Gems" should be recognized, integrated into mainstream agricultural practices, and celebrated for their potential to revolutionize global food production while promoting environmental sustainability.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1383100, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745919

RESUMO

In controlled environment agriculture, customized light treatments using light-emitting diodes are crucial to improving crop yield and quality. Red (R; 600-700 nm) and blue light (B; 400-500 nm) are two major parts of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), often preferred in crop production. Far-red radiation (FR; 700-800 nm), although not part of PAR, can also affect photosynthesis and can have profound effects on a range of morphological and physiological processes. However, interactions between different red and blue light ratios (R:B) and FR on promoting yield and nutritionally relevant compounds in crops remain unknown. Here, lettuce was grown at 200 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR under three different R:B ratios: R:B87.5:12.5 (12.5% blue), R:B75:25 (25% blue), and R:B60:40 (40% blue) without FR. Each treatment was also performed with supplementary FR (50 µmol m-2 s-1; R:B87.5:12.5+FR, R:B75:25+FR, and R:B60:40+FR). White light with and without FR (W and W+FR) were used as control treatments comprising of 72.5% red, 19% green, and 8.5% blue light. Increasing the R:B ratio from R:B87.5:12.5 to R:B60:40, there was a decrease in fresh weight (20%) and carbohydrate concentration (48% reduction in both sugars and starch), whereas pigment concentrations (anthocyanins, chlorophyll, and carotenoids), phenolic compounds, and various minerals all increased. These results contrasted the effects of FR supplementation in the growth spectra; when supplementing FR to different R:B backgrounds, we found a significant increase in plant fresh weight, dry weight, total soluble sugars, and starch. Additionally, FR decreased concentrations of anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, and various minerals. Although blue light and FR effects appear to directly contrast, blue and FR light did not have interactive effects together when considering plant growth, morphology, and nutritional content. Therefore, the individual benefits of increased blue light fraction and supplementary FR radiation can be combined and used cooperatively to produce crops of desired quality: adding FR increases growth and carbohydrate concentration while increasing the blue fraction increases nutritional value.

19.
Elife ; 132024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747972

RESUMO

Systematically tracking and analysing reproductive loss in livestock helps with efforts to safeguard the health and productivity of food animals by identifying causes and high-risk areas.


Assuntos
Gado , Animais , Gravidez , Feminino , Aborto Animal
20.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-20, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743807

RESUMO

In precision agriculture, soil spectroscopy has become an invaluable tool for rapid, low-cost, and nondestructive diagnostic approaches. Various instrument configurations are utilized to obtain spectral data over a range of wavelengths, such as homemade sensors, benchtop systems, and mobile instruments. These data are then modeled using a variety of calibration algorithms, including Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), Principal Component Regression (PCR), and Support Vector Machines (SVM), these datasets are further improved and optimized. Given the increasing demand for cost-effective and portable solutions, homemade sensors and mobile instruments have gained popularity in recent years. This review paper assesses the current state of soil spectroscopy by comparing the performance, accuracy, precision, and applicability of homemade sensors, mobile spectrometers, and traditional benchtop instruments. The discussion encompasses the technological advancements in homemade sensors, exploring innovative approaches taken by researchers and farmers, as well as developing affordable and efficient soil spectroscopy tools. Mobile and benchtop spectrometers, equipped with cutting-edge technology, have enabled easy soil diagnosis, transforming the landscape of soil analysis.

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