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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1145, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531447

RESUMO

A higienização é um procedimento importante na indústria de alimentos e sua realização deve ocorrer rotineiramente para evitar que os alimentos sejam contaminados. Além disso, todos os manipuladores de alimentos devem receber treinamentos de modo a entender como ocorrem as contaminações e como evitá-las, para que não ocorra deterioração antecipada dos alimentos e para que não exponham os consumidores ao risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos em caso de contaminação. Esta pesquisa avaliou o processo de higienização e sua eficiência em superfícies presentes em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de embutidos cárneos. Apesar de ter instalações adequadas a agroindústria apresentava inadequações quanto aos produtos utilizados e a frequência inadequada para uma higienização eficiente. Foi realizada análise microbiológica das superfícies dos equipamentos para contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e notou-se uma elevada carga microbiana que indicou uma baixa eficiência no processo de higienização. Sugeriu-se melhorias na higiene ambiental associado à instrução dos colaboradores, para contribuir na promoção da qualidade dos produtos, aumento dos lucros e salvaguardando a saúde do consumidor.


Hygiene is an important procedure in the food industry, and its performance must occur routinely to prevent food from being contaminated. In addition, all food handlers must receive training in order to understand how contamination occurs and how to avoid it, so that there is no anticipated deterioration of food and that consumers are not exposed to the risk of foodborne diseases. in case of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, this research evaluated the cleaning process and its efficiency on surfaces present in a family farming agroindustry that produces meat products, which despite having adequate facilities, had some difficulties such as product use and inadequate frequency for eficiente cleaning. After performing a microbiological analysis to count surface mesophilic aerobes, a high level of contamination was noted, relating to low efficiency in the cleaning process. Improvements in environmental hygiene are suggested, associated with the instruction of employees for the implementation of the Standard Operating Hygiene Procedure, promoting improvements in product quality, increasing profits and safeguarding consumer health.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Higiene dos Alimentos , Indústria da Carne/normas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134649, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772108

RESUMO

Polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs) are emerging as dioxin-like global pollutants, yet their environmental origins are not fully understood. This study investigates the application of the Fenton process in coking wastewater treatment, focusing on its dual role in carbazole removal and unintended PHCZ formation. The common halide ions (Cl- and Br-) in coking wastewater, especially Br- ions, exerted a notable impact on carbazole removal. Particularly, the influence of Br- ions was more significant, not only enhancing carbazole removal but also shaping the congener composition of PHCZ formation. Elevated halide ion concentrations were associated with the heightened formation of higher halogenated carbazoles. The Fenton reagent dosage ratio was identified as a crucial factor affecting the congener composition of PHCZs and their toxic equivalency value. The coexisting organic substance (i.e., phenol) in coking wastewater was observed to inhibit PHCZ formation, likely through competitive reactions with carbazole. Intriguingly, ammonium (NH4+) facilitated the generation of higher and mixed halogenated carbazoles, possibly due to the generation of nitrogen-containing brominating agents with stronger bromination capacity. This study underscores the importance of a comprehensive assessment, considering both substrate removal and potential byproduct formation, when employing the Fenton process for saline wastewater treatment.

3.
Int J Prosthodont ; 0(0): 1-15, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the roughness and color stability of different types of resins used to immerse denture bases in various denture cleansers overnight. METODOLOGY: A total of 150 resin samples were made, which were divided into 3 groups of denture resin (conventional thermally activated, milled and 3D printed) (n= 50) and subdivided into 5 denture cleaners (Distilled water, Corega Tabs, Efferdent, NaOCl 1.0%, Listerine Cool Hint) (n= 10). The roughness properties (Ra) and chromatic difference (ΔE00) were evaluated during 90 days and 180 days of overnight cleaning. Data were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons (P<.05). RESULTS: Listerine had significantly higher Ra and ΔE values (P<.001) compared to other solutions, being significant in conventional resin at 180 days (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of Listerine as an overnight cleaner presents greater damage to the optical and surface properties of denture base resins, mainly with conventional resin, with 1% NaOCl being a valid option in relation to cost-benefit.

4.
Environ Technol ; : 1-10, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753520

RESUMO

This study investigated the disinfection efficiency of a photoreactor equipped with a helical water flow channel and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light emitting diodes (LEDs). Theoretical simulations and biodosimetry tests were conducted to investigate the effects of coil diameter and flow rate on the reactor's performance in inactivating Escherichia coli. The interplay between hydrodynamics and UV radiation was analyzed to determine the UV fluence absorbed by the microbes. The simulations revealed that, primarily due to the specific radiation pattern of the UV LEDs, the coil diameter strongly influenced the distribution of irradiance in the water and the UV fluence received by microbes. The experimental results indicated that the photoreactor achieved the highest inactivation value of 2.8 log when the coil diameter was 48 mm for a flow rate of 40 mL/min; this log value was superior to those for coil diameters of 16, 32, 64, and 80 mm by approximately 1.9, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7 log units, respectively. This optimal coil diameter leading to the maximal UV irradiance and the highest degree of irradiance uniformity along the flow channel. This study offers design guidelines for constructing a high-efficiency water disinfection reactor with a helical flow channel configuration.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731361

RESUMO

Proliferative enteropathy (PE) is characterized by diarrhea and reduced weight gains in growing pigs and intestinal hemorrhage in finishers. Vaccination, antibiotic medication, and improved hygiene can control PE, but their efficacy depends upon the epidemiology of PE. This study monitored the timing and severity of PE in 84 commercial pens across seven treatments, including disinfection, vaccination, no treatment, medication with olaquindox (50, 25 and 12.5 ppm), and combined disinfection and vaccination. Vaccination with or without lime disinfection suppressed clinical signs of PE and reduced the number of excreted L. intracellularis relative to untreated pigs housed in cleaned or cleaned and disinfected pens between 9 and 17 weeks of age. Continuous olaquindox mediation to 17 weeks of age prevented L. intracellularis infection, leaving finisher pigs naïve. These finisher pigs suffered an outbreak of hemorrhagic enteropathy with significant reductions in weight gain, feed intake, and mortalities of 4.6%. Over the 13 week grow/finish period, vaccinated pigs housed in disinfected pens showed significantly higher weight gain and feed intake relative to all other treatments, equating to a weight gain difference of between 3.6 and 3.9 kg per pig. Monitoring the immune response and fecal excretion of L. intracellularis in pens of pigs enabled effective PE control strategies to be evaluated on the farm.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 13(3): 911-918, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736811

RESUMO

Background: Inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may lead to an increase in water-borne diseases like diarrhoea. The objective of the study was to assess water, sanitation and hygiene in the urban slums of Patpur, Bankura and to determine the implications of WASH on the occurrence of diarrhoea among under-five (U-5) children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted during January-March 2020 by interviewing persons involved in water collection from each of the 182 slum households of Patpur, by two-stage sampling using a pre-designed structured schedule and the core questions on drinking WASH for household surveys: 2018 update by UNICEF and WHO. For testing the association between categorical variables, a Chi-square test was done. Binary logistic regression and the Hosmer Lemeshow test were done to know the predictors of diarrhoea in U-5 children. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The proportion of diarrhoea among U-5 children was 0.34. Limited drinking WASH services were found in 3.30, 45.05 and 24.18% of households, respectively. Mobile objects users for handwashing were 14.05 times more prone to diarrhoea in U-5 children than those who had fixed handwashing facilities at their dwellings, yards or plots. Feeding children without handwashing had 5.70 times increased chances of diarrhoea among U-5 children than those who washed their hands before feeding. Conclusion: Handwashing facilities (fixed, mobile object or no facility) and handwashing with soap and water before feeding the child significantly affected the occurrence of diarrhoea among U-5 children.

7.
PeerJ ; 12: e17268, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708351

RESUMO

Objective: To study the efficacy of PADTM Plus-based photoactivated disinfection (PAD) for treating denture stomatitis (DS) in diabetic rats by establishing a diabetic rat DS model. Methods: The diabetic rat DS model was developed by randomly selecting 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and dividing them into four groups. The palate and denture surfaces of rats in the PAD groups were incubated with 1 mg/mL toluidine blue O for 1 min each, followed by a 1-min exposure to 750-mW light-emitting diode light. The PAD-1 group received one radiation treatment, and the PAD-2 group received three radiation treatments over 5 days with a 1-day interval. The nystatin (NYS) group received treatment for 5 days with a suspension of NYS of 100,000 IU. The infection group did not receive any treatment. In each group, assessments included an inflammation score of the palate, tests for fungal load, histological evaluation, and immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) conducted 1 and 7 days following the conclusion of treatment. Results: One day after treatment, the fungal load on the palate and dentures, as well as the mean optical density values of IL-17 and TNF-α, were found to be greater in the infection group than in the other three treatment groups (P < 0.05). On the 7th day after treatment, these values were significantly higher in the infection group than in the PAD-2 and NYS groups (P < 0.05). Importantly, there were no differences between the infection and PAD-1 groups nor between the PAD-2 and NYS groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: PAD effectively reduced the fungal load and the expressions of IL-17 and TNF-α in the palate and denture of diabetic DS rats. The efficacy of multiple-light treatments was superior to that of single-light treatments and similar to that of NYS.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Desinfecção , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estomatite sob Prótese , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Estomatite sob Prótese/microbiologia , Estomatite sob Prótese/radioterapia , Estomatite sob Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Desinfecção/métodos , Cloreto de Tolônio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Tolônio/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
8.
Water Res ; 257: 121702, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749337

RESUMO

While online monitoring of physicochemical parameters has widely been incorporated into drinking water treatment systems, online microbial monitoring has lagged behind, resulting in the use of surrogate parameters (disinfectant residual, applied dose, concentration × time, CT) to assess disinfection system performance. Online flow cytometry (online FCM) allows for automated quantification of total and intact microbial cells. This study sought to investigate the feasibility of online FCM for full-scale drinking water ozone disinfection system performance monitoring. A water treatment plant with high lime solids turbidity in the ozone contactor influent was selected to evaluate the online FCM in challenging conditions. Total and intact cell counts were monitored for 40 days and compared to surrogate parameters (ozone residual, ozone dose, and CT) and grab sample assay results for cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP), heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), impedance flow cytometry, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Online FCM provided insight into the dynamics of the full-scale ozone system, including offering early warning of increased contactor effluent cell concentrations, which was not observed using surrogate measures. Positive correlations were observed between online FCM intact cell counts and cATP levels (Kendall's tau=0.40), HPC (Kendall's tau=0.20), and impedance flow cytometry results (Kendall's tau=0.30). Though a strong correlation between log intact cell removal and CT was not observed, 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that passage through the ozone contactor significantly changed the microbial community (p < 0.05). Potential causes of the low overall cell inactivation in the contactor and the significant changes in the microbial community after ozonation include regrowth in the later chambers of the contactor and varied ozone resistance of drinking water microorganisms. This study demonstrates the suitability of direct, online microbial analysis for monitoring full-scale disinfection systems.

9.
Small ; : e2400531, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742980

RESUMO

A new generation of an FFP2 (Filtering Face Piece of type 2) smart face mask is achieved by integrating broadband hybrid nanomaterials and a self-assembled optical metasurface. The multifunctional FFP2 face mask shows simultaneously white light-assisted on-demand disinfection properties and versatile biosensing capabilities. These properties are achieved by a powerful combination of white light thermoplasmonic responsive hybrid nanomaterials, which provide excellent photo-thermal disinfection properties, and optical metasurface-based colorimetric biosensors, with a very low limit of pathogens detection. The realized system is studied in optical, morphological, spectroscopic, and cell viability assay experiments and environmental monitoring of harmful pathogens, thus highlighting the extraordinary properties in reusability and pathogens detection of the innovative face mask.

10.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 162, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the periurethral cleansing range on catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurrence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of expanded periurethral cleansing for reducing CAUTI in comatose patients. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, eligible patients in our hospital were enrolled and allocated randomly to the experimental group (expanded periurethral cleansing protocol; n = 225) or the control group (usual periurethral cleansing protocol; n = 221). The incidence of CAUTI on days 3, 7, and 10 after catheter insertion were compared, and the pathogen results and influencing factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidences of CAUTI in the experimental and control groups on days 3, 7, and 10 were (5/225, 2.22% vs. 7/221, 3.17%, P = 0.54), (12/225, 5.33% vs. 18/221, 8.14%, P = 0.24), and (23/225, 10.22% vs. 47/221, 21.27%, P = 0.001), respectively; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were the most common species in the two groups. The incidences of bacterial CAUTI and fungal CAUTI in the two groups were 11/225, 4.89% vs. 24/221, 10.86%, P = 0.02) and (10/225, 4.44% vs. 14/221, 6.33%, P = 0.38), respectively. The incidences of polymicrobial CAUTI in the two groups were 2/225 (0.89%) and 9/221 (4.07%), respectively (P = 0.03). The percentages of CAUTI-positive females in the two groups were 9.85% (13/132) and 29.52% (31/105), respectively (P < 0.05). The proportion of CAUTI-positive patients with diabetes in the experimental and control groups was 17.72% (14/79), which was lower than the 40.85% (29/71) in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Expanded periurethral cleansing could reduce the incidence of CAUTI, especially those caused by bacteria and multiple pathogens, in comatose patients with short-term catheterization (≤ 10 days). Female patients and patients with diabetes benefit more from the expanded periurethral cleansing protocol for reducing CAUTI.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Coma , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos , Uretra
11.
Water Res X ; 23: 100225, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711797

RESUMO

This study thoroughly explores the application of Ultraviolet (UV) water treatment technology in urban wastewater treatment and water supply in China, highlighting its crucial role in enhancing water quality safety. UV technology, with its environmentally friendly and low-carbon characteristics, is deemed more in line with the demands of sustainable development compared to traditional chemical disinfection methods. The widespread application of UV technology in urban wastewater treatment in China, particularly in the context of urban sewage treatment, is examined. However, to better promote and apply UV technology, there is a need to deepen the understanding of this technology and its application among a broad base of users and design units. The importance of gaining in-depth knowledge about the performance of UV water treatment equipment, the design calculation basis, and operational considerations, as well as the ongoing development of relevant standards, is underscored to ensure that the equipment used in projects complies with engineering design and production requirements. Furthermore, the positive trend of UV technology in the field of advanced oxidation, indicating a promising trajectory for engineering applications, is pointed out. Regarding the prospects of industrial development, a thorough analysis is conducted in the article, emphasizing the necessity for all stakeholders to collaborate and adopt a multi-level approach to promote the sustainable development and application of UV water treatment technology. This collaborative effort is crucial for providing effective safeguards for China's environment, ecology, and human health.

12.
Aust Endod J ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715465

RESUMO

This study assessed canal preparation effects on disinfection and dentin preservation. Thirty mandibular incisors were paired into two experimental groups (n = 10). Following contamination, the initial microbial sample was collected. Instruments 30/0.03 (Group 1) and 30/0.05 (Group 2) were employed and a second sample was obtained. Canals were enlarged using instruments 40/0.03 and 40/0.05, respectively, and a third sample was collected. Final irrigation was performed, and sample S4 obtained. A final scan evaluated volume, surface area, unprepared areas, removed dentin and dentin thickness. Data were analysed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. A significant difference was observed between S1 and other time points (p < 0.05). Comparison between groups showed no differences in bacterial loads and in the percentage of microbial reduction (p > 0.05). Group 2 exhibited greater reduction in dentin thickness than group 1 in the mesial aspect of the root (p < 0.05). Instrument 30/0.03 might provide effective disinfection and safety during mandibular incisors canal preparation.

13.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30490, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726110

RESUMO

The Contamination Sanitization Inspection and Disinfection (CSI-D) device is a handheld fluorescence-based imaging system designed to disinfect food contact surfaces using ultraviolet-C (UVC) illumination. This study aimed to determine the optimal CSI-D parameters (i.e., UVC exposure time and intensity) for the inactivation of the following foodborne bacteria plated on non-selective media: generic Escherichia coli (indicator organism) and the pathogens enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes. Each bacterial strain was spread-plated on non-selective agar and exposed to high-intensity (10 mW/cm2) or low-intensity (5 mW/cm2) UVC for 1-5 s. Control plates were not exposed to UVC. The plates were incubated overnight at 37 °C and then enumerated. Three trials for each bacterial strain were conducted. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine if there were significant differences in bacterial growth between UVC intensities and exposure times. Overall, exposure to low or high intensity for 3-5 s resulted in consistent inhibition of bacterial growth, with reductions of 99.9-100 % for E. coli, 96.8-100 % for S. enterica, and 99.2-100 % for L. monocytogenes. The 1 s exposure time showed inconsistent results, with a 66.0-100 % reduction in growth depending on the intensity and bacterial strain. When the results for all strains within each species were combined, the 3-5 s exposure times showed significantly greater (p < 0.05) growth inhibition than the 1 s exposure time. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in growth inhibition between the high and low UVC intensities. The results of this study show that, in pure culture conditions, exposure to UVC with the CSI-D device for ≥3 s is required to achieve consistent reduction of E. coli, S. enterica, and L. monocytogenes.

14.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 42(5): 366-374, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776543

RESUMO

Objective: The proposed study aims to compare the effectiveness of conventional endodontic treatment (ET) with that of ET associated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in patients with apical lesion. Methods: Controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT); superiority study with three parallel arms. Randomization will be conducted in exchange blocks of six, with allocation 1:1:1. The control group will receive conventional ET, while experimental group 1 (EG1) will receive conventional ET + aPDT with laser at 660 nm, fluence of 600 J/cm2; EG2 will receive conventional ET + aPDT with laser at 660 nm, fluence of 1200 J/cm2. The primary outcome will be canal disinfection before treatment, measured by analysis of colony formation (CFU/mL) and the success rate measured after 6 months on the clinical and radiographic evaluations. The mean and standard deviation will be calculated for continuous outcomes, and the CFU/mL mean between groups will be evaluated by ANOVA test. The Chi-squared test will be calculated for binary outcomes. A logistic regression analysis will be performed to assess differences in the success rate between groups, adjusted for the covariates. The Stata 18 software will be used, with a significance threshold of 5%. Conclusions: Few RCTs have evaluated the effectiveness of aPDT in root canal disinfection in patients with permanent dentition presenting apical lesion. New RCTs with larger numbers of participants are needed to support using aPDT as an adjuvant to conventional ET in root canal disinfection for routine use in clinical practice. The trial was registered prospectively in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05916859).


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Dente Molar , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Desinfecção/métodos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Cavidade Pulpar , Adolescente
15.
Int J Nurs Stud Adv ; 6: 100207, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783870

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite high vulnerability to infection, hand disinfection compliance in emergencies is low. This is regularly justified as the disinfection procedure delays life support, and instead, wearing disposable gloves is preferred. Simulation studies showed higher achievable compliance than detected in real-life situations. This study aimed to explore healthcare providers' attitudes toward hand disinfection and using gloves in emergencies. Methods: We conducted an anonymous online survey in Germany on the attitude and subjective behavior in the five moments of hand hygiene in a closed environment and an open convenience sampling survey. Statistics included paired student's t-tests corrected for multiple testing. For qualitative analysis, we employed a single-coder approach. Results: In 400 participants, we detected low priority of WHO-1 (before touching a patient) and WHO-2 (before clean/aseptic procedure) hand hygiene moments, despite knowing the risks of omission of hand disinfection. For all moments, self-assessment exceeded the assessment of colleagues (p < 0.001). For WHO-3, we detected a lower disinfection priority for wearing gloves compared to contaminated bare hands. Qualitative analyses revealed five themes: basic conditions, didactic implementations, cognitive load, and uncertainty about feasibility and efficacy. Discussion: Considering bias, the study's subjective nature, the unknown role of emergency-related infections contributing to hospital-acquired infections, and different experiences of healthcare providers, we conclude that hand disinfection before emergencies is de-prioritized and justified by the emergency situation regardless of the objective feasibility. Conclusion: This study reveals subjective and objective barriers to implementation of WHO-1 and WHO-2 moments of hand disinfection to be further evaluated and addressed in educational programs.

16.
Pathogens ; 13(5)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787208

RESUMO

The exploration of novel biomarkers to assess poultry health is of paramount importance, not only to enhance our understanding of the pathogenicity of zoonotic agents but also to evaluate the efficacy of novel treatments as alternatives to antibiotics. The present study aimed to investigate potential gut health biomarkers in broiler chicks challenged by Campylobacter jejuni and subjected to a continuous water disinfection program. A total of 144 one-day-old hatched broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups with four replicates each, according to the following experimental design: Group A received untreated drinking water; Group B received drinking water treated with 0.01-0.05% v/v Cid 2000™ (hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and paracetic acid); Group C was challenged by C. jejuni and received untreated drinking water; and Group D was challenged by C. jejuni and received drinking water treated with 0.01-0.05% v/v Cid 2000™. The use of Cid 2000™ started on day 1 and was applied in intervals until the end of the experiment at 36 days, while the C. jejuni challenge was applied on day 18. Potential biomarkers were investigated in serum, feces, intestinal tissue, intestinal content, and liver samples of broilers. Statistical analysis revealed significant increases (p < 0.001) in serum cortisol levels in C. jejuni-challenged broilers. Serum fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) increased significantly (p = 0.004) in broilers challenged by C. jejuni and treated with drinking water disinfectant, while fecal ovotransferrin concentration also increased significantly (p < 0.001) in broilers that received the drinking water disinfectant alone. The gene expression levels of occludin (p = 0.003) and mucin-2 (p < 0.001) were significantly upregulated in broilers challenged by C. jejuni, while mucin-2 significantly increased in birds that were challenged and received the drinking water disinfectant (p < 0.001). TLR-4 expression levels were significantly (p = 0.013) decreased in both groups that received the drinking water disinfectant, compared to the negative control group. Finally, the C. jejuni challenge significantly increased (p = 0.032) the crypt depth and decreased (p = 0.021) the villus height-to-crypt-depth ratio in the ileum of birds, while the tested disinfectant product increased (p = 0.033) the villus height in the jejunum of birds. Furthermore, the counts of C. jejuni in the ceca of birds (p = 0.01), as well as its translocation rate to the liver of broilers (p = 0.001), were significantly reduced by the addition of the water disinfectant. This research contributes to novel insights into the intricate interplay of water disinfection and/or C. jejuni challenge with potential intestinal biomarkers. In addition, it emphasizes the need for continued research to unveil the underlying mechanisms, expands our understanding of broiler responses to these challenges and identifies breakpoints for further investigations.

17.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736273

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation is being used as an effective approach for the disinfection of pathogenic viruses present in air, surfaces, and water. Recently, far-UVC radiation (222 nm) emitted by KrCl* (krypton-chloride) excimer lamps have been recommended for disinfecting high-risk public spaces to reduce the presence and transmission of infectious viruses owing to limited human health exposure risks as compared to germicidal UVC (254 nm). In this study, the UVC inactivation performances of individual filtered KrCl* excimer lamp (222 nm) and germicidal UVC lamp (254 nm) were determined against four viruses, bacteriophages MS2, Phi6, M13, and T4, having different genome compositions (ssRNA, dsRNA, ssDNA and dsDNA, respectively) and shapes (i.e., spherical (Phi6), linear (M13), and icosahedral (MS2 and T4)). Here, the disinfection efficacies of filtered KrCl* excimer lamp (222 nm) and germicidal UVC lamp (254 nm) were evaluated for highly concentrated virus droplets that mimic the virus-laden droplets released from the infected person and deposited on surfaces as fomites. Filtered KrCl* excimer (222 nm) showed significantly better inactivation against all viruses having different genome compositions and structures compared to germicidal UVC (254 nm). The obtained sensitivity against the filtered KrCl* excimer (222 nm) was found to be in the order, T4 > M13 > Phi6 > MS2 whereas for the germicidal UVC (254 nm) it was T4 > M13 > MS2 > Phi6. These results provide a strong basis to promote the use of filtered KrCl* excimer lamps (222 nm) in disinfecting contagious viruses and to limit the associated disease spread in public places and other high-risk areas.

18.
Environ Technol ; : 1-9, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780483

RESUMO

ABSTRACTThe production and widespread transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) pose an emerging threat to global public health. Electrochemical disinfection (ED) is an environmentally friendly disinfection technology widely utilized to inactivate ARB. This study explored the effect of modified activated carbon material (MACM) assisted ED on multi-ARB inactivation and the regeneration ability. The established ED technique was proven to be effective in inactivating multi-resistant ARB. Specifically, a 5-log ARB removal was achieved within 30 min treatment of MACM-assisted ED at 2.5 V. Additionally, no ARB regrowth was observed, indicating a permanent inactivation of ARB. The high level of reactive chlorine induced by MACM electrolysis was stressful to the ARB. Reactive chlorine led to overproduction of reactive oxygen species and damage of cell membranes in cells, accelerating the inactivation of ARB. Conclusively, the MACM-assisted ED method demonstrated efficient performance for ARB inactivation, implying this method is a promising alternative to traditional disinfection methods in countering ARB transmission.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771468

RESUMO

In this study, photostability and photodynamic antimicrobial performance of dye extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calyces, Sorghum bicolor (SB) leaf sheaths, Lawsonia inermis (LI) leaves and Curcuma longa (CL) roots were investigated in Acetate-HCl (AH) Buffer (pH 4.6), Tris Base-HCl (TBH) Buffer (pH 8.6), distilled water (dH2O), and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, pH 7.2) using Bacillus subtilis as model for gram positive bacteria, Escherichia coli as model for gram negative bacteria, phage MS2 as model for non-envelope viruses and phage phi6 as model for envelope viruses including SARS CoV-2 which is the causative agent of COVID-19. Our results showed that the photostability of the dye extracts is in the decreasing order of LI > CL > SB > HS. The dye extract-HS is photostable in dH2O but bleaches in buffers-AH, TBH and PBS. The rate of bleaching is higher in AH compared to in TBH and PBS. The bleaching and buffers affected the photodynamic and non-photodynamic antimicrobial activity of the dye extracts. The photodynamic antibacterial activity of the dye extracts is in the decreasing order of CL > HS > LI > SB while the non-photodynamic antibacterial activity is in the decreasing order of LI > CL > HS > SB. The non-photodynamic antiviral activity pattern observed is the same as that of non-photodynamic antibacterial activity observed. However, the photodynamic antiviral activity of the dye extracts is in the decreasing order of CL > LI > HS > SB. Given their performance, the dye extracts maybe mostly suitable for environmental applications including fresh produce and food disinfection, sanitation of hands and contact surfaces where water can serve as diluent for the extracts and the microenvironment is free of salts.

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