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1.
Regen Biomater ; 11: rbad114, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313825

RESUMO

The presence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) at a skin wound site is an important factor affecting wound healing. ROS scavenging, which regulates the ROS microenvironment, is essential for wound healing. In this study, we used novel electrospun PCL/gelatin/arbutin (PCL/G/A) nanofibrous membranes as wound dressings, with PCL/gelatin (PCL/G) as the backbone, and plant-derived arbutin (hydroquinone-ß-d-glucopyranoside, ARB) as an effective antioxidant that scavenges ROS and inhibits bacterial infection in wounds. The loading of ARB increased the mechanical strength of the nanofibres, with a water vapour transmission rate of more than 2500 g/(m2 × 24 h), and the water contact angle decreased, indicating that hydrophilicity and air permeability were significantly improved. Drug release and degradation experiments showed that the nanofibre membrane controlled the drug release and exhibited favourable degradability. Haemolysis experiments showed that the PCL/G/A nanofibre membranes were biocompatible, and DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging experiments indicated that PCL/G/A could effectively scavenge ROS to reflect the antioxidant activity. In addition, haemostasis experiments showed that PCL/G/A had good haemostatic effects in vitro and in vivo. In vivo animal wound closure and histological staining experiments demonstrated that PCL/G/A increased collagen deposition and remodelled epithelial tissue regeneration while showing good in vivo biocompatibility and non-toxicity. In conclusion, we successfully prepared a multifunctional wound dressing, PCL/G/A, for skin wound healing and investigated its potential role in wound healing, which is beneficial for the clinical translational application of phytomedicines.

2.
Foods ; 13(2)2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254547

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the content of selected phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and the levels of arbutin and hydroquinone in 25 varieties of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) leaf samples. An analysis of the bioactive components was performed using the HPLC technique and the antioxidant activity was determined via spectrophotometric methods. The content of chlorogenic acid in the analysed leaf extracts ranged from 52.76 mg/g (Spartan variety) to 32.37 mg/g (Nelson variety) and was present in the highest concentration among all the analysed phenolic acids. Particularly large levels of isoquercetin were found in the Aurora, Ivanhoe and Toro varieties (28.40 mg/g, 26.24 mg/g and 21.57 mg/g, respectively). An exceptionally high rutin content (p < 0.05) was found in the Ivanhoe variety (27.19 mg/g) as compared to the other varieties, where it ranged from 2.06 mg/g (Earliblue and Patriot varieties) to 10.55 mg/g (Bluejay variety). The Patriot variety was determined to possess the highest antioxidative activity using the FRAP method (1086.15 µmol Trolox/g d.w.) and based on its DPPH radical scavenging activity (1124.17 µmol Trolox/g d.w.). The total phenolic content (TPC) determined via spectrophotometry ranged from 48.11 mg GAE/g d.w. (Elizabeth variety) to 177.31 GAE/g d.w. (Patriot variety). The arbutin content in the leaves of all tested varieties exceeded 2%, so it can be concluded that they constitute a stable source of arbutin. Three varieties (Bonus, Chanticleer and Herbert) can be considered a potential alternative to bearberry and lingonberry leaves. The hydroquinone content in the analysed extracts was determined to be at a lower level. V. corymbosum leaves can be considered an interesting herbal material for use in traditional herbal medicinal products but not directly for food products and dietary supplements.

3.
Acta Parasitol ; 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pyrus boissieriana is a rich source of arbutin and has been used in herbal medicine to treat infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the arbutin-rich fraction of Pyrus boissieriana aerial parts on Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and In Vivo. METHODS: An arbutin-rich fraction of P. boissieriana was prepared beforehand. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1-512 µg/ml) of the P. boissieriana arbutin-rich fraction on Toxoplasma tachyzoites (RH strain). The cytotoxicity of the concentrations on the macrophage J774 cell line was also investigated by MTT assay. For In Vivo investigation, 4-6-week-old female mice infected with the RH strain of T. gondii were treated with different doses (16, 32, 64, 256, and 512 mg/kg) of the fraction using gavage. RESULTS: The highest and lowest lethality of the tachyzoites were 89.6% and 25.9% related to the concentrations of 512 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml, respectively, with an IC50 value of 18.1 µg/ml ± 0.37. The cytotoxicity test showed an IC50 value of 984.3 µg/ml ± 0.76 after 48 h incubation. The mean survival of mice at the lowest treated dose (16 mg/kg) was 6.6 days, and it was 15 days at the highest dose (512 mg/kg). The concentrations of 512, 256, 128, and 64 mg/kg of the fraction compared to the negative control (6.2 days mean survival) significantly increased the survival time of mice (P < 0.001, P = 0.009, P = 0.018, and P = 0.021, respectively). CONCLUSION: The results showed that the arbutin-rich fraction of P. boissieriana is effective against T. gondii In Vitro and In Vivo and may be a reliable alternative to conventional treatment for toxoplasmosis, although further studies are necessary.

4.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 196: 114181, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224755

RESUMO

Hyperpigmentation, a prevalent dermatological condition characterized by melanin overproduction, poses treatment challenges due to the hydrophilicity of alpha-arbutin, a widely utilized tyrosinase inhibitor. This study investigates the efficacy of dissolving microneedles (DMNs) in augmenting skin permeation for alpha-arbutin delivery to the targeted epidermal site. Porcine full-thickness skin was employed in a 24-hour Franz cell study, commencing with the assessment of commercial alpha-arbutin-containing products. Solid steel microneedles (CMNs) from Dermapen® were utilized as both pre- and post-treatment modalities to evaluate the influence of different applications on alpha-arbutin delivery. Additionally, alpha-arbutin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate (PVPVA) DMNs, containing 2 % w/w alpha-arbutin, were fabricated and examined for their permeation-enhancing capabilities. HPLC analysis and 3D Orbitrap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (OrbiSIMS) were employed to quantify and visualize alpha-arbutin in various Franz cell components. Results indicate that alpha-arbutin permeation to the skin was restricted (less than 1 %) without microneedle application and significantly increased by 6-fold (4-5 %) with post-treatment CMNs and DMNs, but not with pre-treatment CMNs. Notably, DMNs exhibited a more sustainable and robust capacity than post-treatment CMNs. OrbiSIMS imaging analysis revealed that DMNs visually enhance skin permeation of alpha-arbutin by delivering the compound to the basal layer of the targeted skin location. Overall, this study underscores the potential of DMNs as a promising delivery system for promoting targeted intradermal delivery of alpha-arbutin, providing a comprehensive exploration of various methodologies to identify innovative and improved microneedle approaches for alpha-arbutin permeation.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Nevo Pigmentado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Suínos , Animais , Administração Cutânea , Pele , Epiderme , Polímeros , Agulhas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos
5.
Life (Basel) ; 14(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38255699

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the biotransformation capabilities of a hydroquinone-tolerant Digitalis purpurea cell line (DpHQ) for bioconverting hydroquinone (HQ) into arbutin, a compound with significant therapeutic and cosmetic applications. The research evaluated the influence of various HQ concentrations, feeding protocols, and carbon sources on arbutin bioconversion yield. By using HPLC-MS for the quantification of arbutin in biomass and medium, the study revealed that higher precursor (HQ) concentration led to a more pronounced growth inhibition under single dosing than sequential dosing. At lower sugar (3%) and precursor (4 mM HQ) levels, arbutin predominantly remained within the cells, whereas higher sugar (6%) and HQ (5-6 mM) levels promoted its release into the medium. Arbutin production ranged from 591 mg/L under single dosing to 3049 mg/L with sequential dosing, with the highest yield being achieved with 5 mM HQ in divided doses and 6% glucose. This study holds novelty for being the first to demonstrate the DpHQ's tolerance to high concentrations of HQ and its efficient capabilities to bioconvert HQ to arbutin, indicating that D. purpurea is equipped with the enzymes required for this process. These aspects highlight its potential as a biotechnological source for arbutin synthesis.

6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(1): 24, 2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057640

RESUMO

α-Arbutin, a naturally occurring glycosylated derivative of hydroquinone (HQ), effectively inhibits melanin biosynthesis in epidermal cells. It is widely recognized as a fourth-generation whitening agent within the cosmetic industry. Currently, enzymatic catalysis is universally deemed the safest and most efficient method for α-arbutin synthesis. Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase), one of the most frequently employed glycosyltransferases, has been extensively reported for α-arbutin synthesis. In this study, a previously reported SPase known for its effectiveness in synthesizing α-arbutin, was used as a probe sequence to identify a novel SPase from Paenibacillus elgii (PeSP) in the protein database. The sequence similarity between PeSP and the probe was 39.71%, indicating a degree of novelty. Subsequently, the gene encoding PeSP was coexpressed with the molecular chaperone pG-Tf2 in Escherichia coli, significantly improving PeSP's solubility. Following this, PeSP was characterized and employed for α-arbutin biosynthesis. The specific activity of co-expressed PeSP reached 169.72 U/mg, exhibited optimal activity at 35℃ and pH 7.0, with a half-life of 3.6 h under the condition of 35℃. PeSP demonstrated excellent stability at pH 6.5-8.5 and sensitivity to high concentrations of metal ions. The kinetic parameters Km and kcat/Km were determined to be 14.50 mM and 9.79 min- 1·mM- 1, respectively.The reaction conditions for α-arbutin biosynthesis using recombinant PeSP were optimized, resulting in a maximum α-arbutin concentration of 52.60 g/L and a HQ conversion rate of 60.9%. The optimal conditions were achieved at 30℃ and pH 7.0 with 200 U/mL of PeSP, and by combining sucrose and hydroquinone at a molar ratio of 5:1 for a duration of 25 h.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Hidroquinonas , Hidroquinonas/metabolismo , Arbutina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo
7.
Reprod Biol ; 23(4): 100824, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37976616

RESUMO

Arbutin (ARB) is a glycosylated hydroquinone with potent antioxidant effects. Although cisplatin (CP) is widely used in chemotherapy, its toxicity in healthy tissues, including ovotoxicity, is an insurmountable problem. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of ARB against CP-related ovototoxicity by including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in rats for the first time. Rats treated one dose of CP (5 mg/kg) on the first day, followed by ARB (5 and 10 mg/kg) for three days. Serum reproductive hormone levels were determined using ELISA kits. Oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis markers in ovarian tissue were also determined colorimetrically. In addition, how CP affects Nrf2 pathway and the effect of ARB on this situation were also addressed. ARB treatment reduced the levels of markers of OS, inflammation, ERS and apoptosis in ovarian tissue of CP-stimulated animals. ARB regenerated the depleted antioxidant system by triggering Nrf2 pathway in the ovarian tissues of animals stimulated by CP. Histological findings also supported the therapeutic efficacy of ARB. The results indicate that ARB may have therapeutic effects against CP-induced reproductive toxicity with its Nrf2 activator potential. ARB should be tested in more extensive studies as a new generation chemopreventive candidate molecule.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Ratos , Animais , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Arbutina/farmacologia , Arbutina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Inflamação/metabolismo , Apoptose
8.
Reprod Toxicol ; 122: 108476, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37783241

RESUMO

Arbutin, a widely used skin lightening agent, has raised concerns regarding its potential side effects. In this study, we investigated the impact of arbutin on Leydig cell function using an in vitro model. We measured medium androgen levels, as well as the gene and protein expression related to Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Rat immature Leydig cells from age of 35 days were exposed to arbutin at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 50 µM for a duration of 3 hrs. Following treatment, we observed a significant inhibition of androgen secretion by Leydig cells at both the 5 and 50 µM concentrations of arbutin. Furthermore, at a concentration of 50 µM, arbutin effectively blocked the stimulatory effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) and 8Br-cAMP on androgen secretion. Subsequent analysis revealed that arbutin downregulated the expression of crucial genes involved in androgen production, including Lhcgr, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Srd5a1. In silico computer program analysis predicted that arbutin exhibits good absorption, possesses a long elimination half-life, and may have other potential toxicity such as hepatoxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that arbutin negatively influences Leydig cell function and androgen production, potentially impacting male reproductive health.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Androgênios/toxicidade , Arbutina/metabolismo , Arbutina/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hormônio Luteinizante , Testosterona/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 490, 2023 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arbutus unedo L. is a wild tree of Mediterranean regions used as food and in traditional medicine and important for afforestation programs. There is no detailed information available on the variation of A. unedo leaves metabolome across the seasons. The leaves were analyzed by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR)-based metabolomics, comparing samples harvested across the seasons and in ten different natural habitats of Sardinia (Italy). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed the impact of seasonal variation on the metabolome: glucose and quinic acid increased in summer, while in spring sucrose was accumulated. ß-Arbutin, the main known active principle of A. unedo, generally reached the highest concentration in autumn. In winter, O-ß-methylglucose, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), flavonols (quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnoside), catechin, and gallocatechin increased. Characteristic metabolomic features were found also for samples collected in different locations. For instance, trees growing at the highest altitude and exposed to lower temperatures produced less flavonols and catechins. The only sample collected on trees growing on limestones, dolomites, and dolomitic limestones type of soil showed generally the highest content of arbutin. The highest phenolics content was found during spring, while samples collected on flowering branches in winter were the ones with the highest flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity was also variated, ranging from 1.3 to 10.1 mg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL of extract, and it was positively correlated to both total phenolics and flavonoid content. Winter samples showed the lowest antibacterial activity, while summer and autumn ones exhibited the highest activity (IC50 values ranging from 17.3 to 42.3 µg/mL against Staphylococcal species). CONCLUSION: This work provides 1 H-NMR fingerprinting of A. unedo leaves, elucidating the main metabolites and their variations during seasons. On the basis of arbutin content, autumn could be considered the balsamic period of this taxon. Samples collected in this season were also the most active ones as antibacterial. Moreover, an interesting metabolomic profile enriched in catechins and flavonols was observed in leaves collected in winter on flowering branches which were endowed with high antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Arbutina , Estações do Ano , Arbutina/análise , Arbutina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ecossistema , Antibacterianos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
10.
Heliyon ; 9(9): e19326, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681127

RESUMO

Alpha arbutin is a skin-whitening agent in cosmetics. Structurally, it is 4-hydroxyphenyl-α-glucopyranoside. Ethosomes encourage the formation of lamellar-shaped vesicles with improved solubility and entrapment of whitening agents. The objective of this study was to fabricate an optimized nanostructured ethosomal gel loaded with alpha arbutin for the treatment of skin pigmentation. Different ethosomal suspensions of alpha arbutin were prepared by the cold method. Invitro evaluation included zeta potential, droplet size analysis, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency (EE), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Stability studies of the optimized ethosomal and control gels were performed for three months under different temperature conditions. The optimized ethosomal gel loaded with alpha arbutin was further analyzed on human volunteers for skin benefits by measuring melanin level, moisture content and elasticity. It was concluded that the optimized formulation had a size, zeta potential, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency of 196.87 nm, -45.140 mV, 0.217 and 93.458343%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depicted spherical ethosomal vesicles. Stability data was obtained in terms of pH and conductivity. Rheological analysis revealed non-Newtonian flow. The cumulative drug permeated for ethosomal gel was 78.4%. Moreover, encapsulation of alpha arbutin causes significant improvement in skin melanin, moisture content and elasticity. The overall findings suggested that the arbutin-loaded ethosomal formulation was stable and could be a better approach than conventional formulation for cosmeceutical purposes such as for depigmentation and moisturizing effects.

11.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(11): e202301112, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37726205

RESUMO

Natural products isolation studies of eight endemic Tasmanian Proteaceae species - Agastachys odorata, Persoonia juniperina, Hakea megadenia, Hakea epiglottis, Orites diversifolius, Orites acicularis, Orites revolutus, and Telopea truncata - and three endemic Australian Proteaceae species Banksia serrata, Banksia praemorsa, and Banksia marginata were undertaken. Two previously unreported glycoside-derived natural products were identified, in addition to four other tremendously rare arbutin esters. The results of this study provide further evidence consistent with the proposal that these distinctive arbutin esters represent markers that can provide valuable insights into the chemical evolution of plant species within the family Proteaceae.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Proteaceae , Austrália , Arbutina , Glicosídeos
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(20): 6193-6204, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597019

RESUMO

ß-Arbutin is a plant-derived glycoside and widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries because of its safe and effective skin-lightening property as well as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities. In recent years, microbial fermentation has become a highly promising method for the production of ß-arbutin. However, this method suffers from low titer and low yield, which has become the bottleneck for its widely industrial application. In this study, we used ß-arbutin to demonstrate methods for improving yields for industrial-scale production in Escherichia coli. First, the supply of precursors phosphoenolpyruvate and uridine diphosphate glucose was improved, leading to a 4.6-fold increase in ß-arbutin production in shaking flasks. The engineered strain produced 36.12 g/L ß-arbutin with a yield of 0.11 g/g glucose in a 3-L bioreactor. Next, based on the substrate and product's structural similarity, an endogenous O-acetyltransferase was identified as responsible for 6-O-acetylarbutin formation for the first time. Eliminating the formation of byproducts, including 6-O-acetylarbutin, tyrosine, and acetate, resulted in an engineered strain producing 43.79 g/L ß-arbutin with a yield of 0.22 g/g glucose in fed-batch fermentation. Thus, the yield increased twofold by eliminating byproducts formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer and yield of ß-arbutin ever reported, paving the way for the industrial production of ß-arbutin. This study demonstrated a systematic strategy to alleviate undesirable byproduct accumulation and improve the titer and yield of target products. KEY POINTS: • A systematic strategy to improve titer and yield was showed • Genes responsible for 6-O-acetylarbutin formation were firstly identified • 43.79 g/L ß-arbutin was produced in bioreactor, which is the highest titer so far.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(17): 5317-5328, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37428188

RESUMO

Glucoside compounds are widely found in nature and have garnered significant attention in the medical, cosmetics, and food industries due to their diverse pharmaceutical properties, biological activities, and stable application characteristics. Glycosides are mainly obtained by direct extraction from plants, chemical synthesis, and enzymatic synthesis. Given the challenges associated with plant extraction, such as low conversion rates and the potential for environmental pollution with chemical synthesis, our review focuses on enzymatic synthesis. Here, we reviewed the enzymatic synthesis methods of 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), 2-O-α-D-glucosyl glycerol (α-GG), arbutin and α-glucosyl hesperidin (Hsp-G), and other glucoside compounds. The types of enzymes selected in the synthesis process are comprehensively analyzed and summarized, as well as a series of enzyme transformation strategies adopted to improve the synthetic yield. KEY POINTS: • Glycosyl compounds have applications in the biomedical and food industries. • Enzymatic synthesis converts substrates into products using enzymes as catalysts. • Substrate bias and specificity are key to improving substrate conversion.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Glucosídeos , Arbutina
14.
Pharm Chem J ; 57(2): 284-295, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37313437

RESUMO

Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. (family: Sapotaceae), commonly known as Mahua in Indian dialects, occupies the importance as one of the fuel-efficient, energy-saving plant species. Extensive studies showed that the presence of phytochemicals e.g., carbohydrates, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids and glycosidic compounds in the extract of this species. Pharmacologically, it has been used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine, inckuding antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic and wound healing activities. This review highlights various pharmacological activities, phytochemistry and importance of M. indica plant for medicine.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(26): 68101-68110, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37119491

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent anticancer drug widely employed in chemotherapy against various types of cancer. However, CP leads to toxicity to non-targeted organs, including the liver and this limits its clinical use. This study explored the role of arbutin (ARB) against CP-mediated oxidative and inflammatory reactions and hepatotoxicity. Rats were administered ARB (25 and 50 mg/kg) for 14 days and CP (150 mg/kg). CP triggered liver tissue injury with marked increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) coupled with diminution of GSH, SOD, catalase, and GPx. Liver NF-kB p65, NOS, IL-6, TNF-α, Bax and caspase-3 were upregulated by CP injection and IL-10 and Bcl-2 were decreased. ARB prevented liver injury, suppressed MDA, NO, NF-kB p65, inflammatory markers, Bax and caspase-3 in CP-treated rats. ARB restored antioxidants, IL-10 and Bcl-2, and enhanced Nrf2 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO) both gene and protein in the liver of rats. In conclusion, these results pinpointed the protective role of ARB on oxidative and inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, and hepatotoxicity in rats. This hepatoprotective activity was linked to the ability of ARB to modulate Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Ratos , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Arbutina/efeitos adversos , Arbutina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Estresse Oxidativo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fígado , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37046986

RESUMO

The inhibition of tyrosinase (TYR) activity is an effective measure to inhibit melanin synthesis. At present, there are many methods with discrepant details that study the TYR inhibitory activity of samples. Under the same experimental conditions, this paper systematically studies whether enzyme species and sample addition methods are the key factors that determine the TYR inhibitory activity of samples. TYRs extracted from B16F10 cells, apple and mushroom, called BTYR, ATYR and MTYR, respectively, were selected to implement this study. Results showed that TYR inhibitory activities of samples were obviously affected by the above two factors. It was necessary to select the appropriate enzyme according to the problems to be explained. It was speculated that indirectly inhibitory activity reflected the comprehensive effects of samples on TYR catalytic activity and intracellular TYR synthesis pathway, while directly inhibitory activity reflected the effects of samples on TYR catalytic activity. Additionally, kojic acid could be used as a positive control for both B16F10 cells and MTYR models. The TYR inhibitory activity of ß-arbutin was complicated and fickle, while that of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was universal and stable, which is to say, EGCG always inhibited TYR activity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the TYR inhibitory activities of samples were affected by enzyme species and sample addition methods. Compared with the unstable ß-arbutin, EGCG was more valuable for clinical research.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Arbutina/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Melaninas/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 28(8)2023 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37110793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of Sardinian pear germplasm has received limited attention regarding its chemical composition. Understanding this composition can aid in the setting up of resilient, extensive groves that offer multiple products and ecosystem services. This research aimed at investigating the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds of ancient pear cultivars grown extensively in Sardinia (Italy); Methods: the cultivars Buttiru, Camusina, Spadona, and Coscia (as a reference) were compared. Fruit samples were manually peeled and cut. Their flesh, peel, core, and peduncle were frozen separately, lyophilized, and milled before being analysed; Results: The content of total phenolics (TotP), total flavonoids (TotF), condensed tannins (CT), and antioxidant capacity in each fruit part varied significantly among the cultivars. The TotP content was high in the peduncle (42.2-58.8 g GAE kg-1 DM) and low in flesh (6.4-17.7 g GAE kg-1 DM); Conclusions: the highest values of antioxidant capacity, TotP, NTP, TotF, and CT were found in the flesh of the cultivar Buttiru and in the peel of the cultivar Camusina. Chlorogenic acid was the major individual phenolic compound in peel, flesh and core, whereas arbutin was mostly present in the peduncle. Results can contribute to revise target exploitations of underutilized ancient pear cultivars.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Pyrus , Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Pyrus/química , Ecossistema , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fenóis/química , Flavonoides/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise
18.
Life Sci ; 321: 121612, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36948387

RESUMO

Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone with antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemia effects. However, its beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes (T2D) were not clarified. This study evaluated the effect of arbutin on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in T2D. Rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin were treated with arbutin (25 and 50 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited glucose intolerance, elevated HbA1c%, reduced insulin, and high HOMA-IR. Liver glycogen and hexokinase activity were decreased in T2D rats while glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), fructose-1,6- biphosphatase (FBPase), and glycogen phosphorylase were upregulated. Circulating and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides and serum transaminases were elevated in T2D rats. Arbutin ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin deficiency and resistance, and liver glycogen and alleviated the activity of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Both doses of arbutin decreased serum transaminases and resistin, and liver lipids, TNF-α, IL-6, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, downregulated liver resistin and fatty acid synthase, and increased serum and liver adiponectin, and liver reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These effects were associated with the upregulation of hepatic PPARγ. Arbutin inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro and in silico investigations revealed the ability of arbutin to bind PPARγ, hexokinase, and α-glucosidase. In conclusion, arbutin effectively ameliorated glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and modulated carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, antioxidants, adipokines and PPARγ in T2D in rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Ratos , Animais , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Resistina/metabolismo , Resistina/farmacologia , Resistina/uso terapêutico , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Arbutina/farmacologia , Arbutina/uso terapêutico , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Glicogênio Hepático/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Insulina/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/metabolismo
19.
Tissue Cell ; 82: 102056, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36921493

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arbutin (ARB) administration on oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in an experimental testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced testicular injury model for the first time. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group: sham control, T/D, T/D+ARB (50 mg/kg) and T/D+ARB (100 mg/kg). Torsion and detorsion times were applied as 4 h and 2 h, respectively. The levels of lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and oxidative stress [total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS)] in testicular tissues were determined using colorimetric methods. The levels of DNA damage [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)], antioxidant system [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], pro-inflammatory cytokines [high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), nuclear factor kappa B protein 65 (NF-κB p65), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)], ER stress [78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)] and apoptosis (caspase-3) markers in testicular tissues were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Johnsen's testicle scoring system was used for histological evaluation. In the T/D group, it was determined that statistically significant increasing in the levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, ER stress and apoptosis compared with sham control group (p < 0.05). ARB administrations statistically significantly restored testicular I/R damage in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05). In addition, it was determined that the data of histological examinations supported the biochemical results. Our findings support the hypothesis that ARB may be used as a protective agent against T/D-induced testicular damage.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Torção do Cordão Espermático , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Testículo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Arbutina/metabolismo , Arbutina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Torção do Cordão Espermático/tratamento farmacológico , Torção do Cordão Espermático/metabolismo , Torção do Cordão Espermático/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Inflamação/patologia , Isquemia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(9): 2897-2910, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37000229

RESUMO

α-Arbutin has been widely used as a skin-whitening ingredient. Previously, we successfully produced α-arbutin via whole-cell biocatalysis and found that the conversion rate of sucrose to α-arbutin was low (~45%). To overcome this issue, herein, we knocked out the genes of enzymes related to the sucrose hydrolysis, including sacB, sacC, levB, and sacA. The sucrose consumption was reduced by 17.4% in 24 h, and the sucrose conversion rate was increased to 51.5%. Furthermore, we developed an inducible protein degradation system with Lon protease isolated from Mesoplasma florum (MfLon) and proteolytic tag to control the PfkA activity, so that more fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) can be converted into glucose-1-phosphate (Glc1P) for α-arbutin synthesis, which can reduce the addition of sucrose and increase the sucrose conversion efficiency. Finally, the pathway of F6P to Glc1P was enhanced by integrating another copy of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (Pgi) and phosphoglucomutase (PgcA); a high α-arbutin titer (~120 g/L) was obtained. The sucrose conversion rate was increased to 60.4% (mol/mol). In this study, the substrate utilization rate was boosted due to the attenuation of its hydrolysis and the assistance of the intracellular enzymes that converted the side product back into the substrate for α-arbutin synthesis. This strategy provides a new idea for the whole-cell biocatalytic synthesis of other products using sucrose as substrate, especially valuable glycosides.Key points The genes of sucrose metabolic pathway were knocked out to reduce the sucrose consumption. The by-product fructose was reused to synthesize α-arbutin. The optimized whole-cell system improved sucrose conversion by 15.3%.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Sacarose , Biocatálise , Sacarose/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Glicosídeos
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