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2.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58666, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774169

RESUMO

Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are globally prevalent. This study explores the clinical and pathological profile of culture-positive UTI patients at Sri Jayewardenepura General Hospital. Method In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Sri Jayewardenepura General Hospital from December 2020 to May 2021, we evaluated patients over 14 years with positive urine culture reports. Excluding those with HIV, undergoing chemotherapy, or pregnant, we used consecutive sampling. Data were collected via interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 (IBM Inc., Armonk, New York), employing descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests to identify factors associated with urinary tract infections. Results The study involved approximately 278 participants. The mean age remained 60 ± 20.279 years, with over half of the participants being female. Common symptoms like fever and lower abdominal pain were observed in 22.30% of cases. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 30.58%. Escherichia coli (36%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (26%) were the predominant organisms found. Indwelling catheters and other urinary tract conditions were considered risk factors. Patients with at least one risk factor were more likely to receive antibiotics before the urine culture. Similarly, males exhibited a higher prevalence of at least a risk factor than females. Conclusion UTIs are a significant clinical issue in older populations, with females being more susceptible. Fever and abdominal pain were common symptoms. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequent causative agents. Further research is necessary to identify risk factors and predictors of antimicrobial resistance in UTI patients.

4.
Mar Environ Res ; 198: 106560, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776723

RESUMO

Antibiotic residue stands as a significant ongoing environmental issue, with aquaculture being a major source of annual antibiotic discharge into the ocean. Nevertheless, there is still an incomplete evaluation of antibiotic residues in the Beibu Gulf, an area encompassed by two prominent aquaculture nations, China and Vietnam. The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the presence antibiotic residues in the Beibu Gulf based on published studies. Data were obtained through eight databases up to December 19th, 2023, and were updated on April 15th, 2024. The pooled concentration of antibiotic residues in seawater was 5.90 (ng/L), ranging from 5.73 to 6.06 (ng/L), and was 8.03 (ng/g), ranging from 7.77 to 8.28 (ng/g) in sediments. Fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and macrolides were identified as the main antibiotics found in both seawater and sediment samples. The Beibu Gulf showed higher antibiotic levels in its western and northeastern areas. Additionally, the nearshore mangrove areas displayed the highest prevalence of antibiotic residues. It is strongly advised to conduct regular long-term monitoring of antibiotic residues in the Beibu Gulf. Collaborative surveys covering the entire Beibu Gulf involving China and Vietnam are recommended.

5.
J Inorg Biochem ; 257: 112599, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749082

RESUMO

The urgent global health problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) calls for the discovery of new antibiotics with innovative modes of action while considering the low toxicity to mammalian cells. This paper proposes a novel strategy for designing antibiotics with selective bacterial toxicity by exploiting the positional differences of electron transport chains (ETC) in bacterial and mammalian cells. The focus is on cytochrome c (cyt C) and its maturation system in E. coli. The catalytic oxidative activity of metallophthalocyanine (MPc), which have a distinctive M-N4 structure, is being investigated. Unlike previous applications based on light-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, this study exploits the ability of MPcs to oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+ in cyt C and catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues to interfere with cyt C maturation, disrupt the bacterial respiratory chain and selectively kills bacteria. In contrast, in mammalian cells, these MPcs are located in the lysosomes and cannot access the ETC in the mitochondria, thus achieving selective bacterial toxicity. Two MPcs that showed effective antibacterial activity in a wound infection model were identified. This study provides a valuable reference for the design of novel antibiotics based on M-N4-based metal complex molecules.

6.
Water Res ; 258: 121738, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749184

RESUMO

Antibiotic residues in aquaculture environment pose persistent threats to ecology and human health, exacerbated by salt-alkali mariculture wastewater. Yet, little is known about antibiotic removal in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) under salinity stress, especially considering TFCW constitution, configuration, and influent water characteristics. Here, the removal performance and mechanism of different TFCWs for sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs: sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim (TMP) from mariculture wastewater (with low, medium, and high salinity) were evaluated alongside comparisons of environmental factors and microbial responses. Results showed substantial reduction in alkalinity (from 8.25-8.26 to 7.65-8.18), salinity (from 3.67-11.30 ppt to 3.20-10.79 ppt), and SAs concentrations (from 7.79-15.46 mg/L to 0.25-10.00 mg/L) for mariculture wastewater using TFCWs. Zeolite and yellow flag configurations exhibited superior performance in SAs removal from mariculture wastewater. Furthermore, the salt-alkali neutralization and oxygen transport capabilities of zeolite, along with the salt-alkali tolerance and biofilm formation characteristics of yellow flag, promoted the development of a biofilm in the rhizosphere dominated by oxidative stress tolerance and facultative anaerobic traits, thereby improving the TFCW microenvironment. Consequently, aerobic (Sulfuritalea and Enterobacter) and salt-tolerant (Pseudomonas) functional bacteria involved in antibiotic degradation were selectively enriched in the zeolite- and yellow flag-TFCWs, contributing to the effective biodegradation of SAs (achieving removal efficiency of 92-97 %). Besides, the high salt-alkali levels of mariculture wastewater and the strong oxygen-enriched capacity of the TFCWs not only enhanced the aerobic oxidation reaction of SAs, but also bidirectionally inhibited the substrate adsorption and anaerobic reduction process of TMP. These findings address a critical gap by investigating the efficacy of TFCWs in removing antibiotics from mariculture wastewater under various salinity conditions, providing essential insights for optimizing wetland design and improving wastewater management in mariculture environments.

7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of knowledge on the longer-term effects of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapies upon the gut microbiome and associated outcomes. In a pilot study, we investigated longitudinal Elexacaftor/Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor (ETI) therapy on the gut microbiota, metabolomic functioning, and clinical outcomes in people with CF (pwCF). STUDY DESIGN: Faecal samples from 20 pwCF were acquired before and then following 3, 6, and 17+ months of ETI therapy. Samples were subjected to microbiota sequencing and targeted metabolomics to profile and quantify short-chain fatty acid composition. Ten healthy matched controls were included for comparison. Clinical data, including markers of intestinal function were integrated to investigate relationships. RESULTS: Extended ETI therapy increased core microbiota diversity and composition, which translated to gradual shifts in whole microbiota composition towards that observed in healthy controls. Despite becoming more similar over time, CF microbiota and functional metabolite compositions remained significantly different to healthy controls. Antibiotic treatment for pulmonary infection significantly explained a relatively large degree of variation within the whole microbiota and rarer satellite taxa. Clinical outcomes were not significantly different following ETI. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst differences persisted, a positive trajectory towards the microbiota observed in healthy controls was found. We posit that progression was predominately impeded by pulmonary antibiotics administration. We recommend future studies use integrated omics approaches within a combination of long-term longitudinal patient studies and model experimental systems. This will deepen our understanding of the impacts of CFTR modulator therapy and respiratory antibiotic interventions upon the gut microbiome and gastrointestinal pathophysiology in CF.

8.
Chemphyschem ; : e202400355, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749914

RESUMO

Currently, electrochemical sensors are in the process of being developed and widely used in various fields, and new materials are being explored to enhance the precision and selectivity of the sensors. The Fe/graphene nanoparticles were synthesized utilizing a green approach, wherein leaf extract was employed as the reducing agent. The resulting materials underwent comprehensive characterization utilizing a range of contemporary techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. The findings of the study revealed that the nanocomposites of Fe/graphene/porphyrin comprised zero-valent iron nanoparticles, exhibiting an average particle size ranging from 15 to 60 nm. These nanoparticles were seen to be evenly dispersed across the graphene sheets. The presence of nanostructure porphyrin nanofibers, measuring 20 nm in diameter, was also shown to exhibit strong integration with the surface of the Fe/graphene nanomaterials. The electrochemical properties of the Fe/graphene/porphyrin nanocomposite were also investigated, demonstrating that the prepared material could be effectively employed as a sensing electrode in the electrochemical sensor for detecting Chloramphenicol (CAP) through CV, EIS, and DPV techniques using a three-electrode electrochemical system. Under optimal conditions, Fe/graphene/porphyrin exhibited a high current response when detecting CAPs.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1382595, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756964

RESUMO

Introduction: The use of treated municipal wastewater (TWW) represents a relevant opportunity for irrigation of agricultural crops in semi-arid regions to counter the increasing water scarcity. Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are often detected in treated wastewater, posing a risk to humans and the environment. PhACs can accumulate in soils and translocate into different plant tissues, reaching, in some cases, edible organs and entering the food chain. Methods: This study evaluated the uptake and translocation processes of 10 PhACs by olive trees irrigated with TWW, investigating their accumulation in different plant organs. The experiment was conducted in southern Italy, in 2-year-old plants irrigated with three different types of water: freshwater (FW), TWW spiked with 10 PhACs at a concentration of 200 µg L-1 (1× TWW), and at a triple dose (3× TWW), from July to October 2021. The concentration of PhACs in soil and plant organs was assessed, collecting samples of root, stem, shoot, leaf, fruit, and kernel at 0 (T0), 50 (T1), and 107 (T2) days of irrigation. PhACs extraction from soil and plant organs was carried out using the QuEChERS method, and their concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography. Results: Results of uptake factors (UF) showed a different behavior between compounds according to their physicochemical properties, highlighting PhACs accumulation and translocation in different plant organs (also edible part) in 1× TWW and 3× TWW compared to FW. Two PhACs, carbamazepine and fluconazole, showed interactions with the soil-plant system, translocating also in the aerial part of the plant, with a translocation factor (TF) greater than 1, which indicates high root-to-leaf translocation. Discussion: Findings highlight that only few PhACs among the selected compounds can be uptaken by woody plants and accumulated in edible parts at low concentration. No effects of PhACs exposure on plant growth have been detected. Despite the attention to be paid to the few compounds that translocate into edible organs, these results are promising for adapting wastewater irrigation in crops. Increasing knowledge about PhACs behavior in woody plants can be important for developing optimized wastewater irrigation and soil management strategies to reduce PhACs accumulation and translocation in plants.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134626, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759403

RESUMO

This study innovated constructed an activated carbon-loaded nano-zero-valent iron (nZVI-C) enhanced membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) coupled partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) system for optimizing nitrogen and antibiotics removal. Results showed that nitrogen and antibiotic removal efficiencies of 88.45 ± 0.14% and 89.90 ± 3.07% were obtained by nZVI-C, respectively. nZVI-C hastened Nitrosomonas enrichment (relative abundance raised from 2.85% to 12.28%) by increasing tryptophan content in EPS. Furthermore, nZVI-C proliferated amo gene by 3.92 times and directly generated electrons, stimulating Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) co-metabolism activity. Concurrently, via antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) horizontal transfer, Nitrosomonas synergized with Arenimonas and Comamonadaceae for efficient antibiotic removal. Moreover, nZVI-C mitigated antibiotics inhibition of electron transfer by proliferating genes for PN and anammox electron production (hao, hdh) and utilization (amo, hzs, nir). That facilitated electron transfer and synergistic substrate conversion between ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Finally, the high nitrogen removal efficiency of the MABR-PN/A system was achieved.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In primary shoulder arthroplasty (SA), intravenous (IV) cefazolin has demonstrated lower rates of infectious complications when compared to IV vancomycin. However, previous analyses included SA cohorts with both complete and incomplete vancomycin administration. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether cefazolin still maintains a prophylactic advantage to vancomycin when it is appropriately indicated and sufficiently administered at the time of surgical incision. This study evaluated the comparative efficacy of cefazolin and complete vancomycin administration for surgical prophylaxis in primary shoulder arthroplasty with respect to infectious complications. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing a single institution total joint registry database, where all primary SA types (hemiarthroplasty, anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty) performed between 2000 to 2019 for elective and trauma indications using IV cefazolin or complete vancomycin administration as the primary antibiotic prophylaxis were identified. Vancomycin was primarily indicated for patients with a severe self-reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergy and/or MRSA colonization. Complete administration was defined as at least 30 minutes of antibiotic infusion prior to incision. All included SA had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate all-cause infectious complications including survival free of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). RESULTS: The final cohort included 7,177 primary SA, 6,879 (95.8%) received IV cefazolin and 298 (4.2%) received complete vancomycin administration. Infectious complications occurred in 120 (1.7%) SA leading to 81 (1.1%) infectious reoperations. Of the infectious complications 41 (0.6%) were superficial infections and 79 were (1.1%) PJIs. When categorized by administered antibiotics, there were no differences in rates of all infectious complications (1.6% vs. 2.3%; P = .352), superficial complications (0.5% vs. 1.3%; P = .071), PJI (1.1% vs. 1.0%; P = .874), or infectious reoperations (1.1% vs. 1.0%; P = .839). On multivariable analyses, complete vancomycin infusion demonstrated no difference in rates of infectious complications compared to cefazolin administration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70 to 3.25]; P = .297), even when other independent predictors of PJI (male sex, prior surgery, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization) were considered. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to cefazolin, complete administration of vancomycin (infusion to incision time greater than 30 minutes) as the primary prophylactic agent does not adversely increase the rates of infectious complications and PJI. Prophylaxis protocols should promote appropriate indications for the use of cefazolin or vancomycin, and when necessary, ensure complete administration of vancomycin to mitigate additional infectious risks after primary SA.

12.
Helicobacter ; 29(3): e13093, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of eight drugs effective against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains and the genetic diversity of H. pylori virulence genes to foresee clinical outcomes in North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight H. pylori strains isolated from patients suffering from various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases were included in the study. MICs of various antibiotics were determined by the agar dilution method. The chi-squared test and Fisher exact test were used to determine the p-value, which was considered significant at p-value ≤ 0.05. RStudio 4.0 was used to for the data visualization. RESULTS: The prevalence of drug resistance was found to be: cefixime (CFM) (41.3%), furazolidone (FZD) (34.4%), amoxicillin (AMX) (20.7%), levofloxacin (LVFX) (70.7%), metronidazole (MTZ) (39.6%), tetracycline (TET) (20.7%), clarithromycin (CLA) (17.2%), and rifabutin (RIF) (17.2%). Out of 58 H. pylori strains, 3 were pan susceptible. There were H. pylori strains with single-drug resistance (21.8%, 12/55), dual resistance (30.9%, 17/55), triple resistance (20%, 11/55), and multidrug resistance (27.3%, 15/55). The resistance rate in MTZ, CLA and RIF were found to be significantly higher in females as compared to males (p = 0.005, p = 0.002, and p = 0.02), respectively. The resistance to TET exhibited significantly higher levels in gastritis compared to GERD, DU, and other disease groups (p = 0.04) respectively. CONCLUSION: TET, AMX, CLA, and RIF were found to be more effective antibiotics against H. pylori infections, whereas more studies are required to provide evidence on increasing resistance rate of LVFX.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adolescente , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758048

RESUMO

Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common healthcare-associated infections, and national guidelines recommend that antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) be administered 60 min prior to incision. However, there are limited data regarding the "most optimal" time for administration within the 60-min window. Patients and Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective study of adult (≥18-year-old) patients that underwent an abdominal hysterectomy, colorectal surgery, or craniotomy and received AP within 60 min of incision. Incidence of SSI was compared between patients who received AP 0-30 versus 31-60 min of incision. In addition, a predefined subgroup analysis evaluated incidence of SSI for 15-min intervals within the 60-min timeframe. Results: Of the 277 patients included in the primary analysis, 233 (84.1%) and 44 (15.9%) received AP 0-30 min and 31-60 min prior to incision, respectively. SSIs were documented in 6.0% (14/233) versus 4.5% (2/44) of patients in the primary analysis (p = 0.703). In the secondary analysis, 137 (49.5%), 95 (34.3%), 34 (12.3%), and 11 (4.0%) patients received AP 0-15, 16-30, 31-45, and 46-60 min prior to incision, respectively. There was no difference in incidence of SSIs among the 15-min intervals (4.4% vs. 8.4% vs. 2.9% vs. 9.1%, p = 0.487). Of the 16 patients in this study that incurred a SSI, 5 patients had positive cultures, of which 3 contained bacteria that proved to be resistant to the antibiotic used for AP. Conclusions: The results of our analysis support current national guidelines. Future investigation of different intervals (e.g., AP 15-45 min prior to incision) may be beneficial on the basis of pharmacokinetics of routinely prescribed AP.

14.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(5): 174, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758250

RESUMO

Understanding patient non-adherence to prescribed antibiotics can inform clinical practices, patient counseling, and antibiotic efficacy study design in dermatology. The primary objective was to determine the rate of and reasons for antibiotic non-adherence in the dermatologic surgery setting. The secondary objective was to test the applicability of previously studied survey questions for antibiotic non-adherence screening in the dermatologic surgery setting. Five academic outpatient dermatologic surgery centers across the United States conducted one multicenter prospective cohort study. Dermatologic surgery patients ≥ 18 years of age who were prescribed an antibiotic were included as part of this study. 15.2% (42/276) of patients did not adhere to their antibiotic regimen after dermatologic surgery. Most common reasons for incomplete antibiotic courses included forgotten antibiotics (42.9%,18/42) and side effects (28.6%, 12/42). Previously evaluated questions to identify and predict non-adherence had modest performance in the dermatologic surgery setting (Area under the curve of 0.669 [95% CI (0.583-0.754)]). Antibiotic non-adherence after skin surgery is prevalent and commonly due to reasons that physicians can address with patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Adesão à Medicação , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(19): 8117-8134, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701366

RESUMO

Due to its widespread applications in various fields, antibiotics are continuously released into the environment and ultimately enter the human body through diverse routes. Meanwhile, the unreasonable use of antibiotics can also lead to a series of adverse outcomes. Pregnant women and developing fetuses are more susceptible to the influence of external chemicals than adults. The evaluation of antibiotic exposure levels through questionnaire surveys or prescriptions in medical records and biomonitoring-based data shows that antibiotics are frequently prescribed and used by pregnant women around the world. Antibiotics may be transmitted from mothers to their offspring through different pathways, which then adversely affect the health of offspring. However, there has been no comprehensive review on antibiotic exposure and mother-to-child transmission in pregnant women so far. Herein, we summarized the exposure levels of antibiotics in pregnant women and fetuses, the exposure routes of antibiotics to pregnant women, and related influencing factors. In addition, we scrutinized the potential mechanisms and factors influencing the transfer of antibiotics from mother to fetus through placental transmission, and explored the adverse effects of maternal antibiotic exposure on fetal growth and development, neonatal gut microbiota, and subsequent childhood health. Given the widespread use of antibiotics and the health threats posed by their exposure, it is necessary to comprehensively track antibiotics in pregnant women and fetuses in the future, and more in-depth biological studies are needed to reveal and verify the mechanisms of mother-to-child transmission, which is crucial for accurately quantifying and evaluating fetal health status.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Exposição Materna , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Troca Materno-Fetal , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1447: 131-138, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724790

RESUMO

The treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) with oral treatments has been limited in the past due to the increased risk of adverse effects associated with oral agents. However, in recent years, a shift toward the minimization of adverse effects has been explored. Although existing treatment options like oral corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive therapies have been utilized for acute flare-ups of AD, their long-term use is limited by adverse effects and the need for lab monitoring. New systemic treatment options such as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are emerging as a promising therapy, due to their quick onset and antipruritic features. However, the black box warning associated with this medication class requires careful selection of appropriate candidates and patient education despite early favorable safety profiles seen in AD trials. Discussion of other oral agents, like antibiotics and antihistamines, and their role in AD management are also clarified.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Humanos , Administração Oral , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos
17.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1362678, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751720

RESUMO

Cryoconite is a granular structure present on the glaciers and ice sheets found in polar regions including the Himalayas. It is composed of organic and inorganic matter which absorb solar radiations and reduce ice surface albedo, therefore impacting the melting and retreat of glaciers. Though climate warming has a serious impact on Himalayan glaciers, the biodiversity of sub-glacier ecosystems is poorly understood. Moreover, cryoconite holes are unique habitats for psychrophile biodiversity hotspots in the NW Himalayas, but unfortunately, studies on the microbial diversity of such habitats remain elusive. Therefore, the current study was designed to explore the bacterial diversity of the Hamtah Glacier Himalaya using both culturable and non-culturable approaches. The culturable bacterial count ranged from 2.0 × 103 to 8.8 × 105 colony-forming units (CFUs)/g at the different locations of the glacier. A total of 88 bacterial isolates were isolated using the culturable approach. Based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA), the identified species belong to seven genera, namely, Cryobacterium, Duganella, Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, Peribacillus, Psychrobacter, and Sphingomonas. In the non-culturable approach, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (using MiSeq) showed unique bacterial community profiles and represented 440 genera belonging to 20 phyla, namely, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Spirochaetes, Elusimicrobia, Armatimonadetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Nitrospirae, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Deferribacteres, Fusobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and others. High relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were observed in the samples. Phototrophic (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) and nitrifier (Nitrospirae) in bacterial populations indicated sustenance of the micro-ecosystem in the oligotrophic glacier environment. The isolates varied in their phenotypic characteristics, enzyme activities, and antibiotic sensitivity. Furthermore, the fatty acid profiles of bacterial isolates indicate the predominance of branched fatty acids. Iso-, anteiso-, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids together constituted a major proportion of the total fatty acid composition. High cold-adapted enzyme activities such as lipase and cellulase expressed by Cryobacterium arcticum (KY783365) and protease and cellulase activities by Pseudomonas sp. strains (KY783373, KY783377-79, KY783382) provide evidence of the possible applications of these organisms. Additionally, antibiotic tests indicated that most isolates were sensitive to antibiotics. In conclusion, the present study contributed for the first time to bacterial diversity and biopotentials of cryoconites of Hamtah Glacier, Himalayas. Furthermore, the cold-adapted enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may provide an opportunity for biotechnology in the Himalayas. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) analyses showed the presence of several elements in cryoconites, providing a clue for the accelerating melting and retreating of the Hamtah glacier.

18.
Iran J Med Sci ; 49(5): 302-312, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751872

RESUMO

Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health concern that has been exacerbated by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, leading to the emergence of resistant bacteria. The gut microbiota, often influenced by antibiotic usage, plays a crucial role in overall health. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistant genes in the gut microbiota of Indonesian coastal and highland populations, as well as to identify vancomycin-resistant bacteria and their resistant genes. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 22 individuals residing in Pacet, Mojokerto, and Kenjeran, Surabaya Indonesia in 2022. The read count of antibiotic resistant genes was analyzed in the collected samples, and the bacterium concentration was counted by plating on the antibiotic-containing agar plate. Vancomycin-resistant strains were further isolated, and the presence of vancomycin-resistant genes was detected using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The antibiotic resistant genes for tetracycline, aminoglycosides, macrolides, beta-lactams, and vancomycin were found in high frequency in all stool samples (100%) of the gut microbiota. Meanwhile, those meant for chloramphenicol and sulfonamides were found in 86% and 16% of the samples, respectively. Notably, vancomycin-resistant genes were found in 16 intrinsically resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. Among the detected vancomycin-resistant genes, vanG was the most prevalent (27.3%), while vanA was the least prevalent (4.5%). Conclusion: The presence of multiple vancomycin resistance genes in intrinsically resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota as a reservoir and hub for the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant genes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Indonésia , Resistência a Vancomicina/genética , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Adulto , Genes Bacterianos
19.
Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr ; 19(1): 21-25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752192

RESUMO

Aim: This study has investigated cases of pin site infection (PSI) which required surgery for persistent osteomyelitis (OM) despite pin removal. Materials and methods: Patients requiring surgery for OM after PSI between 2011 and 2021 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Single-stage surgery was performed in accordance with a protocol at one institution. This involved deep sampling, debridement, implantation of local antibiotics, culture-specific systemic antibiotics and soft tissue closure. A successful outcome was defined as an infection-free interval of at least 24 months following surgery. Results: Twenty-seven patients were identified (the sites were 22 tibias, 2 humeri, 2 calcanei, 1 radius); about 85% of them were males with a median age of 53.9 years. The majority of infections (21/27) followed fracture treatment. Fifteen patients were classified as BACH uncomplicated and 12 were BACH complex. Staphylococci were the most common pathogens, polymicrobial infections were detected in five cases (19%). Seven patients required flap coverage which was performed in the same operation.After a median of 3.99 years (2.00-8.05) follow-up, all patients remained infection free at the site of the former OM. Wound leakage after local antibiotic treatment was seen in 3/27 (11.1%) cases but did not require further treatment. Conclusion: Osteomyelitis after PSI is uncommon but has major implications for the patient as 7 patients needed flap coverage. This reinforces the need for careful pin placement and pin site care to prevent deep infection. These infections were treated in accordance with a protocol and were not managed simply by curettage. All patients treated in this manner remained infection-free after a minimum follow-up of 2 years suggesting that this protocol is effective. Clinical significance: Pin site infection is a very common complication in external fixation. The sequela of a chronic pin site OM is rare but the implications to the patient are huge. In this series, more than a quarter of patients required flap coverage as part of the treatment of the deep infection. How to cite this article: Frank FA, Pomeroy E, Hotchen AJ, et al. Clinical Outcome following Management of Severe Osteomyelitis due to Pin Site Infection. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2024;19(1):21-25.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 173251, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750731

RESUMO

Citizen scientist-based environmental monitoring and public education are becoming increasingly popular. However, current technologies for antibiotic-based novel contaminant identification are still restricted to laboratory sample collection and analysis due to detection methodologies and apparatus limitations. This study developed a time-resolved immunofluorescence-based simultaneous field-based assay for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin (ENR) that matches test results to geographic locations. The assay helps the public understand the potential levels of antibiotic exposures in their environments and helps them take appropriate action to reduce risk. The assay was developed using smartphones and social software in addition to rapid testing. The method uses a portable, low-cost analytical kit with a smartphone app to build a field-based detection platform for the detection and analysis of ENR and CIP in water and aquatic products. The methodological evaluation was good, with detection limits of 0.4 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/g for ENR in water and fish, and quantification limits of 1.2 ng/mL and 1.4 ng/g, with recoveries of 89.0 %-101.0 % and 78.0 %-97.0 %. For CIP in water and fish, the limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL and 0.4 ng/g, the limits of quantification were 0.9 ng/mL and 1.2 ng/g, and the recoveries were 75.0 %-91.0 % and 72.0 %-89.0 %, both with coefficients of variation <15 %. These limits were sufficient to prevent the two antibiotics from crossing over during simultaneous detection. The assay was validated using real samples to assess the effectiveness of the assay platform in field deployments, and the results were consistent with those obtained through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) techniques. In addition, the TRFIA assay process requires less time, uses more portable instruments, and is less complex than traditional methods. This study provides a new scientific, accurate, and rapid detection method for antibiotic detection by citizen scientists, helping scientists to obtain a wider range of data and providing more opportunities to solve scientific problems.

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