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1.
Pathogens ; 12(6)2023 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37375544

RESUMO

The extensive use of antibiotics in animal production has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and the search for alternative antimicrobial agents in animal production. One such compound may be antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are characterized by, among others, a wide range of biocidal activity. According to scientific data, insects produce the largest number of antimicrobial peptides, and the changing EU legislation has allowed processed animal protein derived from insects to be used in feed for farm animals, which, in addition to a protein supplement, may prove to be an alternative to antibiotics and antibiotic growth promoters due to their documented beneficial impact on livestock health. In animals that were fed feeds with the addition of insect meals, changes in their intestinal microbiota, strengthened immunity, and increased antibacterial activity were confirmed to be positive effects obtained thanks to the insect diet. This paper reviews the literature on sources of antibacterial peptides and the mechanism of action of these compounds, with particular emphasis on insect antibacterial peptides and their potential impact on animal health, and legal regulations related to the use of insect meals in animal nutrition.

2.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889239

RESUMO

Cecropins (CECs) are insect venom-derived amphiphilic peptides with numerous pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor activities. Cecropins induce tumor cell death by disrupting phospholipid membrane integrity. However, non-specific cytotoxicity and in vivo rapid degradation limit clinical application. Nanotechnologies provide novel strategies for tumor eradication, including nanocarriers that can precisely target drugs to tumor tissue. We report the fabrication of CEC-encapsulated zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) nanoparticles (CEC@ZIF-8 NPs) via the preparation of CEC@ZIF-8 NPs in pure water by one-pot stirring. This method yielded morphologically uniform NPs with 20 wt% drug loading capacity and 9% loading efficiency. The NP formulation protected CECs from proteasome degradation, enhanced peptide bioavailability, promoted HeLa tumor cell uptake, and increased antitumor efficacy compared to free CECs. In conclusion, this ZIF-8 encapsulation strategy may enhance the clinical applicability of CECs and other antitumor peptides.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Zeolitas , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Peptides ; 145: 170626, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391826

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem and therapeutic alternatives to traditional antibiotics are needed. Antimicrobial and host defense peptides represent an attractive source for new therapeutic strategies, given their wide range of activities including antimicrobial, antitumoral and immunomodulatory. Insects produce several families of these peptides, including cecropins. Herein, we characterized the sequence, structure, and biological activity of three cecropins called satanin 1, 2, and curvicin, found in the transcriptome of two dung beetle species Dichotomius satanas and Onthophagus curvicornis. Sequence and circular dichroism analyses show that they have typical features of the cecropin family: short length (38-39 amino acids), positive charge, and amphipathic α-helical structure. They are active mainly against Gram-negative bacteria (3.12-12.5 µg/mL), with low toxicity on eukaryotic cells resulting in high therapeutic indexes (TI > 30). Peptides also showed effects on TNFα production in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. The biological activity of Satanin 1, 2 and Curvicin makes them interesting leads for antimicrobial strategies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cecropinas/química , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Cecropinas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dicroísmo Circular , Besouros , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Vero
4.
Proteins ; 89(9): 1205-1215, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973678

RESUMO

Cecropins form a family of amphipathic α-helical cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial properties and potent anticancer activity. The emergence of bacteria and cancer cells showing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) has fostered a search for new, more selective and more effective alternatives to CAMPs. With this goal in mind, we looked for cecropin homologs in the genome and transcriptome of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana. Not only did we find paralogs of the conventional cationic cecropins (Cfcec+ ), our screening also led to the identification of previously uncharacterized anionic cecropins (Cfcec- ), featuring a poly-l-aspartic acid C-terminus. Comparative peptide analysis indicated that the C-terminal helix of Cfcec- is amphipathic, unlike that of Cfcec+ , which is hydrophobic. Interestingly, molecular dynamics simulations pointed to the lower conformational flexibility of Cfcec- peptides, relative to that of Cfcec+ . Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the evolution of distinct Cfcec+ and Cfcec- peptides may have resulted from an ancient duplication event within the Lepidoptera. Finally, we found that both anionic and cationic cecropins contain a BH3-like motif (G-[KQR]-[HKQNR]-[IV]-[KQR]) that could interact with Bcl-2, a protein involved in apoptosis; this observation is congruent with previous reports indicating that cecropins induce apoptosis. Altogether, our observations suggest that cecropins may provide templates for the development of new anticancer drugs. We also estimated the antibacterial activity of Cfcec-2 and a ∆Cfce-2 peptide as AMPs by testing directly their ability in inhibiting bacterial growth in a disk diffusion assay and their potential for development of novel therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Cecropinas/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Cecropinas/genética , Cecropinas/metabolismo , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mariposas/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática
5.
Biomedica ; 41(1): 161-167, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is essential to determine the interactions between viruses and mosquitoes to diminish dengue viral transmission. These interactions constitute a very complex system of highly regulated pathways known as the innate immune system of the mosquito, which produces antimicrobial peptides that act as effector molecules against bacterial and fungal infections. There is less information about such effects on virus infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of two antimicrobial peptide genes, defensin A and cecropin A, in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the F1 generation of mosquitoes orally infected with DENV-1 and real-time PCR analysis to determine whether the defensin A and cecropin A genes played a role in controlling DENV-1 replication in Ae. aegypti. As a reference, we conducted similar experiments with the bacteria Escherichia coli. RESULTS: Basal levels of defensin A and cecropin A mRNA were expressed in uninfected mosquitoes at different times post-blood feeding. The infected mosquitoes experienced reduced expression of these mRNA by at least eightfold when compared to uninfected control mosquitoes at all times post-infection. In contrast with the behavior of DENV-1, results showed that bacterial infection produced up-regulation of defensin and cecropin genes; however, the induction of transcripts occurred at later times (15 days). CONCLUSION: DENV-1 virus inhibited the expression of defensin A and cecropin A genes in a wild Ae. aegypti population from Venezuela.


Introducción. Es esencial determinar las interacciones entre los virus y los mosquitos para disminuir la transmisión viral. Estas interacciones constituyen un sistema muy complejo y muy regulado conocido como sistema inmunitario innato del mosquito, el cual produce péptidos antimicrobianos, moléculas efectoras que funcionan contra las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas; se tiene poca información de su acción sobre los virus. Objetivo. Determinar la expresión de dos genes AMP (defensina A y cecropina A) en mosquitos Aedes aegypti infectados con el virus DENV-1. Materiales y métodos. Se infectaron oralmente mosquitos de generación F1 con DENV-1 y mediante el análisis con PCR en tiempo real se determinó el potencial papel de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en el control de la replicación del DENV-1 en Ae. aegypti. Como referencia, se infectaron mosquitos con Escherichia coli. Resultados: Los mosquitos no infectados expresaron niveles basales de los ARNm de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en diversos momentos después de la alimentación. Los mosquitos infectados experimentaron una reducción, por lo menos, de ocho veces en la expresión de estos ARNm con respecto a los mosquitos de control en todo el periodo posterior a la alimentación. En contraste con el comportamiento del virus DENV-1, los resultados mostraron que la infección bacteriana produjo una regulación positiva de los genes defensina y cecropina; sin embargo, la inducción de los transcritos ocurrió tardíamente (15 días). Conclusión. El virus DENV-1 inhibió la expresión de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en una población silvestre de Ae. aegypti en Venezuela.


Assuntos
Aedes/metabolismo , Aedes/virologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Defensinas/biossíntese , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Animais
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 161-167, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249068

RESUMO

Abstract | Introduction: It is essential to determine the interactions between viruses and mosquitoes to diminish dengue viral transmission. These interactions constitute a very complex system of highly regulated pathways known as the innate immune system of the mosquito, which produces antimicrobial peptides that act as effector molecules against bacterial and fungal infections. There is less information about such effects on virus infections. Objective: To determine the expression of two antimicrobial peptide genes, defensin A and cecropin A, in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV-1. Materials and methods: We used the F1 generation of mosquitoes orally infected with DENV-1 and real-time PCR analysis to determine whether the defensin A and cecropin A genes played a role in controlling DENV-1 replication in Ae. aegypti. As a reference, we conducted similar experiments with the bacteria Escherichia coli. Results: Basal levels of defensin A and cecropin A mRNA were expressed in uninfected mosquitoes at different times post-blood feeding. The infected mosquitoes experienced reduced expression of these mRNA by at least eightfold when compared to uninfected control mosquitoes at all times post-infection. In contrast with the behavior of DENV-1, results showed that bacterial infection produced up-regulation of defensin and cecropin genes; however, the induction of transcripts occurred at later times (15 days). Conclusion: DENV-1 virus inhibited the expression of defensin A and cecropin A genes in a wild Ae. aegypti population from Venezuela.


Resumen | Introducción. Es esencial determinar las interacciones entre los virus y los mosquitos para disminuir la transmisión viral. Estas interacciones constituyen un sistema muy complejo y muy regulado conocido como sistema inmunitario innato del mosquito, el cual produce péptidos antimicrobianos, moléculas efectoras que funcionan contra las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas; se tiene poca información de su acción sobre los virus. Objetivo. Determinar la expresión de dos genes AMP (defensina A y cecropina A) en mosquitos Aedes aegypti infectados con el virus DENV-1. Materiales y métodos. Se infectaron oralmente mosquitos de generación F1 con DENV-1 y mediante el análisis con PCR en tiempo real se determinó el potencial papel de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en el control de la replicación del DENV-1 en Ae. aegypti. Como referencia, se infectaron mosquitos con Escherichia coli. Resultados: Los mosquitos no infectados expresaron niveles basales de los ARNm de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en diversos momentos después de la alimentación. Los mosquitos infectados experimentaron una reducción, por lo menos, de ocho veces en la expresión de estos ARNm con respecto a los mosquitos de control en todo el periodo posterior a la alimentación. En contraste con el comportamiento del virus DENV-1, los resultados mostraron que la infección bacteriana produjo una regulación positiva de los genes defensina y cecropina; sin embargo, la inducción de los transcritos ocurrió tardíamente (15 días). Conclusión. El virus DENV-1 inhibió la expresión de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en una población silvestre de Ae. aegypti en Venezuela.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , alfa-Defensinas , Escherichia coli , Cecropinas
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440876

RESUMO

Red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, 1791, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive pest of palms, rapidly extending its native geographical range and causing large economic losses worldwide. The present work describes isolation, identification, and bioinformatic analysis of antibacterial proteins and peptides from the immunized hemolymph of this beetle. In total, 17 different bactericidal or bacteriostatic compounds were isolated via a series of high-pressure liquid chromatography steps, and their partial amino acid sequences were determined by N-terminal sequencing or by mass spectrometry. The bioinformatic analysis of the results facilitated identification and description of corresponding nucleotide coding sequences for each peptide and protein, based on the recently published R. ferrugineus transcriptome database. The identified compounds are represented by several well-known bactericidal factors: two peptides similar to defensins, one cecropin-A1-like peptide, and one attacin-B-like protein. Interestingly, we have also identified some unexpected compounds comprising five isoforms of pheromone-binding proteins as well as seven isoforms of odorant-binding proteins. The particular role of these factors in insect response to bacterial infection needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Araceae/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Imunização , Proteínas de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Gorgulhos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Peptídeos/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766730

RESUMO

The alarming escalation of infectious diseases resistant to conventional antibiotics requires urgent global actions, including the development of new therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent potential alternatives in the treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections. Here, we focus on Cecropins (Cecs), a group of naturally occurring AMPs in insects, and on synthetic Cec-analogs. We describe their action mechanisms and antimicrobial activity against MDR bacteria and other pathogens. We report several data suggesting that Cec and Cec-analog peptides are promising antibacterial therapeutic candidates, including their low toxicity against mammalian cells, and anti-inflammatory activity. We highlight limitations linked to the use of peptides as therapeutics and discuss methods overcoming these constraints, particularly regarding the introduction of nanotechnologies. New formulations based on natural Cecs would allow the development of drugs active against Gram-negative bacteria, and those based on Cec-analogs would give rise to therapeutics effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Cecs and Cec-analogs might be also employed to coat biomaterials for medical devices as an approach to prevent biomaterial-associated infections. The cost of large-scale production is discussed in comparison with the economic and social burden resulting from the progressive diffusion of MDR infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Proteínas de Insetos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/uso terapêutico
9.
Peptides ; 103: 26-30, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501691

RESUMO

Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells. Four of the six peptides identified showed antimicrobial effects in these assays. We also created truncated versions of these four peptides to assay their antimicrobial activity. Two cecropins derived from the monarch butterfly genome (Danaus plexippus), DAN1 and DAN2, showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 2-16 µg/ml when screened against Gram-negative bacteria. HOLO1 and LOUDEF1, two defensin-like peptides derived from red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus), respectively, exhibited MICs in the range of 13-25 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, HOLO1 showed an MIC less than 5 µg/ml against the fungal species Candida albicans. These peptides exhibited no hemolytic activity at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. The truncated peptides derived from DAN2 and HOLO1 showed very little antimicrobial activity. Our experiments show that the peptides DAN1, DAN2, HOLO1, and LOUDEF1 showed potent antimicrobial activity in vitro against common human pathogens, did not lyse mammalian red blood cells, and indicates their potential as templates for novel therapeutic agents against microbial infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artrópodes/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 48(2): 324-41, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24950415

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are evolutionarily ancient molecules that act as the key components in the invertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Several AMPs have been identified and characterized in invertebrates, and found to display considerable diversity in their amino acid sequence, structure and biological activity. AMP genes appear to have rapidly evolved, which might have arisen from the co-evolutionary arms race between host and pathogens, and enabled organisms to survive in different microbial environments. Here, the sequence diversity of invertebrate AMPs (defensins, cecropins, crustins and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors) are presented to provide a better understanding of the evolution pattern of these peptides that play a major role in host defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Invertebrados/genética , Invertebrados/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Invertebrados/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Curr Top Pept Protein Res ; 13: 93-110, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26834391

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains to be one of the major global health problems. It is thus necessary to identify novel therapeutic molecules to combat HIV-1. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recognized as promising templates for developing topical microbicides. This review systematically discusses over 80 anti-HIV peptides annotated in the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Such peptides have been discovered from bacteria, plants, and animals. Examples include gramicidin and bacteriocins from bacteria, cyclotides from plants, melittins and cecropins from insects, piscidins from fish, ascaphins, caerins, dermaseptins, esculentins, and maximins from amphibians, and cathelicidins and defensins from vertebrates. These peptides appear to work by different mechanisms and could block viral entry in multiple ways. As additional advantages, such anti-HIV peptides may possess other desired features such as antibacterial, antiparasital, spermicidal, and anticancer activity. With continued optimization of peptide stability, production, formulation and delivery methods, it is anticipated that some of these compounds may eventually become new anti-HIV drugs.

12.
Infectio ; 14(1): 55-67, mar. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-560933

RESUMO

Los péptidos antimicrobianos son las moléculas efectoras del sistema inmune innato, cuyas familias se encuentran en casi todos los organismos, desde bacterias hasta mamíferos. Son una familia de sustancias polifacéticascon complejos mecanismos deacción relacionados con la interacción con el patógeno a través de su membrana, o afectando blancos internos, como la replicación del ADN y la síntesis de proteínas, e interactuando con el huésped con funciones inmunomoduladoras de la regulación delproceso inflamatorio y de la cicatrización. Aunque la generación de resistencia a los péptidos antimicrobianos es mucho menorsi se compara con la generada por losantibióticos convencionales, existen mecanismos de resistencia ya descritos, como la degradación por proteasas, la liberación de proteínas inhibidoras o los cambios en la conformación de la membrana externa del patógeno. El estudio de estas sustancias hapermitido evidenciar sus usos potenciales en el ámbito clínico para contrarrestar los inconvenientes de la resistencia a los antibióticos; sin embargo, a pesar de los grandesavances logrados en este campo, aún quedan puntos controversiales por dilucidar.


The antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are theeffectors molecules of the innate immunesystem, finding groups of this kind of substances in almost all living organisms from bacteria to mammals. They are a family of versatile substances with complexes action mechanisms in the pathogen they interact with membrane, DNA synthesis and protein synthesis and folding, and also with the hostshowing immunomodulatory functions inwound healing and inflammation process.Even though the generation of resistance to the AMP is lower compare with conventional antibiotics there are resistance mechanism already describe to this kind of substances like degradation by proteases, releasing ofinhibitory substances or conformationalchanges in the external membrane of thepathogen. Actually the study of this group of substances has make them see as potential tools for clinical use helping to coun-teract the problem of antibiotic resistance, but even great progress had been made in this field there still exist some controversial issues for future study.


Assuntos
Catelicidinas , Cecropinas , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , alfa-Defensinas , Antibacterianos
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