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2.
Physiol Rep ; 12(3): e15945, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328863

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a complex network of 10-100 amino acid sequence molecules widely distributed in nature. While over 300 AMPs have been described in mammals, cathelicidins and defensins remain the most extensively studied. Some publications have explored the role of AMPs in COVID-19, but these findings are preliminary, and in vivo studies are still lacking. In this study, we report the plasma levels of five AMPs (LL-37, α-defensin 1, α-defensin 3, ß-defensin 1, and ß-defensin 3), using the ELISA technique (MyBioSource, San Diego, CA, United States, kits MBS2601339 (beta-defensin 1), MBS2602513 (beta-defensin 3), MBS703879 (alpha-defensin 1), MBS706289 (alpha-defensin 3), MBS7234921 (LL37)), and the measurement of six cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), through the magnetic bead immunoassay Milliplex® and the MAGPIX® System (MilliporeSigma, Darmstadt, Germany, kit HCYTOMAG-60 K (cytokines)), in 15 healthy volunteers, 36 COVID-19 patients without Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and 17 COVID-19 patients with AKI. We found increased levels of α-defensin 1, α-defensin 3 and ß-defensin 3, in our COVID-19 population, when compared to healthy controls, along with higher levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings suggest that these AMPs and cytokines may play a crucial role in the systemic inflammatory response and tissue damage characterizing severe COVID-19. The levels of α-defensin 1 and α-defensin 3 were significantly higher in COVID-19 AKI group in comparison to the non-AKI group. Furthermore, IL-10 and the product IL-10 × IL-1B showed excellent performance in discriminating AKI, with AUCs of 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. Among patients with COVID-19, AMPs may play a key role in the inflammation process and disease progression. Additionally, α-defensin 1 and α-defensin 3 may mediate the AKI process in these patients, representing an opportunity for further research and potential therapeutic alternatives in the future.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , alfa-Defensinas , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-10 , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Interleucina-6 , Interferon gama , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Mamíferos/metabolismo
3.
Indian J Med Res ; 158(3): 303-310, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815071

RESUMO

Background & objectives: The study of Shigella pathogenesis at present is severely hampered by the lack of a relevant animal model that replicates human bacillary dysentery. Different Shigella serogroups cause varying severity of clinical illness. Ex vivo colonization of Shigella flexneri, S. dysenteriae and S. sonnei were characterized in human paediatric colonic pinch biopsies in the in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model to study the invasiveness of Shigella by gentamicin protection assay (GPA). Furthermore, the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in response to different serotypes of Shigella was also studied in IVOC model. Methods: IVOC explants were inoculated with 109 colony forming units of different serotypes of Shigella and recovery of bacteria studied. Histopathological analysis was carried out to study inflammatory immune responses. GPA was done to elucidate the invasiveness of different serotypes of Shigella. Secretions of AMPs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blotting was performed to check the expression of AMPs and nuclear factor kappa B in IVOC explants. Results: After 24 h post-infection, the colon biopsies showed intense inflammatory reaction. In both IVOC and GPA, S. dysenteriae 1 was the most invasive as compared to S. flexneri and S. sonnei. S. sonnei was the least invasive. ELISA demonstrated that S. sonnei dampened the HBD (human ß-defensin)-2 responses whereas there was augmentation by S. dysenteriae and there was a modest but non-significant increase by S. flexneri. A modest increase in HBD-3 by S. sonnei and S. flexneri was observed but was not found to be significant. However, western blotting data showed upregulation of all AMPs by all serotypes. Western blotting is more sensitive than ELISA. Interpretation & conclusions: In the present study, differences in invasiveness and AMP production induced by different serotypes of Shigella were found. Human intestinal IVOC represents a model system to investigate early interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the human gut.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Shigella , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Sorogrupo , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Shigella/genética , Disenteria Bacilar/genética , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Shigella flexneri/genética
4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1254775, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560519

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1201505.].

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(8)2023 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37627761

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) act directly on pathogens and maintain the anti-inflammatory effects and activation of immunocompetent cells. Therefore, the activation of the immune system in poultry via the elevation of endogenous AMPs has been attempted. In this study, we focused on the host defense mechanisms in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of Japanese quail, cloned the cDNA of cathelicidin (CATH)-1 to -3, and analyzed their expression sites. In situ hybridization experiments revealed the mRNA expression of the CATHs in the interfollicular epithelium surrounding the lumen of the quail BF, which suggests that each CATH may exert its antimicrobial action directly in the BF. The intravenous injection of bacterial lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide endotoxins into the quail promoted the mRNA expression of CATH-1 and CATH-3 in the BF. The addition of CATH-1 or CATH-2 at the time of the antigen injection into mice resulted in antiserum with high antibody titers. Ad libitum administration of butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, in the drinking water induced an increase in CATH-2 mRNA expression in the BF under certain conditions. These results may improve the defense mechanisms of quail by stimulating CATH expression in the BF through their diet.

6.
Microorganisms ; 11(8)2023 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37630679

RESUMO

Cationic antimicrobial peptides are molecules with potential applications for treating infections due to their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this work was to explore the antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of action of a porcine neutrophil cathelicidin mixture (MPPN). Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and experiments of both time-kill kinetics and effects on growth curves were performed. Planar black lipid bilayer conductance was measured to analyze the interaction of MPPN with lipid bilayers. Visualization of bacterial surfaces and membrane alterations was achieved using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effects on the activity of efflux pumps (EPs) were studied with an intracellular accumulation of acridine orange (AO) assay. In E. coli, MPPN behaves as a bactericide at high concentrations and as a bacteriostatic at lower concentrations. The bacteriostatic effect was also observed for slightly shorter periods in S. enterica. The mixture was not active on S. aureus. The increase in AO accumulation in the presence of MPPN indicates that, at least in E. coli, the mixture causes inhibition of the EP function. Observed and detected variable conductance events demonstrate a strong MPPN effect on lipid bilayers. Damage to the structure of treated E. coli indicates that MPPN induces alterations in the bacterial surface. The use of AMPs capable of inhibiting EP can be seen as a good tool to combat antimicrobial resistance since they could be used alone or in combination with other conventional antibiotics to which bacteria have become resistant.

7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(7)2023 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37512070

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) presently remains a difficult disease to manage. Antimicrobial and defense proteins are important factors that could help characterize the role of microorganisms in CRSwNP pathogenesis, as the concept of microbial dysbiosis in CRS is still being considered. Our aim is to investigate the complex appearance, relative distribution and interlinks of human ß defensin 2 (HBD-2), human ß defensin 3 (HBD-3), human ß defensin 4 (HBD-4), and cathelicidin LL 37 (LL 37) in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP)-affected human nasal mucosa. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 48 samples from patients with CRSwNP. Samples were collected during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The control group consisted of 17 normal healthy nasal mucosa samples gathered during routine septoplasty. ß-defensin-2, ß-defensin-3, ß-defensin-4 and cathelicidin LL 37 in tissue were detected via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: HBD-2, HBD-3 and LL 37 were significantly decreased in epithelial cells in both primary and recurrent nasal polyp samples (p < 0.001) in comparison to control samples. HBD-2 was decreased in the subepithelial connective tissue of primary nasal polyp samples when compared to both recurrent polyp (p = 0.050) and control (p = 0.033) samples. In subepithelial connective tissue, significantly more HBD-3-positive structures were observed in primary nasal polyp samples (p = 0.049) than in control samples. In primary polyp samples, moderate correlations between connective tissue HBD-3 and connective (R = 0.584, p = 0.001) and epithelial tissue LL 37 (R = 0.556, p = 0.002) were observed. Conclusions: Decreased HBD-2, HBD-3 and LL 37 concentrations in the epithelium suggest a dysfunction of the epithelial barrier in patients with nasal polyps. Decreased subepithelial connective tissue HBD-2 suggests different responses to nasal microbiota in patients with primary nasal polyps compared to recurrent nasal polyps. Increased HBD-3 in subepithelial connective tissue suggests a possible role of this antimicrobial peptide in the pathogenesis of primary nasal polyps.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Pólipos Nasais , Sinusite , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/metabolismo , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Catelicidinas , Sinusite/complicações , Sinusite/patologia , Doença Crônica
8.
Life (Basel) ; 13(6)2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37374090

RESUMO

AMPs are small oligopeptides acting as integral elements of the innate immune system and are of tremendous potential in the medical field owing to their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. They offer a multitude of immunomodulatory properties such as immune cell differentiation, inflammatory responses, cytokine production, and chemoattraction. Aberrancy in neutrophil or epithelial cell-producing AMPs leads to inflammation culminating in various autoimmune responses. In this review, we have tried to explore the role of prominent mammalian AMPs-defensins and cathelicidins, as immune regulators with special emphasis on their role in neutrophil extracellular traps which promotes autoimmune disorders. When complexed with self-DNA or self-RNA, AMPs act as autoantigens which activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells and myeloid dendritic cells leading to the production of interferons and cytokines. These trigger a series of self-directed inflammatory reactions, leading to the emergence of diverse autoimmune disorders. Since AMPs show both anti- and pro-inflammatory abilities in different ADs, there is a dire need for a complete understanding of their role before developing AMP-based therapy for autoimmune disorders.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1201505, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37342565

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widely distributed virus. HSV-1 is a growing public health concern due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains and the current lack of a clinically specific drug for treatment. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of peptide antivirals. Natural host-defense peptides which have uniquely evolved to protect the host have been reported to have antiviral properties. Cathelicidins are a family of multi-functional antimicrobial peptides found in almost all vertebrate species and play a vital role in the immune system. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-HSV-1 effect of an antiviral peptide named WL-1 derived from human cathelicidin. We found that WL-1 inhibited HSV-1 infection in epithelial and neuronal cells. Furthermore, the administration of WL-1 improved the survival rate and reduced viral load and inflammation during HSV-1 infection via ocular scarification. Moreover, facial nerve dysfunction, involving the abnormal blink reflex, nose position, and vibrissae movement, and pathological injury were prevented when HSV-1 ear inoculation-infected mice were treated with WL-1. Together, our findings demonstrate that WL-1 may be a potential novel antiviral agent against HSV-1 infection-induced facial palsy.

10.
J Vet Res ; 67(1): 123-129, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37008775

RESUMO

Introduction: Antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidins, play a significant role in farm animals, influencing animal welfare, immunity, and thus the quality of animal products. Material and Methods: The study used amplification-created restriction site and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CATHL7 gene encoding the BMAP-34 protein in cattle, at positions 2,383 G > C and 2,468 G > C. The material was collected from 279 Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Results: There were statistically significant differences between milk performance parameters in cows with the CATHL7/HhaI and CATHL7/HinfI genotypes. In the case of the CATHL7/HhaI polymorphism, the highest milk yield and protein and lactose content and the lowest somatic cell count in milk were observed for the CC genotype, while the fat content was the highest in milk from cows with the GG genotype. In the case of the CATHL7/HinfI polymorphism, the highest protein and lactose content in milk was observed for the CC genotype. Conclusion: The results were statistically significant, which suggests that the search for relationships can be continued, and that the results can be used to improve selection programmes supporting dairy farming.

11.
Peptides ; 165: 171011, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37068711

RESUMO

Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring polypeptide sequences that, in addition to being active against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other parasites, may stimulate immunomodulatory responses. Cathelicidins, a family of HDPs, are produced by diverse animal species, such as mammals, fish, birds, amphibians, and reptiles, to protect them against pathogen infections. These peptides have variable C-terminal domains responsible for their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities and a highly conserved N-terminal pre-pro region homologous to cathelin. Although cathelicidins are the major components of innate immunity, the molecular basis by which they induce an immune response is still unclear. In this review, we will address the role of the LL-37 domain and its SK-24, IV-20, FK-13 and LL-37 fragments in the immunity response. Other cathelicidins also share structural and functional characteristics with the LL-37 domain, suggesting that these fragments may be responsible for interaction between these peptides and receptors in humans. Fragments of the LL-37 domain can give us clues about how homologous cathelicidins, in general, induce an immune response.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Catelicidinas , Domínios Proteicos , Animais , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Catelicidinas/química , Catelicidinas/genética , Imunidade Inata , Mamíferos , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia
12.
Mol Immunol ; 157: 53-69, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36996595

RESUMO

Divergent evolution for more than 310 million years has resulted in an avian immune system that is complex and more compact than that of primates, sharing much of its structure and functions. Not surprisingly, well conserved ancient host defense molecules, such as defensins and cathelicidins, have diversified over time. In this review, we describe how evolution influenced the host defense peptides repertoire, its distribution, and the relationship between structure and biological functions. Marked features of primate and avian HDPs are linked to species-specific characteristics, biological requirements, and environmental challenge.


Assuntos
Catelicidinas , Defensinas , Animais , Catelicidinas/genética , Defensinas/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Primatas/genética , Aves/genética
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 162: 114586, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36989711

RESUMO

The byproducts of bacterial fermentation known as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are chemically comprised of a carboxylic acid component and a short hydrocarbon chain. Recent investigations have demonstrated that SCFAs can affect intestinal immunity by inducing endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) and their beneficial effects on barrier integrity, gut health, energy supply, and inflammation. HDPs, which include defensins, cathelicidins, and C-type lectins, perform a significant function in innate immunity in gastrointestinal mucosal membranes. SCFAs have been demonstrated to stimulate HDP synthesis by intestinal epithelial cells via interactions with G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, and the cell growth pathways. Furthermore, SCFA butyrate has been demonstrated to enhance the number of HDPs released from macrophages. SCFAs promote monocyte-to-macrophage development and stimulate HDP synthesis in macrophages by inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC). Understanding the etiology of many common disorders might be facilitated by studies into the function of microbial metabolites, such as SCFAs, in the molecular regulatory processes of immune responses (e.g., HDP production). This review will focus on the current knowledge of the role and mechanism of microbiota-derived SCFAs in influencing the synthesis of host-derived peptides, particularly HDPs.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Microbiota , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Butiratos , Inflamação/metabolismo
14.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 174(4): 440-445, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36892673

RESUMO

We performed structural and functional studies of minibactenecin mini-ChBac7.5Nα, a natural proline-rich cathelicidin from domestic goat Capra hircus. To identify the key residues important for the biological action of the peptide, a panel of its alanine-substituted analogues was produced. The development of E. coli resistance to the natural minibactenecin, as well as to its analogues carrying substitutions for hydrophobic amino acids in the C-terminal residues was studied. The data obtained indicate the possibility of rapid development of the resistance to this class of peptides. The main factors in the formation of the antibiotic resistance are various mutations leading to inactivation of the SbmA transporter.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Cabras/genética , Cabras/metabolismo
15.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(4)2023 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36830531

RESUMO

This review focuses on proteins and peptides with antimicrobial activity because these biopolymers can be useful in the fight against infectious diseases and to overcome the critical problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics. In fact, snakes show the highest diversification among reptiles, surviving in various environments; their innate immunity is similar to mammals and the response of their plasma to bacteria and fungi has been explored mainly in ecological studies. Snake venoms are a rich source of components that have a variety of biological functions. Among them are proteins like lectins, metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, L-amino acid oxidases, phospholipases type A2, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, as well as many oligopeptides, such as waprins, cardiotoxins, cathelicidins, and ß-defensins. In vitro, these biomolecules were shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. Not only cathelicidins, but all other proteins and oligopeptides from snake venom have been proteolyzed to provide short antimicrobial peptides, or for use as templates for developing a variety of short unnatural sequences based on their structures. In addition to organizing and discussing an expressive amount of information, this review also describes new ß-defensin sequences of Sistrurus miliarius that can lead to novel peptide-based antimicrobial agents, using a multidisciplinary approach that includes sequence phylogeny.

16.
Animals, v. 13, n. 4, 744, fev. 2023
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-4809

RESUMO

This review focuses on proteins and peptides with antimicrobial activity because these biopolymers can be useful in the fight against infectious diseases and to overcome the critical problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics. In fact, snakes show the highest diversification among reptiles, surviving in various environments; their innate immunity is similar to mammals and the response of their plasma to bacteria and fungi has been explored mainly in ecological studies. Snake venoms are a rich source of components that have a variety of biological functions. Among them are proteins like lectins, metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, L-amino acid oxidases, phospholipases type A2, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, as well as many oligopeptides, such as waprins, cardiotoxins, cathelicidins, and β-defensins. In vitro, these biomolecules were shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. Not only cathelicidins, but all other proteins and oligopeptides from snake venom have been proteolyzed to provide short antimicrobial peptides, or for use as templates for developing a variety of short unnatural sequences based on their structures. In addition to organizing and discussing an expressive amount of information, this review also describes new β-defensin sequences of Sistrurus miliarius that can lead to novel peptide-based antimicrobial agents, using a multidisciplinary approach that includes sequence phylogeny.

17.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421248

RESUMO

Host defense peptides (HDPs) represent an alternative way to address the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Crocodylians are interesting species for the study of these molecules because of their potent immune system, which confers high resistance to infection. Profile hidden Markov models were used to screen the genomes of four crocodylian species for encoded cathelicidins and eighteen novel sequences were identified. Synthetic cathelicidins showed broad spectrum antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against several clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In particular, the As-CATH8 cathelicidin showed potent in vitro activity profiles similar to the last-resort antibiotics vancomycin and polymyxin B. In addition, As-CATH8 demonstrated rapid killing of planktonic and biofilm cells, which correlated with its ability to cause cytoplasmic membrane depolarization and permeabilization as well as binding to DNA. As-CATH8 displayed greater antibiofilm activity than the human cathelicidin LL-37 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a human organoid model of biofilm skin infection. Furthermore, As-CATH8 demonstrated strong antibacterial effects in a murine abscess model of high-density bacterial infections against clinical isolates of S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, two of the most common bacterial species causing skin infections globally. Overall, this work expands the repertoire of cathelicidin peptides known in crocodylians, including one with considerable therapeutic promise for treating common skin infections.

18.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(12): 2464-2479, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378028

RESUMO

As antimicrobial resistance poses an increasing threat to public health, it is urgent to develop new antimicrobial agents. In this paper, we identify a novel 30-residue peptide (Nv-CATH, NCNFLCKVKQRLRSVSSTSHIGMAIPRPRG) from the skin of the frog Nanorana ventripunctata, which belongs to the cathelicidin family. Nv-CATH exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nv-CATH significantly protected mice from lethal infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the peptide suppressed excessive and harmful inflammatory responses by repressing the production of NO, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß. The NF-κB-NLRP3 and MAPK inflammatory signaling pathways were involved in the protection in vitro and in vivo. Nv-CATH also modulated macrophage/monocyte and neutrophil trafficking to the infection site by stimulating CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL2 production in macrophages. Nv-CATH augmented immunocyte-mediated bacterial killing by modestly promoting neutrophils' phagocytosis and PMA-induced NET formation. Thus, Nv-CATH protects mice against bacterial infection by antimicrobial-immunomodulatory duality. The combination of these two characteristics makes Nv-CATH a promising molecule template for the development of novel antimicrobial and antibiotic-resistant agents.


Assuntos
Catelicidinas , Staphylococcus aureus , Camundongos , Animais , Catelicidinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 858423, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422813

RESUMO

The identification of practical early diagnostic biomarkers is a cornerstone of improved prevention and treatment of cancers. Such a case is devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), a highly lethal transmissible cancer afflicting virtually an entire species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Despite a latent period that can exceed one year, to date DFTD diagnosis requires visual identification of tumor lesions. To enable earlier diagnosis, which is essential for the implementation of effective conservation strategies, we analyzed the extracellular vesicle (EV) proteome of 87 Tasmanian devil serum samples using data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry approaches. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-3 (CATH3), released by innate immune cells, was enriched in serum EV samples of both devils with clinical DFTD (87.9% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity) and devils with latent infection (i.e., collected while overtly healthy, but 3-6 months before subsequent DFTD diagnosis; 93.8% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity). Although high expression of antimicrobial peptides has been mostly related to inflammatory diseases, our results suggest that they can be also used as accurate cancer biomarkers, suggesting a mechanistic role in tumorous processes. This EV-based approach to biomarker discovery is directly applicable to improving understanding and diagnosis of a broad range of diseases in other species, and these findings directly enhance the capacity of conservation strategies to ensure the viability of the imperiled Tasmanian devil population.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias Faciais , Marsupiais , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Neoplasias Faciais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Faciais/veterinária , Catelicidinas
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269641

RESUMO

With the growing problem of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the search for alternative ways to combat bacterial infections is extremely urgent. While analyzing the effect of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on immunocompetent cells, their effect on all parts of the immune system, and on humoral and cellular immunity, is revealed. AMPs have direct effects on neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes, and mast cells, participating in innate immunity. They act on B-lymphocytes indirectly, enhancing the induction of antigen-specific immunity, which ultimately leads to the activation of adaptive immunity. The adjuvant activity of AMPs in relation to bacterial and viral antigens was the reason for their inclusion in vaccines and made it possible to formulate the concept of a "defensin vaccine" as an innovative basis for constructing vaccines. The immunomodulatory function of AMPs involves their influence on cells in the nearest microenvironment, recruitment and activation of other cells, supporting the response to pathogenic microorganisms and completing the inflammatory process, thus exhibiting a systemic effect. For the successful use of AMPs in medical practice, it is necessary to study their immunomodulatory activity in detail, taking into account their pleiotropy. The degree of maturity of the immune system and microenvironment can contribute to the prevention of complications and increase the effectiveness of therapy, since AMPs can suppress inflammation in some circumstances, but aggravate the response and damage of organism in others. It should also be taken into account that the real functions of one or another AMP depend on the types of total regulatory effects on the target cell, and not only on properties of an individual peptide. A wide spectrum of biological activity, including direct effects on pathogens, inactivation of bacterial toxins and influence on immunocompetent cells, has attracted the attention of researchers, however, the cytostatic activity of AMPs against normal cells, as well as their allergenic properties and low stability to host proteases, are serious limitations for the medical use of AMPs. In this connection, the tasks of searching for compounds that selectively affect the target and development of an appropriate method of application become critically important. The scope of this review is to summarize the current concepts and newest advances in research of the immunomodulatory activity of natural and synthetic AMPs, and to examine the prospects and limitations of their medical use.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Alérgenos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Bactérias , Imunidade Inata , Imunomodulação
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