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1.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 149-160, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229947

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery has become a recognized and effective procedure for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to directly compare the caloric intake-independent effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and single anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with SG (SADI-S) on glucose tolerance in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to elucidate the differences between bariatric surgery and caloric restriction. A total of 120 adult male Wistar rats with DIO and insulin resistance were randomly assigned to surgical (sham operation, SG, and SADI-S) and dietary (pair-feeding the amount of food eaten by animals undergoing the SG or SADI-S surgeries) interventions. Body weight and food intake were weekly monitored, and 6 weeks after interventions, fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests, plasma insulin, adiponectin, GIP, GLP-1, and ghrelin levels were determined. The body weight of SADI-S rats was significantly (p < 0.001) lower as compared to the sham-operated, SG, and pair-fed groups. Furthermore, SADI-S rats exhibited decreased whole body fat mass (p < 0.001), lower food efficiency rates (p < 0.001), and increased insulin sensitivity, as well as improved glucose and lipid metabolism compared to that of the SG and pair-fed rats. SADI-S was more effective than SG, or caloric restriction, in improving glycemic control and metabolic profile, with a higher remission of insulin resistance as well as long-term weight loss. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Obesidade , Gastrectomia , Anastomose Cirúrgica
2.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 149-160, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-573

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery has become a recognized and effective procedure for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to directly compare the caloric intake-independent effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and single anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with SG (SADI-S) on glucose tolerance in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to elucidate the differences between bariatric surgery and caloric restriction. A total of 120 adult male Wistar rats with DIO and insulin resistance were randomly assigned to surgical (sham operation, SG, and SADI-S) and dietary (pair-feeding the amount of food eaten by animals undergoing the SG or SADI-S surgeries) interventions. Body weight and food intake were weekly monitored, and 6 weeks after interventions, fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests, plasma insulin, adiponectin, GIP, GLP-1, and ghrelin levels were determined. The body weight of SADI-S rats was significantly (p < 0.001) lower as compared to the sham-operated, SG, and pair-fed groups. Furthermore, SADI-S rats exhibited decreased whole body fat mass (p < 0.001), lower food efficiency rates (p < 0.001), and increased insulin sensitivity, as well as improved glucose and lipid metabolism compared to that of the SG and pair-fed rats. SADI-S was more effective than SG, or caloric restriction, in improving glycemic control and metabolic profile, with a higher remission of insulin resistance as well as long-term weight loss. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Obesidade , Gastrectomia , Anastomose Cirúrgica
3.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e59, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Within the UK, dietary fibre intakes are well below recommended intakes and associated with increased risk of obesity. This study aimed to explore the views of parents and children on barriers and facilitators to increasing fibre intakes and improving diets, alongside investigating the appropriateness of intervention components to overcome modifiable barriers. DESIGN: Qualitative study including semi-structured interviews and focus groups informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model. PARTICIPANTS: Year 5 children (aged 9-10-years) and parents, recruited through London primary schools. RESULTS: A total of twenty-four participants (eleven parents and thirteen children) took part. Five key themes were identified as barriers and facilitators, namely lack of (and improving) knowledge, social factors (including parent-child conflicts, limited time for food preparation, influence of peer and family members), current eating habits, influence of the school, community and home environment in shaping eating behaviours, and the importance of choice and variety in finding foods that are healthy and tasty. Parents strongly supported school-based dietary interventions to enable consistent messaging at home and school and help support dietary behaviour change. Practical sessions (such as workshops to strengthen knowledge, taste tests and food swap ideas) were supported by parents and children. CONCLUSIONS: By using a theory-driven approach to explore the barriers and facilitators to increasing fibre intake, this research identified important themes and modifiable barriers to behaviour change and identifies acceptable intervention components to overcome barriers and bring about sustained dietary behaviour change in primary school children.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade , Humanos , Criança , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Reino Unido
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 5(2): 101409, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307030

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with altered gut bacteria. However, less is known about the gut viral community and its role in shaping microbiota in neurodevelopmental disorders. Herein, we perform a metagenomic analysis of gut-DNA viruses in 60 children with ASD and 64 age- and gender-matched typically developing children to investigate the effect of the gut virome on host bacteria in children with ASD. ASD is associated with altered gut virome composition accompanied by the enrichment of Clostridium phage, Bacillus phage, and Enterobacteria phage. These ASD-enriched phages are largely associated with disrupted viral ecology in ASD. Importantly, changes in the interplay between the gut bacteriome and virome seen in ASD may influence the encoding capacity of microbial pathways for neuroactive metabolite biosynthesis. These findings suggest an impaired bacteriome-virome ecology in ASD, which sheds light on the importance of bacteriophages in pathogenesis and the development of microbial therapeutics in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Bacteriófagos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Viroma , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bactérias/genética
5.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e61, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity may reduce diet quality, but the relationship between food insecurity severity and diet quality is under-researched. This study aimed to examine the relationship between diet quality and severity of household food insecurity. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, online survey used the United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Six-item Short Form to classify respondents as food secure or marginally, moderately or severely food insecure. The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS; scored 0­73) determined diet quality (ARFS total and sub-scale scores). Survey-weighted linear regression (adjusted for age, sex, income, education, location and household composition) was conducted. SETTING: Tasmania, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults (aged 18 years and over). RESULTS: The mean ARFS total for the sample (n 804, 53 % female, 29 % aged > 65 years) was 32·4 (sd = 9·8). As the severity of household food insecurity increased, ARFS total decreased. Marginally food-insecure respondents reported a mean ARFS score three points lower than food-secure adults (B = ­2·7; 95 % CI (­5·11, ­0·34); P = 0·03) and reduced by six points for moderately (B = ­5·6; 95 % CI (­7·26, ­3·90); P < 0·001) and twelve points for severely food-insecure respondents (B = ­11·5; 95 % CI (­13·21, ­9·78); P < 0·001). Marginally food-insecure respondents had significantly lower vegetable sub-scale scores, moderately food-insecure respondents had significantly lower sub-scale scores for all food groups except dairy and severely food-insecure respondents had significantly lower scores for all sub-scale scores. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer diet quality is evident in marginally, moderately and severely food-insecure adults. Interventions to reduce food insecurity and increase diet quality are required to prevent poorer nutrition-related health outcomes in food-insecure populations in Australia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Austrália , Insegurança Alimentar
6.
Endocr Connect ; 13(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323605

RESUMO

Adipokine chemerin plays important roles in disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism of obesity and obesity-related diseases, and exercise-induced improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism is closely related to the decrease of chemerin, but the mechanisms by which chemerin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism remain unclarified. Hypotestosterone induces male obesity and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism through androgen receptor (AR) and its target genes: glucose and lipid metabolism-related molecules (including FOXO1, PEPCK, PGC-1α, and SCD1). Recently, the link between them has been reported that chemerin modulated the secretion of androgen. In this study, global chemerin knockout (chemerin (-/-)) mice were established to demonstrate the roles of chemerin in regulating blood glucose and blood lipid of mice under diet (high-fat (HFD) and normal diet) and exercise interventions and then to explore its mechanisms (AR - glucose and lipid metabolism enzymes). We found that the blood lipid and adipocyte size were low accompanied by the improvements in the levels of serum testosterone, gastrocnemius AR, and gastrocnemius FOXO1, SCD1, and PGC-1α in HFD chemerin (-/-) mice, but exercise-induced improvements of these indicators in HFD WT mice were attenuated or abolished in HFD chemerin (-/-) mice. In conclusion, the decrease of chemerin improved the blood lipid profile of HFD male mice at sedentary and exercise states, mediated partly by the increases of testosterone and AR to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism enzymes. To our knowledge, it is the first report that chemerin's regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism might be mediated by testosterone and AR in vivo.

7.
Maturitas ; 182: 107923, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Nordic or Baltic Sea diet is a healthy plant-based dietary pattern composed of foods originating from Nordic countries, closely related to the Mediterranean diet. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been found to be associated with a reduced risk of frailty. Although adherence to the Nordic diet has been associated with health benefits, little is known about its association with frailty. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the evidence from observational studies regarding the association between the Nordic/Baltic Sea diet and frailty among older adults. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Three databases (Medline/Ovid, Embase/Ovid, and Scopus) were systematically searched in February 2023 for observational studies examining the association between adherence to the Nordic diet and frailty among adults ≥60 years. The two authors independently assessed the full text of the papers for eligibility of studies and risk of bias. RESULTS: Three studies (the results of which were reported across 6 papers) met the inclusion criteria, among which one study (2 papers) included only women. Greater adherence to the Nordic diet was associated with a reduced risk of frailty measured by modified Fried criteria in women (one study). Moreover, greater adherence to the Nordic diet was associated with improved muscle (handgrip/leg) strength (one study) and physical performance (two studies), but these differences were seen only in women, with no significant results in men in two studies. Greater adherence to the Nordic diet was also associated with a lower risk of mobility limitations and improved ability to carry out self-care tasks (one study) and a borderline non-significant difference in Activities of Daily Living (one study). A meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogenous outcomes. Although all studies were of good quality, the results should be carefully interpreted due to methodological limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the Nordic diet could be promising in reducing frailty risk, but more robust studies with equal gender representation and frailty-specific outcomes are needed.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Fragilidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Força da Mão
8.
Drug Ther Bull ; 62(3): 39-42, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336461

RESUMO

Management of type 2 diabetes has now been simplified by the understanding that the condition is caused by excess fat in the liver together with suppression of beta cell function by the associated excess liver export of fat. These factors can be reversed by substantial weight loss leading to remission in the early years after diagnosis, or at least major decrease in cardiovascular risks and improvement in glucose control for all. Weight loss by any means is successful, but it is most easily achieved by rapid action using a low or very low calorie diet of around 800 kcal/day followed by sustained modest restraint of dietary habits. Oral hypoglycaemic agents and one antihypertensive drug can be withdrawn on day 1 of the weight loss diet, raising the importance of appropriate deprescribing.

9.
Matern Child Health J ; 28(2): 253-266, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341837

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of incarcerated pregnant women is increasing globally. With many having complex health and social backgrounds, incarceration provides opportunities for health interventions, including the chance to have their nutritional needs met. Despite the additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy being well documented, how these are being met within the correctional setting is currently poorly understood. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify the literature published between January 2010 and April 2023 related to the provision of nutrition for pregnant women in the international prison systems. Sixteen papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. The relevant key findings were charted and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Two themes were identified: 'the inconsistent reality of food provision' and 'choice, autonomy and food'. There is a clear disparity in the way in which diet is prioritised and provided to pregnant incarcerated women across several countries. DISCUSSION: The findings highlight the need for a consistent approach to diet on a macro, global level to ensure the health of women and their infants in context.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Prisioneiros , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prisões , Alimentos , Dieta
10.
JMIR Serious Games ; 12: e43574, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several electronic interventions have been used to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Electronic interactive games specific to physical activity are available, but it is unclear if these are effective at improving glycemic control in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effects of electronic game-based interventions on glycemic control in patients with diabetes. METHODS: Relevant studies that were published before April 1, 2023, were searched from 5 databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Eligibility criteria included prospective studies examining the relationship between electronic games with physical activities or diet education and glycemic control as the outcome. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. All analyses were conducted using RevMan5.4.1. Depending on the heterogeneity across studies, the pooled effects were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects models. RESULTS: Participants from 9 studies were included and assessed. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose improved in the intervention group, although the analysis revealed no significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.09%, 95% CI -0.29% to 0.10%) or fasting blood glucose (-0.94 mg/dL, 95% CI -9.34 to 7.46 mg/dL). However, the physical activity of individuals in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of those in the control group (standardized mean difference=0.84, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.38; P=.002). Other outcomes, such as weight and blood lipids, exhibited no significant improvement (all P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: Electronic games had a good impact on participants' physical activity and offered an advantage in glycemic control without reaching statistical significance. Electronic games are convenient for reminders and education. Low-intensity exercise games may not be considered a better adjuvant intervention to improve diabetes self-management care.

11.
J Nutr ; 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) is a simple and practical dietary metric associated with a number of chronic diseases. The GDQS included various foods related to blood pressure, especially diverse plant-based foods that have shown to lower blood pressure. However, studies on the role of the GDQS in reducing the risk of new-onset hypertension and whether its performance differs from that of other dietary metrics are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between the GDQS and new-onset hypertension and to compare its performance with that of other dietary patterns, including the Plant-based Diet Index (PDI), alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score in Chinese adults. METHODS: We included a total of 12,002 participants (5644 males and 6358 females) aged >18 y from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1997-2015). Dietary intake was estimated using average food intakes from 3 consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) were computed for hypertension using modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: With ≤18 y of follow-up (mean 8.7± 5.4 y), we ascertained 4232 incident cases of hypertension. Compared with participants with a low GDQS score (<15), the multivariable-adjusted RR of hypertension was 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.83] among participants with a high score (≥23). A 25% increment in the GDQS was associated with a 30% (RR, 0.70; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.76) lower risk of new-onset hypertension, which was comparable with the RRs of new-onset hypertension associated with every 25% increment in the PDI (RR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.93), DASH score (RR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91), and aMED score (RR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93). CONCLUSION: A higher GDQS was associated with a lower risk of new-onset hypertension, with comparable associations of new-onset hypertension with PDI, DASH, and aMED scores in Chinese adults.

12.
Ageing Res Rev ; 95: 102233, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360180

RESUMO

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a low-carbohydrate, adequate protein and high-fat diet. KD is primarily used to treat refractory epilepsy. KD was shown to be effective in treating different neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the first common neurodegenerative disease in the world characterized by memory and cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanism of KD in controlling of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases are not discussed widely. Therefore, this review aims to revise the fundamental mechanism of KD in different neurodegenerative diseases focusing on the AD. KD induces a fasting-like which modulates the central and peripheral metabolism by regulating mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, gut-flora, and autophagy in different neurodegenerative diseases. Different studies highlighted that KD improves AD neuropathology by regulating synaptic neurotransmission and inhibiting of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In conclusion, KD improves cognitive function and attenuates the progression of AD neuropathology by reducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and enhancing neuronal autophagy and brain BDNF.

13.
Ageing Res Rev ; 95: 102238, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular senescence has been regarded as a therapeutic target for ageing and age-related diseases. Several senotherapeutic agents have been proposed, including compounds derived from natural products which hold the translational potential to promote healthy ageing. This systematic review examined the association of dietary ingredients with cellular senescence in animals and humans, with an intent to identify dietary ingredients with senotherapeutic potential. METHODS: This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (Reg #: CRD42022338885). The databases PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for key terms related to cellular senescence, senescence markers, diets, nutrients and bioactive compounds. Intervention and observational studies on human and animals investigating the effects of dietary ingredients via oral administration on cellular senescence load were included. The SYRCLE's risk of bias tool and Cochrane risk of bias tool v2.0 were used to assess the risk of bias for animal and human studies respectively. RESULTS: Out of 5707 identified articles, 83 articles consisting of 78 animal studies and 5 human studies aimed to reduce cellular senescence load using dietary ingredients. In animal studies, the most-frequently used senescence model was normative ageing (26 studies), followed by D-galactose-induced models (17 studies). Resveratrol (8 studies), vitamin E (4 studies) and soy protein isolate (3 studies) showed positive effects on reducing the level of senescence markers such as p53, p21, p16 and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase in various tissues of physiological systems. In three out of five human studies, ginsenoside Rg1 had no positive effect on reducing senescence in muscle tissues after exercise. The risk of bias for both animal and human studies was largely unclear. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol, vitamin E and soy protein isolate are promising senotherapeutics studied in animal models. Studies testing dietary ingredients with senotherapeutic potential in humans are limited and translation is highly warranted.

14.
Conserv Physiol ; 12(1): coae008, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414659

RESUMO

The red wolf (Canis rufus) is a critically endangered canid that exists solely because of the establishment of the ex situ population in the late 1980s. Yet, the population under human care suffers from gastrointestinal (GI) disease in captivity. While the cause of GI disease is unknown, it is speculated that environmental factors can influence GI health of zoo-managed red wolves. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, a biomarker for stress, and environmental factors for zoo-managed red wolves. Faecal samples were collected from 14 adult wolves three times a week for 5 to 12 months. Using a single-antibody cortisol enzyme immunoassay, FGM concentrations were quantified. Environmental factors were collected for each participating wolf on dietary type, sex, type of public access to enclosure, density (enclosure size [ft2]/number of wolves living in enclosure) and a monthly average status of GI health. Red wolves that ate a commercial kibble diet had both higher FGM concentrations over time and higher baseline FGM concentrations compared to individuals that received commercial kibble mixed with commercial meat. Density, public access or GI health were not related to FGM concentration; however, males had higher baseline FGM concentrations compared to female red wolves. Our findings suggest that management conditions, particularly diet, can strongly influence FGM concentration in the zoo-managed red wolf population. Findings from this study highlight the importance of management choices on individual welfare. Maintaining a healthy captive population of red wolves is imperative for the persistence of the species, including successful future reintroductions.

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1265799, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414818

RESUMO

Introduction: A high-fat/high-sucrose diet leads to adverse metabolic changes that affect insulin sensitivity, function, and secretion. The source of fat in the diet might inhibit or increase this adverse effect. Fish oil and cocoa butter are a significant part of our diets. Yet comparisons of these commonly used fat sources with high sucrose on pancreas morphology and function are not made. This study investigated the comparative effects of a fish oil-based high-fat/high-sucrose diet (Fish-HFDS) versus a cocoa butter-based high-fat/high-sucrose diet (Cocoa-HFDS) on endocrine pancreas morphology and function in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice (n=12) were randomly assigned to dietary intervention either Fish-HFDS (n=6) or Cocoa-HFDS (n=6) for 22 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests (IP-GTT and IP-ITT) were performed after 20-21 weeks of dietary intervention. Plasma concentrations of c-peptide, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and leptin were measured by Milliplex kit. Pancreatic tissues were collected for immunohistochemistry to measure islet number and composition. Tissues were multi-labelled with antibodies against insulin and glucagon, also including expression on Pdx1-positive cells. Results and discussion: Fish-HFDS-fed mice showed significantly reduced food intake and body weight gain compared to Cocoa-HFDS-fed mice. Fish-HFDS group had lower fasting blood glucose concentration and area under the curve (AUC) for both GTT and ITT. Plasma c-peptide, insulin, glucagon, and GLP-1 concentrations were increased in the Fish-HFDS group. Interestingly, mice fed the Fish-HFDS diet displayed higher plasma leptin concentration. Histochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in endocrine pancreas ß-cells and islet numbers in mice fed Fish-HFDS compared to the Cocoa-HFDS group. Taken together, these findings suggest that in a high-fat/high-sucrose dietary setting, the source of the fat, especially fish oil, can ameliorate the effect of sucrose on glucose homeostasis and endocrine pancreas morphology and function.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Leptina , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Glucagon , Sacarose/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Peptídeo C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Insulina , Glucose , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo
16.
Front Physiol ; 15: 1367605, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415008
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305863

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The potential benefits of vegetarian diets in reducing cognitive impairment have garnered attention due to existing mixed results; hence, our study aims to examine the impact of vegetarianism on cognitive function and neuropsychological status among urban community-dwelling adults from Telangana. METHODS: The dietary patterns were self-reported and dietary data collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire while cognitive function was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21) questionnaire for psychological measures. Adults (N = 304) aged 40 years and above, who followed either a vegetarian or non-vegetarian diet for at least 6 months prior to data collection, scored MMSE ≥ 19 indicating mild cognitive impairment, and were recruited using convenience sampling. RESULTS: Among the participants, vegetarians (n = 155) exhibited significantly better mood states compared to non-vegetarians (n = 149), as indicated by lower scores on the DASS subscales for depression (10.0 ± 0.06 vs. 17.0 ± 0.07, p = < 0.001), anxiety (4.0 ± 0.05 vs. 6.0 ± 0.07, p = 0.005), and stress (8.0 ± 0.02 vs. 10.0 ± 0.05, p = 0.007). Vegetarians also demonstrated superior cognitive functioning compared to non-vegetarians, as indicated by higher MMSE scores (26.0 ± 0.04 vs. 24.0 ± 0.03, p = < 0.001). MMSE scores were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress for vegetarians (ρ = - 0.371, p = 0.000; ρ = - 0.027, p = 0.734; and ρ = - 0.105, p = 0.914), respectively. Similar to the vegetarians group, MMSE scores were negatively correlated with depression (ρ = - 0.059), but the correlation is not significant. CONCLUSION: Vegetarianism exerted a positive influence on the cognitive and neuropsychological status of the investigated population. Nevertheless, additional research is required to comprehend the underlying mechanisms that elucidate the long-term effects of vegetarianism and plant-based nutritional interventions on brain health.

18.
Food Chem ; 445: 138765, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367562

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal the effects and regulatory mechanism of dietary NDF on the performance of pigs by multi-omics analysis. Results showed that 16 % dietary NDF significantly improved meat quality, increased flavor amino acid content, and reduced backfat thickness and the feed-to-gain ratio. 16S rDNA sequencing showed that 16 % NDF significantly increased the abundance of Akkermansia, Lachnoclostridium, and Ruminococcus. Transcript analysis showed that genes related to muscle development and lipid metabolism were significantly modified. Metabonomic analysis showed that 16 % NDF significantly increased amino and fatty acid related metabolites. Correlation analysis suggested that 16 % NDF treatment may alter the gut microbiota and metabolites, regulate the expression of genes related to lipid and amino metabolism, and ultimately affect the flavor and performance of pigs. This study provides a novel understanding about the effect and regulatory mechanism of NDF supplements on the finishing pigs and a relevant reference for the improvement of diet formulation.

19.
Clin Nutr ; 43(3): 869-880, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Butyric (one of the short-chain fatty acids), a major byproduct of the fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g. fiber), is supposed to have anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. However, butyrate's potential and mechanism in preventing obesity and the efficient form of administration remain to be clarified. METHODS: Hence, we studied the effect of oral supplementation with 5% (w/w) sodium butyrate and 4% (w/w) ß-glucan (fiber) on young male mice (C57BL/6J) with high-fat diet-induced obesity (HFD: 60 kcal% of fat + 1% of cholesterol). Six weeks old mice were fed diets based on HFD or control (AIN-93G) diet with/without supplements for 4 weeks. The unique, interdisciplinary approach combining several Raman-based techniques (including Raman microscopy and fiber optic Raman spectroscopy) and next-generation sequencing was used to ex vivo analyze various depots of the adipose tissue (white, brown, perivascular) and gut microbiome, respectively. RESULTS: The findings demonstrate that sodium butyrate more effectively prevent the pathological increase in body weight caused by elevated saturated fatty acids influx linked to a HFD in comparison to ß-glucan, thereby entirely inhibiting diet-induced obesity. Moreover, butyrate significantly affects the white adipose tissue (WAT) reducing the epididymal WAT mass in comparison to HFD without supplements, and decreasing lipid saturation in the epididymal WAT and perivascular adipose tissue of the thoracic aorta. Contrarily, ß-glucan significantly changes the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome, reversing the HFD effect, but shows no effect on the epididymal WAT mass and therefore the weight gain inhibition is not as effective as with sodium butyrate. CONCLUSIONS: Here, oral supplementation with sodium butyrate and ß-glucan (fiber) has been proven to have an anti-obesity effect through two different targets. Administration-dependent effects that butyrate imposes on the adipose tissue (oral administration) and microbiome (fiber-derived) make it a promising candidate for the personalized treatment of obesity.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to ascertain whether low-carbohydrate-diet (LCD) score and dietary macronutrient intake are associated with depression. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 23,204 United States adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2018. Dietary macronutrient intake was evaluated by the average of two 24-h dietary recall interviews. LCD score was calculated by summing the 11 quantiles values of the percentages of energy derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Major depression was defined as a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire score of 10 or more. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were used to explore the relationship between LCD score, dietary macronutrient intake, and depression. RESULTS: LCD score was significantly associated with the risk of depression after adjustment for covariates (odds ratio, 0.98; 95 % confidence interval, 0.97-0.99; p < 0.001). Restricted cubic splines showed that the pattern of this inverse association was nonlinear. Among macronutrients, carbohydrate and protein intake was nonlinearly associated with the risk of depression, whereas fat intake was not related to the risk of depression. A decreased risk of depression was observed when the carbohydrate intake was moderate (45.3 %-59.1 %). The pattern of the association between protein intake and the risk of depression was L-shaped. CONCLUSIONS: LCD score was inversely associated with the risk of depression in a nonlinear manner in a nationally representative sample of adults from the United States. Furthermore, moderate carbohydrate intake and high protein intake were correlated with a lower risk of depression.

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