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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 571-581, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003072

RESUMO

Mining and tailings deposition can cause serious heavy metal(loids) pollution to the surrounding soil environment. Soil microorganisms adapt their metabolism to such conditions, driving alterations in soil function. This study aims to elucidate the response patterns of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms under long-term heavy metal(loids) exposure. The results showed that the diversity and abundance of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms showed negative feedback to heavy metal(loids) concentrations. Denitrifying microorganisms were shown to be the dominant microorganisms with over 60% of relative abundance and a complex community structure including 27 phyla. Further, the key bacterial species in the denitrification process were calculated using a random forest model, where the top three key species (Pseudomonas stutzei, Sphingobium japonicum and Leifsonia rubra) were found to play a prominent role in nitrite reduction. Functional gene analysis and qPCR revealed that nirK, which is involved in nitrite reduction, significantly accumulated in the most metal-rich soil with the increase of absolute abundance of 63.86%. The experimental results confirmed that the activity of nitrite reductase (Nir) encoded by nirK in the soil was increased at high concentrations of heavy metal(loids). Partial least squares-path model identified three potential modes of nitrite reduction processes being stimulated by heavy metal(loids), the most prominent of which contributed to enhanced nirK abundance and soil Nir activity through positive stimulation of key species. The results provide new insights and preliminary evidence on the stimulation of nitrite reduction processes by heavy metal(loids).


Assuntos
Ouro , Metais Pesados , Mineração , Nitritos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Solo/química
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975878

RESUMO

The lack of systematic approaches and analyses to identify, quantify, and manage the biotic transport of microplastics (MPs) along cross-ecosystem landscapes prevents the current goals of sustainable environmental development from being met. This Perspective proposes a meta-ecosystem framework, which considers organismal and resource flows among ecosystems to shed light on the research and management challenges related to both abiotic and biotic MP transport at landscape levels. We discuss MP transport pathways through species movements and trophic transfers among ecosystems and sub-ecosystems, and highlight these pathways in the mitigation of MP pollution. The integration of biotic pathways across landscapes prioritizes management actions for MP transport using diverse approaches such as wastewater treatment and plastic removal policies to mitigate contamination. In addition, our framework emphasizes the potential sink enhancement of MPs through habitat conservation and enhancement of riparian vegetation. By considering the mechanisms of meta-ecosystem dynamics through the processes of biotic dispersal, accumulation, and the ultimate fate of MPs, advances in the environmental impact assessment and management of MP production can proceed more effectively.

3.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 40: e20240010, 2024 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979580

RESUMO

Despite increased use of early detection methods and more aggressive treatment strategies, the worldwide incidence of colorectal cancer is still on the rise. Consequently, it remains urgent to identify novel agents with enhanced efficacy in prevention and/or therapeutic protocols. Our studies focused on the use of Plumbagin, a natural phytochemical that showed promising results against other tumor types, to determine its effectiveness in blocking the proliferation and survival of colon cancer cells in experimental protocols mimicking the environment in primary tumors (attached culture conditions) and in circulating tumor cells (unattached conditions). Under both experimental settings, exposure of HCT116 cells to Plumbagin concentrations in the low micromolar range resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, apoptosis via the mitochondrial cell death pathway, and increased production of reactive oxygen species. The cell cycle effects were more noticeable in attached cells, whereas the induction of cell death was more evident in unattached cells. These effects were consistent with the nature and the magnitude of the alterations induced by Plumbagin on the expression levels of a set of proteins known to play key roles in the regulation of cell cycle dynamics, apoptosis mechanisms and cell proliferation. In light of its previously reported lack of toxicity on normal colon cells and the striking anti-survival effect on colon cancer cells observed in our study, Plumbagin should be considered a promising drug for the treatment of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Naftoquinonas , Extratos Vegetais , Plumbaginaceae , Humanos , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumbaginaceae/química , Células HCT116 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
4.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948867

RESUMO

Nucleoli are large nuclear sub-compartments where vital processes, such as ribosome assembly, take place. Technical obstacles still limit our understanding of the biological functions of nucleolar proteins in cell homeostasis and cancer pathogenesis. Since most nucleolar proteins are essential, their abrogation cannot be achieved through conventional approaches. Additionally, the biological activities of many nucleolar proteins are connected to their physiological concentration. Thus, artificial overexpression might not fully recapitulate their endogenous functions. Proteolysis-based approaches, such as the Auxin Inducible Degron (AID) system paired with CRISPR/Cas9 knock-in gene-editing, have the potential to overcome these limitations, providing unprecedented characterization of the biological activities of endogenous nucleolar proteins. We applied this system to endogenous nucleolin (NCL), one of the most abundant nucleolar proteins, and characterized the impact of its acute depletion on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cell behavior. Abrogation of endogenous NCL reduced proliferation and caused defective cytokinesis, resulting in bi-nucleated tetraploid cells. Bioinformatic analysis of patient data, and quantitative proteomics using our experimental NCL-depleted model, indicated that NCL levels are correlated with the abundance of proteins involved in chromosomal segregation. In conjunction with its effects on sister chromatid dynamics, NCL abrogation enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of chemical inhibitors of mitotic modulators such as the Anaphase Promoting Complex. In summary, using the AID system in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 for endogenous gene editing, our findings indicate a novel role for NCL in supporting the completion of the cell division in TNBC models, and that its abrogation could enhance the therapeutic activity of mitotic-progression inhibitors.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 946: 174442, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964387

RESUMO

The decomposition of macrophytes plays a crucial role in the nutrient cycles of macrophyte-dominated eutrophication lakes. While research on plant decomposition mechanisms and microbial influences has rapid developed, it is curious that plant decomposition models have remained stagnant at the single-stage model from 50 years ago, without endeavor to consider any important factors. Our research conducted in-situ experiments and identified the optimal metrics for decomposition-related microbes, thereby establishing models for microbial impacts on decomposition rates (k_RDR). Using backward elimination in stepwise regression, we found that the optimal subset of independent variables-specifically Gammaproteobacteria-Q-L, Actinobacteriota-Q-L, and Ascomycota-Q-L-increased the adjusted R-squared (Ra2) to 0.93, providing the best modeling for decomposition rate (p = 0.002). Additionally, k_RDR can be modeled by synergic parameters of ACHB-Q-L, LDB-Q-L, and AB-Q-L for bacteria, and SFQ for fungi, albeit with a slightly lower Ra2 of 0.7-0.9 (p < 0.01). The primary contribution of our research lies in two key aspects. Firstly, we introduced optimal metrics for modeling microbes, opting for debris surface microbes over sediment microbes, and prioritizing absolute abundance over relative abundance. Secondly, our model represents a noteworthy advancement in debris modeling. Alongside elucidating the focus and innovative aspects of our work, we also addressed existing limitations and proposed directions for future research. SYNOPSIS: This study explores optimum metrics for decomposition-related microbes, offering precise microbial models for enhanced lake nutrient cycle simulation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15268, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961084

RESUMO

This paper reports the fabrication, characterization, and environmental impact analysis of a super-oleophobic (under water) and super-hydrophilic mesh membrane for oily water treatment. In order to prepare mesh membrane, Titania nanoparticles (NPs) were spray coated on mesh stainless steel followed by calcination at 500 °C. After that, the Titania-coated mesh membrane was characterized using contact angle goniometry (CA), XRD, FE-SEM, EDX and elemental mapping. The FE-SEM, EDX, elemental mapping and XRD results confirmed that the Titania NPs were successfully coated on the surface of mesh membrane. CA results demonstrated that the prepared mesh membrane is super-hydrophilic and super-oleo phobic under water conditions, making it suitable for oil/water separation. Subsequently, life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to determine the environmental impacts of Titania NPs-coated mesh membrane fabrication process. LCA results indicate that electricity and nitrogen contributed the most toward the eighteen environmental impact categories considered for this study.

7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 13(5): 1983-1989, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948616

RESUMO

Background: Symptoms for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appear 2-3 days after exposure to the virus. Being a virus, detection is primarily by polymerase chain reaction as this offers superior sensitivity and specificity. There was a misconception that patients with low cycle threshold (Ct) have severe coronavirus disease (COVID), and for individuals with higher Ct, it is the other way around. The prognosis for COVID was derived from various biomarkers and physicians heavily relied on them. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study spanning a duration of 2 years was conducted at a tertiary care centre in western India. A total of 201 individuals were included and the correlation between Ct, clinical features and biomarkers was studied. Results: In the E-gene, 43.28% had lower Ct values and 40.79% had low Ct values in the RdRp gene. 50% of all patients had diabetes, with 60% being between the ages of 61 and 80. 54.1% of hypertension patients belonged to ages between 61 and 80. 90.54% of COVID-positive individuals had lactose dehydrogenase levels ranging from 440 to 760. 79% of patients had a procalcitonin value of more than one but less than six. 79.1% of patients had an erythrocyte sedimentation rate between 36 and 90. Conclusion: Ct value though has a research value; it is a poor prognostic marker when compared to the various biomarkers that have been studied earlier. We cannot conclusively state that all our findings are accurate due to a lack of data but further research into the prognostic value of Ct should be conducted which will help in the ongoing scenario.

8.
Plant J ; 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949911

RESUMO

Plant fungal parasites manipulate host metabolism to support their own survival. Among the many central metabolic pathways altered during infection, the glyoxylate cycle is frequently upregulated in both fungi and their host plants. Here, we examined the response of the glyoxylate cycle in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to infection by the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Gene expression analysis revealed that wheat genes encoding the two unique enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (TaICL) and malate synthase, diverged in their expression between susceptible and resistant Pst interactions. Focusing on TaICL, we determined that the TaICL B homoeolog is specifically upregulated during early stages of a successful Pst infection. Furthermore, disruption of the B homoeolog alone was sufficient to significantly perturb Pst disease progression. Indeed, Pst infection of the TaICL-B disruption mutant (TaICL-BY400*) was inhibited early during initial penetration, with the TaICL-BY400* line also accumulating high levels of malic acid, citric acid, and aconitic acid. Exogenous application of malic acid or aconitic acid also suppressed Pst infection, with trans-aconitic acid treatment having the most pronounced effect by decreasing fungal biomass 15-fold. Thus, enhanced TaICL-B expression during Pst infection may lower accumulation of malic acid and aconitic acid to promote Pst proliferation. As exogenous application of aconitic acid and malic acid has previously been shown to inhibit other critical pests and pathogens, we propose TaICL as a potential target for disruption in resistance breeding that could have wide-reaching protective benefits for wheat and beyond.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1413653, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952846

RESUMO

Reduced glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH), the primary non-protein sulfhydryl group in organisms, plays a pivotal role in the plant salt stress response. This study aimed to explore the impact of GSH on the photosynthetic apparatus, and carbon assimilation in tomato plants under salt stress, and then investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this process. The investigation involved foliar application of 5 mM GSH, 0.1% (w/v) hemoglobin (Hb, a nitric oxide scavenger), and GSH+Hb on the endogenous NO levels, rapid chlorophyll fluorescence, enzyme activities, and gene expression related to the Calvin cycle in tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. 'Zhongshu No. 4') subjected short-term salt stress (100 mM NaCl) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. GSH treatment notably boosted nitrate reductase (NR) and NO synthase (NOS) activities, elevating endogenous NO signaling in salt-stressed tomato seedling leaves. It also mitigated chlorophyll fluorescence (OJIP) curve distortion and damage to the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) induced by salt stress. Furthermore, GSH improved photosystem II (PSII) electron transfer efficiency, reduced QA - accumulation, and countered salt stress effects on photosystem I (PSI) redox properties, enhancing the light energy absorption index (PIabs). Additionally, GSH enhanced key enzyme activities in the Calvin cycle and upregulated their genes. Exogenous GSH optimized PSII energy utilization via endogenous NO, safeguarded the photosynthetic reaction center, improved photochemical and energy efficiency, and boosted carbon assimilation, ultimately enhancing net photosynthetic efficiency (Pn) in salt-stressed tomato seedling leaves. Conversely, Hb hindered Pn reduction and NO signaling under salt stress and weakened the positive effects of GSH on NO levels, photosynthetic apparatus, and carbon assimilation in tomato plants. Thus, the positive regulation of photosynthesis in tomato seedlings under salt stress by GSH requires the involvement of NO.

10.
Front Neurosci ; 18: 1418694, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952923

RESUMO

The advent of artificial lighting, particularly during the evening and night, has significantly altered the predictable daily light and dark cycles in recent times. Altered light environments disrupt the biological clock and negatively impact mood and cognition. Although adolescents commonly experience chronic changes in light/dark cycles, our understanding of how the adolescents' brain adapts to altered light environments remains limited. Here, we investigated the impact of chronic light cycle disruption (LCD) during adolescence, exposing adolescent mice to 19 h of light and 5 h of darkness for 5 days and 12 L:12D for 2 days per week (LCD group) for 4 weeks. We showed that LCD exposure did not affect circadian locomotor activity but impaired memory and increased avoidance response in adolescent mice. Clock gene expression and neuronal activity rhythms analysis revealed that LCD disrupted local molecular clock and neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in the medial amygdala (MeA) but not in the circadian pacemaker (SCN). In addition, we characterized the photoresponsiveness of the MeA and showed that somatostatin neurons are affected by acute and chronic aberrant light exposure during adolescence. Our research provides new evidence highlighting the potential consequences of altered light environments during pubertal development on neuronal physiology and behaviors.

11.
Angiogenesis ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955953

RESUMO

The proliferation of the endothelium is a highly coordinated process to ensure the emergence, expansion, and homeostasis of the vasculature. While Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling fine-tunes the behaviors of endothelium in health and disease, how BMP signaling influences the proliferation of endothelium and therefore, modulates angiogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of Activin A Type I Receptor (ACVR1/ALK2), a key BMP receptor in the endothelium, in modulating the proliferation of endothelial cells. We show that ACVR1/ALK2 is a key modulator for the proliferation of endothelium in the retinal vessels. Loss of endothelial ALK2 leads to a significant reduction in endothelial proliferation and results in fewer branches/endothelial cells in the retinal vessels. Interestingly, venous endothelium appears to be more susceptible to ALK2 deletion. Mechanistically, ACVR1/ALK2 inhibits the expression of CDKN1A/p21, a critical negative regulator of cell cycle progression, in a SMAD1/5-dependent manner, thereby enabling the venous endothelium to undergo active proliferation by suppressing CDKN1A/p21. Taken together, our findings show that BMP signaling mediated by ACVR1/ALK2 provides a critical yet previously underappreciated input to modulate the proliferation of venous endothelium, thereby fine-tuning the context of angiogenesis in health and disease.

12.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956978

RESUMO

6-Aminocaproic acid (6ACA) and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) are key precursors for nylon synthesis, and both are produced using petroleum-based chemical processes. However, the utilization of bio-based raw materials for biological production of monomers is crucial for nylon industry. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli and selected mutations of α-keto acid decarboxylase successfully synthesized 6ACA and HMDA. An artificial iterative cycle from l-lysine to chain-extended α-ketoacids was introduced into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Then, the extended α-ketoacids were decarboxylated and oxidized for 6ACA production. Overexpression of catalase (KatE) combined with the site-directed mutations of α-isopropylmalate synthase (LeuA) contributed synergistic enhancement effect on synthesis of 6ACA, resulting in a 1.3-fold increase in 6ACA titer. Selected mutations in α-keto acid decarboxylase (KivD) improved its specificity and 170.00 ± 5.57 mg/L of 6ACA with a yield of 0.13 mol/mol (6ACA/ l-lysine hydrochloride) was achieved by shake flask cultivation of the engineered strain with the KivD# (F381Y/V461I). Meanwhile, the engineered E. coli could accumulate 84.67 ± 4.04 mg/L of HMDA with a yield of 0.08 mol/mol (HMDA/ l-lysine hydrochloride) by replacing aldehyde dehydrogenase with bi-aminotransferases. This achievement marks a significant advancement in the biological synthesis of 6-carbon compounds, since the biosynthetic pathways of HMDA are rarely identified.

13.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956986

RESUMO

Red wine is rich in anthocyanins and procyanidins which possess multiple health-promoting properties. However, the synergistically anticancer effects of them on gastric cancer cells still undefined. The results showed that combination of malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-O-glucoside (M35GC) and procyanidin C1 could effectively inhibited the viability of MKN-28 cells with the lowest IC50 value. Mechanistically, M35GC and procyanidin C1 significantly induced cell apoptosis by reducing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, blocked cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by decreasing CDK4 protein and decreased glucose consumption and lactate production during aerobic glycolysis through suppressing the expression of HK2 protein in MKN-28 cells. In conclusion, induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as the inhibition of HK2 protein that participates in the glycolytic pathway and the suppression of aerobic glycolysis by M35GC and procyanidin C1 contributed to the anti-cancer effects in gastric cancer.

14.
JMIR Form Res ; 8: e55834, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body temperature is the most-used noninvasive biomarker to determine menstrual cycle and ovulation. However, issues related to its low accuracy are still under discussion. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to improve the accuracy of identifying the presence or absence of ovulation within a menstrual cycle. We investigated whether core body temperature (CBT) estimation can improve the accuracy of temperature biphasic shift discrimination in the menstrual cycle. The study consisted of 2 parts: experiment 1 assessed the validity of the CBT estimation method, while experiment 2 focused on the effectiveness of the method in discriminating biphasic temperature shifts. METHODS: In experiment 1, healthy women aged between 18 and 40 years had their true CBT measured using an ingestible thermometer and their CBT estimated from skin temperature and ambient temperature measured during sleep in both the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. This study analyzed the differences between these 2 measurements, the variations in temperature between the 2 phases, and the repeated measures correlation between the true and estimated CBT. Experiment 2 followed a similar methodology, but focused on evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of these 2 temperature measurement approaches (estimated CBT and traditional oral basal body temperature [BBT]) for identifying ovulatory cycles. This was performed using urine luteinizing hormone (LH) as the reference standard. Menstrual cycles were categorized based on the results of the LH tests, and a temperature shift was identified using a specific criterion called the "three-over-six rule." This rule and the nested design of the study facilitated the assessment of diagnostic measures, such as sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The main findings showed that CBT estimated from skin temperature and ambient temperature during sleep was consistently lower than directly measured CBT in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Despite this, the pattern of temperature variation between these phases was comparable for both the estimated and true CBT measurements, suggesting that the estimated CBT accurately reflected the cyclical variations in the true CBT. Significantly, the CBT estimation method showed higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting the occurrence of ovulation than traditional oral BBT measurements, highlighting its potential as an effective tool for reproductive health monitoring. The current method for estimating the CBT provides a practical and noninvasive method for monitoring CBT, which is essential for identifying biphasic shifts in the BBT throughout the menstrual cycle. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the estimated CBT derived from skin temperature and ambient temperature during sleep accurately captures variations in true CBT and is more accurate in determining the presence or absence of ovulation than traditional oral BBT measurements. This method holds promise for improving reproductive health monitoring and understanding of menstrual cycle dynamics.

16.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 9(5): 557-573, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984045

RESUMO

Recent evidence demonstrates that low engraftment rates limit the efficacy of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. In this study, we attempted to overcome this limitation by enhancing the proliferative capacity of transplanted hiPSC-CMs. We found that miR-590-3p overexpression increased the proliferative capacity of hiPSC-CMs. miR-590-3p overexpression increased the number of engrafted cells and had a higher efficacy for myocardial repair than control cells. Moreover, we confirmed the safety of using miR-590-3p-overexpressing hiPSC-CMs in pig hearts. These results indicated that miR-590-3p overexpression stimulated hiPSC-CM cell cycle re-entry to induce cell proliferation and increased the therapeutic efficacy in MI.

17.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 9(5): 674-686, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984052

RESUMO

The adult mammalian heart harbors minute levels of cycling cardiomyocytes (CMs). Large numbers of images are needed to accurately quantify cycling events using microscopy-based methods. CardioCount is a new deep learning-based pipeline to rigorously score nuclei in microscopic images. When applied to a repository of 368,434 human microscopic images, we found evidence of coupled growth between CMs and cardiac endothelial cells in the adult human heart. Additionally, we found that vascular rarefaction and CM hypertrophy are interrelated in end-stage heart failure. CardioCount is available for use via GitHub and via Google Colab for users with minimal machine learning experience.

18.
Heliyon ; 10(12): e33138, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984305

RESUMO

The optimal conditions of applied factors to reuse Aluminium AA6061 scraps are (450, 500, and 550) °C preheating temperature, (1-15) % Boron Carbide (B4C), and Zirconium (ZrO2) hybrid reinforced particles at 120 min forging time via Hot Forging (HF) process. The response surface methodology (RSM) and machine learning (ML) were established for the optimisations and comparisons towards materials strength structure. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) strength and Microhardness (MH) were significantly increased by increasing the processed temperature and reinforced particles because of the material dispersion strengthening. The high melting point of particles caused impedance movements of aluminium ceramics dislocations which need higher plastic deformation force and hence increased the material's mechanical and physical properties. But, beyond Al/10 % B4C + 10 % ZrO2 the strength and hardness were decreased due to more particle agglomeration distribution. The optimisation tools of both RSM and ML show high agreement between the reported results of applied parameters towards the materials' strength characterisation. The microstructure analysis of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) provides insights mapping behavioural characterisation supports related to strength and hardness properties. The distribution of different volumes of ceramic particle proportion was highlighted. The environmental impacts were also analysed by employing a life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify energy savings because of its fewer processing steps and produce excellent hybrid materials properties.

19.
Transl Oncol ; 47: 102053, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib is an FDA-approved agent and induces T-cell-mediated immunity. Previously, we confirmed the therapeutic potential of abemaciclib on mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) tumors in mice. Here, we applied a prophylactic administration/dosage setting using two preclinical mouse models of dMMR-driven cancer. METHODS: Mlh1-/- and Msh2loxP/loxP mice received repeated prophylactic applications of abemaciclib mesylate (75 mg/kg bw, per oral) as monotherapy or were left untreated. Blood phenotyping and multiplex cytokine measurements were performed regularly. The tumor microenvironment was evaluated by immunofluorescence and Nanostring-based gene expression profiling. Numbers, size and immune composition and activity of extracellular vesicles (EVs) were studied at the endpoint. FINDINGS: Prophylactic abemaciclib-administration delayed tumor development and significantly prolonged overall survival in both mouse strains (Mlh1-/-: 50.0 wks vs. control: 33.9 wks; Msh2loxP/loxP;TgTg(Vil1-cre: 58.4 wks vs. control 44.4 wks). In Mlh1-/- mice, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6) significantly increased, whereas IL-10 and IL-17A decreased. Circulating and splenic exhausted and regulatory T cell numbers were significantly lower in the abemaciclib groups. Deeper analysis of late-onset tumors revealed activation of the Hedgehog and Notch signaling in Mlh1-/- mice, and activation of the MAPK pathway in Msh2loxP/loxP;TgTg(Vil1-cre mice. Still, arising tumors had fewer infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (vs. control). Notably, prophylactic abemaciclib-administration prevented secretion of procoagulant EVs but triggered release of immunomodulatory EVs in Mlh1-/- mice. INTERPRETATION: Prophylactic abemaciclib prolongs survival via global immunomodulation. Prophylactic use of abemaciclib should be considered further for individuals with inherited dMMR. FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the German research foundation [DFG grant number: MA5799/2-2] and the Brigitte und Dr. Konstanze Wegener-Stiftung to CM.

20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986723

RESUMO

Microglia are increasingly recognized to contribute to brain health and disease. Preclinical studies using laboratory rodents are essential to advance our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of these cells in the central nervous system. Rodents are nocturnal animals, and they are mostly maintained in a defined light-dark cycle within animal facilities, with many laboratories investigating microglial molecular and functional profiles during the animals' light (sleep) phase. However, only a few studies have considered possible differences in microglial functions between the active and sleep phases. Based on initial evidence suggesting that microglial intrinsic clock genes can affect their phenotypes, we sought to investigate differences in transcriptional, proteotype and functional profiles of microglia between light (sleep) and dark (active) phases, and how these changes are affected in pathological models. We found marked transcriptional and proteotype differences between microglia harvested from male mice during the light or dark phase. Amongst others, these differences related to genes and proteins associated with immune responses, motility, and phagocytosis, which were reflected by functional alterations in microglial synaptic pruning and response to bacterial stimuli. Possibly accounting for such changes, we found RNA and protein regulation in SWI/SNF and NuRD chromatin remodeling complexes between light and dark phases. Importantly, we also show that the time of microglial sample collection influences the nature of microglial transcriptomic changes in a model of immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering diurnal factors in studying microglial cells and indicate that implementing a circadian perspective is pivotal for advancing our understanding of their physiological and pathophysiological roles in brain health and disease.

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