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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248755, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350303

RESUMO

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


Resumo O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Portulaca , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipolipemiantes , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fígado
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMO

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Osmeriformes , Chile , Dieta/veterinária , Lipídeos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Asteraceae , Antioxidantes , Dano ao DNA , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246180, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278550

RESUMO

Abstract In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970's to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


Resumo Na pesca, o fenômeno fishing down food webs, ou 'pescando teias tróficas abaixo', expressa a redução do nível trófico na composição das capturas, e tem origem tradicionalmente atribuída à sobrepesca. Sob intenso extrativismo, a resiliência das espécies carnívoras, predadoras de topo, é particularmente afetada, sendo seus estoques os primeiros a entrarem em depleção. A cavala, ou serra, ou sororoca, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, é exemplo de recurso predador historicamente alvo da pesca artesanal, de pequena escala, na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho analisa os valores de desembarque do recurso em três períodos ao longo de 50 anos na costa paranaense, sul do Brasil, com objetivo de avaliar se sua produção tem efetivamente diminuído. Ainda, estuda-se a dieta da espécie na região, para confirmar seus hábitos carnívoros e avaliar o nível trófico na região. Os resultados mostram que, surpreendentemente, dos anos 1970 para 2019 a produção de S. brasiliensis tem aumentado em valores absolutos, bem como relativamente à de outros recursos, em que pese o nível trófico 4,238, similar a outras espécies do gênero. Constata-se que a pesca da cavala na região de estudo constitui um caso de aumento nos desembarques a despeito de elevado nível trófico e grande tamanho corpóreo. Os resultados concordam com recente levantamento em nível mundial, que nega existir correlação necessária entre sobrepesca e nível trófico alto, mas fatores que podem explicar os resultados do presente trabalho são discutidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Pesqueiros , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cadeia Alimentar
7.
Nutr Health ; : 2601060211072325, 2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132897

RESUMO

Background: Dairy products are a rich source of nutrients of public health concern, though most women do not meet the recommended intake of 3 cup-eq/day. Aim: The objective of this analysis was to examine micronutrient adequacy among pregnant women in the US by level of dairy consumption. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 791) ages 20-44 years in NHANES 2003-2016 were categorized by level of dairy consumption (<1, 1 to <2, 2 to <3, and ≥3 cup-eq/day). Usual micronutrient intakes and prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake level (AI) were calculated from food alone and food plus dietary supplements using the National Cancer Institute method. Diet quality was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015). Results: Pregnant women consuming ≥3 cup-eq/day of dairy were more likely to meet the potassium AI than women consuming lower levels. Compared to women consuming ≥3 cup-eq/day of dairy, women consuming <1 or 1 to <2 cup-eq/day were more likely to have inadequate intake of vitamin D, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin A from foods plus supplements. Compared to women consuming ≥3 cup-eq/day of dairy, women consuming <1 cup-eq/day were more likely to have inadequate intake of calcium and riboflavin. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women consuming ≥3 cup-eq/day of dairy was 220 ng/mL compared with median UICs of 98-135 mg/mL among women consuming the lowest levels. Pregnant women consuming ≥3 cup-eq/day of dairy had the highest intake of sodium (mg/day) and saturated fat intake evaluated as a HEI-2015 component. Conclusions: Consumption of recommended levels of dairy products may help pregnant women achieve adequate intakes of select micronutrients.

8.
Environ Res ; 213: 113656, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are vulnerable to various environmental exposures and lifestyle factors, encompassed in the exposome. Recent research shows that telomere length is substantially determined early in life and that exposures in childhood may have important consequences in setting later life telomere length. OBJECTIVES: We explore in a child population the associations of 17 exposures with telomere length and longitudinal telomere change. METHODS: Children (2.8-10.3y at baseline, 51.3% boys) were followed-up for five to seven years. Relative telomere length was measured at baseline and follow-up using quantitative real-time PCR. Exposures and lifestyle factors included: body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), dietary habits (sugar- and fat-rich food intake, vegetables and fruit intake), psychosocial stress (events, emotions, behaviour), sleep duration, physical activity, and residential environmental quality (longterm black carbon, particulate matter exposure, and residential green space). Cross-sectional (n=182) and longitudinal (n=150) analyses were assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status and multiple testing. RESULTS: Our longitudinal analyses showed that higher residential green space at baseline was associated with (ß=0.261, p=0.002) lower telomere attrition and that children with a higher waist circumference at baseline showed a higher telomere attrition (ß=-0.287, p=0.001). These two predictors were confirmed via LASSO variable selection and correction for multiple testing. In addition, children with more unhealthy exposures at baseline had a significantly higher telomere attrition over the follow-up period compared to children with more healthy exposures (ß=-0.200, p=0.017). DISCUSSION: Waist circumference and residential green space were identified as predictors associated with telomere attrition in childhood. These results further support the advantages of a healthy lifestyle from early age onwards and the importance of a green environment to promote molecular longevity from childhood onwards.

9.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 188: 71-82, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691508

RESUMO

Consumption of high fat diets (HFD) mimics a modern or "Western style" diet pattern and can impair intestinal barrier integrity, leading to endotoxemia and associated unhealthy conditions. This study investigated if supplementation with an anthocyanin (cyanidin and delphinidin glucosides)-rich extract (CDRE) could revert or mitigate HFD-induced alterations of colonic physiology in part through the regulation of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR-4)- and redox-regulated signaling. C57BL/6J male mice were fed for 4 weeks with a control or an HFD. Then, mice were divided in four groups fed either control or HFD, or these diets supplemented with CDRE for the subsequent 4 weeks. After 8 weeks on the HFD we observed in the colon: i) disruption of tight junction structure and function; ii) increased TLR-4 expression; iii) increased NADPH oxidase NOX1 expression, and iv) activation of redox-sensitive and TLR-4-triggered pathways, i.e. NF-κB, ERK1/2, JNK1/2, PI3K/Akt. All these events were prevented or reverted by CDRE supplementation. Supporting the relevance of CDRE-mediated downregulation of TLR-4 on its colon beneficial effect; in vitro (Caco-2 cell monolayers), cyanidin, delphinidin and their metabolites protocatechuic and gallic acid, mitigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monolayer permeabilization by restoring tight junction structure and dynamics and preventing lipid/protein oxidation. The CDRE also mitigated HFD-mediated alterations in parameters of goblet cell differentiation and function, including the downregulation of markers of goblet cell differentiation (Klf4), and intestinal mucosa healing (Tff3). Results show that a short-term supplementation with cyanidin and delphinidin, protect from HFD-induced alterations in colon physiology in part through the modulation of TLR-4- and redox-regulated signaling.

10.
mSystems ; 7(3): e0018022, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695433

RESUMO

Early-life stress (ELS) leads to increased vulnerability for mental and metabolic disorders. We have previously shown that a low dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio protects against ELS-induced cognitive impairments. Due to the importance of the gut microbiota as a determinant of long-term health, we here study the impact of ELS and dietary PUFAs on the gut microbiota and how this relates to the previously described cognitive, metabolic, and fatty acid profiles. Male mice were exposed to ELS via the limited bedding and nesting paradigm (postnatal day (P)2 to P9 and to an early diet (P2 to P42) with an either high (15) or low (1) ω-6 linoleic acid to ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid ratio. 16S rRNA was sequenced and analyzed from fecal samples at P21, P42, and P180. Age impacted α- and ß-diversity. ELS and diet together predicted variance in microbiota composition and affected the relative abundance of bacterial groups at several taxonomic levels in the short and long term. For example, age increased the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes, while it decreased Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia; ELS reduced the genera RC9 gut group and Rikenella, and the low ω-6/ω-3 diet reduced the abundance of the Firmicutes Erysipelotrichia. At P42, species abundance correlated with body fat mass and circulating leptin (e.g., Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria taxa) and fatty acid profiles (e.g., Firmicutes taxa). This study gives novel insights into the impact of age, ELS, and dietary PUFAs on microbiota composition, providing potential targets for noninvasive (nutritional) modulation of ELS-induced deficits. IMPORTANCE Early-life stress (ELS) leads to increased vulnerability to develop mental and metabolic disorders; however, the biological mechanisms leading to such programming are not fully clear. Increased attention has been given to the importance of the gut microbiota as a determinant of long-term health and as a potential target for noninvasive nutritional strategies to protect against the negative impact of ELS. Here, we give novel insights into the complex interaction between ELS, early dietary ω-3 availability, and the gut microbiota across ages and provide new potential targets for (nutritional) modulation of the long-term effects of the early-life environment via the microbiota.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(6): 102529, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Midlife women undergoing menopausal transition are predisposed to weight gain. Weight gain in midlife is driven by two modifiable risk factors: menopausal symptom's severity and lifestyle practices. The independent and interactive nature of menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors of weight gain has not been investigated yet. This study was undertaken to study menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors for weight gain in midlife women and identify midlife -related barriers in managing corrective lifestyle practices. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, menopausal symptom severity and lifestyle practices such as diet, exercise, and sleep were assessed using a pre-validated and reliable questionnaire on a convenience sample of midlife women (43-55 years) via an interview schedule. The association of lifestyle practices and its barriers with socio-demographics and menopausal symptoms were analysed. RESULT: A total of 504 women (mean age: 47.3 ± 4.1 years) were recruited. More than half of them followed corrective dietary practices, but only one-fourth engaged in moderate-intensity exercises. Total menopausal symptom severity was associated with increased food intake (P < 0.001), joint pain with limited physical activity and hot flashes and emotional volatility with sleep disturbances (P < 0.01). Demographic variables such as education, economic and employment status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle practices. CONCLUSION: Assessment of menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors and associated barriers must be the pivotal component to devise comprehensive women-centric weight management modules. Similar studies should be carried out in future when there is no clear effect of COVID19 on lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
12.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741020

RESUMO

Despite early studies linking calcium-calmodulin protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) to prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, the role of CAMKK2 in metastasis in vivo remains unclear. Moreover, while CAMKK2 is known to regulate systemic metabolism, whether CAMKK2's effects on whole-body metabolism would impact prostate cancer progression and/or related comorbidities is not known. Here, we demonstrate that germline ablation of Camkk2 slows, but does not stop, primary prostate tumorigenesis in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) genetic mouse model. Consistent with prior epidemiological reports supporting a link between obesity and prostate cancer aggressiveness, TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited a pronounced increase in the colonization of lung metastases. We demonstrated that this effect on the metastatic spread was dependent on CAMKK2. Notably, diet-induced lung metastases exhibited a highly aggressive neuroendocrine phenotype. Concurrently, Camkk2 deletion improved insulin sensitivity in the same mice. Histological analyses revealed that cancer cells were smaller in the TRAMP;Camkk2-/- mice compared to TRAMP;Camkk2+/+ controls. Given the differences in circulating insulin levels, a known regulator of cell growth, we hypothesized that systemic CAMKK2 could promote prostate cancer cell growth and disease progression in part through cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Accordingly, host deletion of Camkk2 impaired the growth of syngeneic murine prostate tumors in vivo, confirming nonautonomous roles for CAMKK2 in prostate cancer. Cancer cell size and mTOR signaling was diminished in tumors propagated in Camkk2-null mice. Together, these data indicate that, in addition to cancer cell-intrinsic roles, CAMKK2 mediates prostate cancer progression via tumor-extrinsic mechanisms. Further, we propose that CAMKK2 inhibition may also help combat common metabolic comorbidities in men with advanced prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Resistência à Insulina , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias da Próstata , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Quinases
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 842: 156831, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750184

RESUMO

Current attention is focused on determining the potential for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to adversely impact human health. Zebrafish are a popular biological model because they share early development pathways with humans. A dietary exposure paradigm is growing in popularity in the zebrafish model because the outcomes often translate to humans. To create a diet of known composition, it is crucial to understand background PFAS levels present in zebrafish diet. Background PFAS, if present, potentially confounds interpretation of toxicological data. To date, no studies document the PFAS background levels in laboratory fish diet and there is only limited information on some pet foods. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for up to 50 target PFAS in high lipid and protein content laboratory fish diets and pet foods. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C9-C13) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were quantified in 11 out of 16 laboratory fish diets and in three out of five pet fish foods. Foods for pet birds, lizards, and dogs were below the limit of detection for all PFAS. In two of the laboratory fish diets, PFOS concentrations were >1.3 ng/g and the total PFAS for the three laboratory fish diets exceeded 1.0 ng/g. Hundreds of biomedical laboratories across the world utilize these commercial laboratory fish diets, and these results indicate that numerous zebrafish colonies may be inadvertently receiving significant dietary PFAS exposures. In light of this new information, it is critical to design PFAS studies with appropriate controls with measured background PFAS concentrations in the diet and to urge caution when interpreting the results.

14.
J Vasc Nurs ; 40(2): 105-111, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncompliance with fluid restrictions and diet is a major problem among hemodialysis patients. This can lead to fluid overload in the interdialytic phase and the accumulation of metabolic waste. This study aims to explore the life experience of patients undergoing hemodialysis and their compliance with fluid restrictions and diet. METHOD: The design of this study was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. It involved 15 patients undergoing hemodialysis interviewed using semistructured interview guidelines. The data were collected and then transcribed and analyzed using the Van Mannen method. The coding analysis used Nvivo 12 software. RESULTS: Patients ranged from 24 to 64 years old. More than half of the patients were not compliant with the fluid restrictions based on the IDWG score (60%, n=15). Five themes emerged: fluid restrictions and understanding related to diet (health education, fluid and diet restriction, information provider, and experience), personal motivation (activity, side effects, need, and lack of motivation), social support (family), compliance (motivation and attitude), and disease management (management of fluid and diet restriction). CONCLUSION: Hemodialysis patients expressed a number of concerns that caused them not to comply with diet and fluid restrictions. Several issues identified were patient-related and potentially modifiable using the correct information or health education related to diet and fluid restriction. Nurses should be more aware of identifying these problems to address compliance issues. Future research should aim to understand nurses' perceptions and practices that may guide interventions to resolve this urgent compliance issue.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Dieta , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Diálise Renal , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060189, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this preplanned secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise programme combined with daily whey protein, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). DESIGN: 12-month, two-arm, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: University clinical exercise centre. PARTICIPANTS: 70 ADT-treated men were randomised to exercise-training plus supplementation (Ex+ Suppl, n=34) or usual care (control, n=36). INTERVENTION: Men allocated to Ex + Suppl undertook thrice weekly resistance training with weight-bearing exercise training plus daily whey protein (25 g), calcium (1200 mg) and vitamin D (2000 IU) supplementation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognition was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months via a computerised battery (CogState), Trail-making test, Rey auditory-verbal learning test and Digit span. Data were analysed with linear mixed models and an intention-to-treat and prespecified per-protocol approach (exercise-training: ≥66%, nutritional supplement: ≥80%). RESULTS: Sixty (86%) men completed the trial (Ex + Suppl, n=31; control, n=29). Five (7.1%) men were classified as having mild cognitive impairment at baseline. Median (IQR) adherence to the exercise and supplement was 56% (37%-82%) and 91% (66%-97%), respectively. Ex + Suppl had no effect on cognition at any time. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-month multicomponent exercise training and supplementation intervention had no significant effect on cognition in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer compared with usual care. Exercise training adherence below recommended guidelines does not support cognitive health in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12614000317695, registered 25/03/2014) and acknowledged under the Therapeutic Goods Administration Clinical Trial Notification Scheme (CT-2015-CTN-03372-1 v1).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Cálcio , Cognição , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/uso terapêutico
16.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 19(3): 14791641221111252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750483

RESUMO

AIMS: To summarize methods used to account for antihyperglycemic medication changes in randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of dietary and physical activity interventions on glycemia among adults with diabetes. METHODS: Using studies included in two recently published systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials examining the glycemic effects of dietary and physical activity interventions, we evaluated how each study accounted for antihyperglycemic medication changes. Data were analyzed using summary statistics, stratified by the type of intervention studied, and each was assigned a score from 0 to 6 reflecting the strength of medication controls employed. RESULTS: We evaluated 22 physical activity focused and 27 dietary focused articles. Our scoring system yielded a mean concurrent medication adjustment score of 3.9/6 for the physical activity studies and a score of 1.7/6 (p < 0.001) for the dietary studies. CONCLUSIONS: We found that randomized controlled trials included in recent systematic reviews of physical activity and dietary interventions did not robustly account or control for changes in antihyperglycemic medications, with physical activity interventions doing so more robustly than dietary interventions. This is a threat to the validity of study findings, as observed glycemic changes may in fact be attributable to imbalances in concurrent medication adjustments between groups.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hipoglicemiantes , Glicemia , Dieta , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1061-1067, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of awareness and adherence to lifestyle modifications in hypertensive patients. METHODS: The descriptive study was conducted from January to June 2019 at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised adult patients of either gender with hypertension history of at least 1 year. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the subjects' awareness and adherence to lifestyle modifications for the control of hypertension. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 294 patients, 160(54.4%) were women. The overall mean age was 53.3±12.1 years and mean body mass index was 27.1±5.9kg/m2, and mean duration of hypertension was 8.2±7.1 years. There were 122(41.5%) obese and 97(33%) overweight patients. Overall, 201(68.4%) patients had co-morbidities and 40(13.6%) were smokers. Of the total, 205(69.7%) knew the importance of exercise, but 104(35.4%) were doing it; 270(91.8%) were aware of restriction of sodium diet, but 244(83%) were adhering to it; 222(75.5%) knew the importance of dietary approaches to stop hypertension, but 185(62.9%) were adhering to it; and 247(84%) were aware that regular blood pressure measurement and follow-ups were important, but 150(51%) were adhering to it. CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness regarding lifestyle modifications was found to be high in hypertensive patients, but the status of adherence was not up to the mark.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
18.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e44, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754983

RESUMO

The present study examines the association of diet with depressive symptoms among stroke survivors from a community cohort of older adults. Depression is common after stroke. A healthy diet has previously been associated with fewer depressive symptoms in older individuals, but it is unknown if this effect is also seen in stroke survivors. Eighty-six participants from the Memory and Aging Project with a history of stroke at their study baseline enrolment, complete dietary data and two or more assessments for depression were included in this observational prospective cohort analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually with a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Diet was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Diet scores were based on analysis of participants' reported intakes of 144 food items. A generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was applied to examine the association of diet score with depressive symptoms. The study participants had a mean age of 82 ± 7⋅17 years and 14⋅42 ± 2⋅61 years of education, and 82⋅56 % were female. Western diet score was positively associated with depressive symptoms over time (diet score tertile 3 v. tertile 1: ß = 0⋅22, se = 0⋅09, P = 0⋅02; P for trend = 0⋅022). Interaction with sex suggested a stronger effect in females. A Western diet was associated with more post-stroke depressive symptoms, suggesting nutrition is important not only for reducing cerebrovascular risk, but for protecting post-stoke mental health as well.


Assuntos
Depressão , Dieta Ocidental , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/complicações , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e47, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754985

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) progression is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas healthy lifestyle habits are associated with lower ccIMT. The objective of the present study was to test whether a healthy lifestyle intervention can beneficially affect ccIMT progression. A community-based non-randomised, controlled lifestyle intervention was conducted, focusing on a predominantly plant-based diet (strongest emphasis), physical activity, stress management and social health. Assessments of ccIMT were made at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Participants had an average age of 57 years and were recruited from the general population in rural northwest Germany (intervention: n 114; control: n 87). From baseline to 1 year, mean ccIMT significantly increased in both the intervention (0⋅026 [95 % CI 0⋅012, 0⋅039] mm) and control group (0⋅045 [95 % CI 0⋅033, 0⋅056] mm). The 1-year trajectory of mean ccIMT was lower in the intervention group (P = 0⋅022; adjusted for baseline). In a subgroup analysis with participants with high baseline mean ccIMT (≥0⋅800 mm), mean ccIMT non-significantly decreased in the intervention group (-0⋅016 [95 % CI -0⋅050, 0⋅017] mm; n 18) and significantly increased in the control group (0⋅065 [95 % CI 0⋅033, 0⋅096] mm; n 12). In the subgroup, the 1-year trajectory of mean ccIMT was significantly lower in the intervention group (between-group difference: -0⋅051 [95 % CI -0⋅075, -0⋅027] mm; P < 0⋅001; adjusted for baseline). The results indicate that healthy lifestyle changes may beneficially affect ccIMT within 1 year, particularly if baseline ccIMT is high.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos de Coortes , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(5. Vyp. 2): 6-10, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759559

RESUMO

At present, the problem of the impact of dietary characteristics on the quality of human sleep is most acute, since it is necessary to have a sufficient level of wakefulness, which is provided by a full-length sleep, for harmonious interaction with the outside world in an urbanized society. Also, the quality of sleep is important factor too, because if the sleep is fragmented, then no matter how long it is - it will not give enough energy. For the quality of sleep, an important role is played not only by the sleep hygiene that a person adheres to, but also by the characteristics of the diet, which can affect the representation of certain phases and stages of sleep. The purpose of this review is to discuss the data of the most significant studies of the influence of dietary supplements on the quality and duration of sleep.

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