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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173365, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777066

RESUMO

We hypothesize that aquatic ecosystem services are likely to be inequitably accessible and addressing this hypothesis requires systematic assessment at regional and national scales. We used existing data from large-scale aquatic monitoring programs (National Coastal Condition Assessment, National Lakes Assessment) to examine relationships between ecosystem condition, approximating a subset of cultural and provisioning services, and inequality (population below poverty level, minority population). We also assessed whether monitoring sites equitably represented the gradient of socioeconomic backgrounds. Several water quality indicators were associated with significantly different minority and low-income percentages; however, the effect size was generally small, with the exception of nitrogen condition status. Minority communities were somewhat under-represented when comparing the distribution of all census blocks to those in proximity to monitoring sites. Analyses were sensitive to the skewed distribution of monitoring sites with a low frequency of observations at the more socially vulnerable part of the gradient. We discuss implications of these findings for improving the representation of vulnerable communities in large-scale monitoring programs.

2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11717, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778095

RESUMO

Historic districts are integral components of urban space, possessing diverse ecosystems that can offer various cultural services to the public. Urbanization and tourism development have led to the degradation of the ecological landscapes within historic districts, impacting sustainable development. Incorporating Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) into the environmental research of historic districts can meet people's spiritual needs, enhance intangible benefits for humanity, and promote the conservation of the ecological environment within historic districts. Therefore, this study conducted perceptual quantification research on CES in four typical historic districts in Fuzhou City, crawling the online comment data through Python, mined its potential themes using Biterm Topic Model (BTM), and extracted and categorized the indicators of CES of historic districts by combining with expert consultation; meanwhile, the satisfaction of CES of historic districts is further explored with the help of two methods, namely, sentiment analysis and Importance-Performance analysis (IPA), and summarized the public perception of CES of historic districts. The results of the study show that: (1) the dimensions of public perception of CES in urban historic districts include Cultural Heritage, Leisure Tourism, Aesthetic Enjoyment, Spiritual Fulfillment, Inspiration, and Science Education six indicators, of which Leisure Tourism is most easily perceived by the public, but its satisfaction is not high; (2) the public's perception of positive emotions towards the CES of historic districts in Fuzhou is greater than negative emotions, with positive emotions accounting for 80.61%; (3) the public's overall satisfaction with the CES of Fuzhou's historic districts is high, and according to the final analysis results of the IPA, the four historic districts of Fuzhou are respectively proposed to improve the opinions. Based on big data, this study explores the public perception characteristics of CES in Fuzhou historic districts to promote its sustainable development and improve public well-being, which is of great significance to protecting the ecological environment of historic districts and improving the quality of cultural services.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 172882, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697540

RESUMO

Peatlands store vast amounts of carbon (C). However, land-use-driven drainage causes peat oxidation, resulting in CO2 emission. There is a growing need for ground-truthing CO2 emission and its potential drivers to better quantify long-term emission trends in peatlands. This will help improve National Inventory Reporting and ultimately aid the design and verification of mitigation measures. To investigate regional drivers of CO2 emission, we estimated C budgets using custom-made automated chamber systems measuring CO2 concentrations corrected for carbon export and import. Chamber systems were rotated among thirteen degraded peatland pastures in Friesland (the Netherlands). These peatlands varied in water table depth (WTD), drainage-irrigation management (fixed regulated ditch water level (DWL), subsurface irrigation, furrow irrigation, or dynamic regulated DWL), and soil moisture. We investigated (1) whether drainage-irrigation management and related hydrological drivers could explain variation in C budgets, (2) how nighttime ecosystem respiration (Reconight) related to hydrological drivers, and (3) how C budgets compared with estimates from Tier 1 and Tier 2 models regularly used in National Inventory Reporting. Deep-drained peatlands largely overlapped with C budgets from shallow-drained peatlands. The variation in C budgets could not be explained with drainage-irrigation measures or annual WTD, likely because of high variation between sites. Reconightincreased from 85 to 250 kg CO2 ha-1 day-1 as the WTD dropped from 0 to 50 cm across all sites. A deeper WTD had no apparent effect on Reconight, which could be explained by the unimodal relationship we found between Reconight and soil moisture. Finally, C budgets estimated by Tier 1 emission factors and Tier 2 national models mismatched the between-site and between-year variation found in chamber-based estimated NECBs. To conclude, our study showed that shallow WTDs greatly determine C budgets and that regional C budgets, which can be accurately measure with periodic automated chamber measurements, are instrumental for model validation.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121227, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788409

RESUMO

Wetlands possess intangible values that are usually overlooked in decision-making processes. Based on questionnaire surveys, this work aims to quantify both the non-use and cultural values provided by the different wetlands of the Po Delta Park (Northern Italy), selected as ideal case study, using willingness to pay (WTP) for wetland conservation and travel cost methods, respectively. Their relationships with socio-economic variables and respondents' preferences for current and future use were also analysed. The 61.39% of participants were willing to pay a mean amount of 95.8 € (±40). The average travel cost was 38.68 € (±6.24), with higher values observed for environmental experts than for other citizens. Wetlands differ significantly in travel costs, current and future use, but not in WTP. Poisson regressions showed that non-use and cultural values were significantly dependent on personal information, preference variables and travel distance. Intangible dimensions, such as bequest and existence values, showed higher valuations/rates than option and direct use values. The results highlight that perceptions of the intrinsic value of nature are influenced by demographic characteristics, distance from the area and desired future uses. Non-use values seem abstract and generalised to the whole area, regardless of the ecological characteristics of the wetland, even though a significant relation to wetland uses was observed. In contrast, cultural values are tied to specific wetlands, as indication of the importance of historical relationships between people and nature. Such findings underline that the different dimensions of intrinsic value of nature may act at different scales and help decision-makers to incorporate such values into environmental accounting.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 933: 172932, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703860

RESUMO

Biodiversity is essential for the functioning of ecosystems and the provision of services. In recent years, the role of plantations in mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration has been highlighted. In the Mediterranean area, high-density poplar plantations in short-rotation with resprouting management (SRC) have been established for biomass purposes on mostly irrigated agricultural land, coexisting with rainfed and irrigated agricultural crops. This study aims to assess the contribution of these plantations to this type of agroforest ecosystem in terms of biodiversity. For this purpose, both flora and fauna diversity were evaluated both within and outside of the plantation. Additionally, the accumulated carbon in the biomass, as well as in the accompanying vegetation within the plantation, was assessed. Different indices were used to evaluate both the intrinsic diversity of the forest plantation and the degree of substitution and complementarity between the different communities of the landscape. Our findings reveal distinct biodiversity patterns in the land-use scenarios sampled. Specifically, we observed significantly higher flora-species richness in SRC plantations than in the adjacent agricultural land, whereas fauna richness showed a similar but slightly higher level in the forested area. A moderate level of complementarity between land uses was found for insects and mammals (around 45 %), contrasting with high complementarity for birds (87 %) and flora (90 %). This suggests substantial turnover and replacement among these ecological environments. Our results indicate that a second rotation (4 year) plantation could accumulate a total of 61.6 Mg C ha-1, and even though adventitious flora represents <2 % of the total carbon accumulated, its importance in providing ecosystem services is considerable. Hence, these findings evidence the fact that SRC poplar plantations can enhance biodiversity in Mediterranean agroforest ecosystems and actively contribute to various provisioning ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration, reflecting a multi-objective approach that extends beyond biomass production.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 932: 173094, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729378

RESUMO

The SDG 15.3.1 target of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) only has 15 years from conception (in 2015) to realization (in 2030). Therefore, investigating the effectiveness and challenges of LDN has become a priority, especially in drylands, where fragile ecosystems intersect with multiple disturbances. In this study, solutions are proposed and validated based on the challenges of LDN. We chose the Northern Slope of the Tianshan Mountains as a case study and set baselines in 2005 and 2010. The region and degree of land change (including degraded, stable, and improved) were depicted at the pixel scale (100 × 100 m), and LDN realization was assessed at the regional scale (including administrative districts and 5000 × 5000 m grids). The results showed a significant disparity between the two baselines. The number of areas that realized the LDN target was rare, regardless of the scale of the administrative districts or grids. Chord plots, Spearman's correlation, and curve estimation were employed to reveal the relationship between LDN and seven natural or socioeconomic factors. We found that substantial degradation was closely related to the expansion of unused, urban, and mining land and reduction in water, glaciers, and forests. Further evidence suggests that agricultural development both positively and negatively affects LDN, whereas urbanization and mining activities are undesirable for LDN. Notably, the adverse effects of glacier melting require additional attention. Therefore, we consider the easy-to-achieve and hard-to-achieve baselines as the mandatory and desirable targets of LDN, respectively, and focus further efforts in three aspects: preventing agricultural exploitation from occupying ecological resources, defining reasonable zones for urbanization and mining, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate warming. Overall, this study is expected to be a beneficial addition to existing LDN theoretical systems and serve as a case validation of the challenges of LDN in drylands.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 172813, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701924

RESUMO

Cultural ecosystem services (CES) contribute to maintaining and improving human well-being. Understanding the network of interactions involved in co-producing CES is essential for maximizing well-being. In this study, we used social media data to estimate a CES network and assess human-nature interactions underpinning CES co-production. We employed a replicable bottom-up approach, using 682,000 Reddit posts to define a comprehensive repertoire of nature features and human activities, and then sampled the co-occurrence of these features and activities reported in 41.7 million tweets from 2018 to 2022. We expected to observe large changes in the CES network topology in relation to mobility restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, but instead the CES network was resilient. However, there was an impulse on the link between self care activities and urban greenspace. This demonstrates that urban greenspaces facilitated local CES production and, thus, provided resilience for maintaining well-being during the pandemic. This study emphasizes the importance of promoting access to nature features that provide CES within local communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ecossistema , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 173467, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802007

RESUMO

Stormwater ponds are increasingly becoming a dominant pond type in cities experiencing urban sprawl. These human-made ponds are designed primarily to control flooding issues associated with increased impervious surface in cities and serve to retain sediment and contaminants before flowing to urban downstream waterways. Along with these important functions, constructed ponds including stormwater ponds may be critical in urban freshwater conservation because they often represent some of the few remaining lentic environments (still water; e.g. ponds, wetlands, lakes) in many cities. We currently lack a clear understanding of the role that stormwater ponds play in serving as habitat for freshwater biodiversity. Here, we examined whether stormwater ponds support freshwater biodiversity in cities by reviewing the empirical literature on biotic community responses in urban stormwater ponds across a range of taxonomic groups. We conducted a meta-analysis on empirical papers that quantitatively examined differences in taxonomic richness between stormwater ponds and reference ponds (n = 11 papers, 22 effects). We also examined a broader set of 58 papers to qualitatively synthesize studies on stormwater pond communities and assess various indicators of habitat quality in stormwater ponds. In the studies examined, heterogeneity exists in the habitat quality of stormwater ponds and increased pollutant loads are often reported. However, the results highlight that stormwater ponds tend to contain alpha diversity comparable to reference ponds, and that overall, a range of ecologically important wildlife make use of and inhabit urban stormwater ponds. We find that stormwater ponds can often support communities with broad compositions of taxa, including those that are sensitive or vulnerable to environmental change. We compile recommendations provided within the studies in order to improve our understanding of the management of urban stormwater ponds for biodiversity conservation.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; : 173524, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797426

RESUMO

Understanding the relationships among ecosystem services (ESs) and their interactions with influencing factors is essential for spatially targeted ecosystem governance. However, classifying the spatial distribution of these diverse interactions still needs improvement. Furthermore, existing studies have insufficiently addressed the specific impacts of bidirectional land cover transitions on ESs. Taking the upper Blue Nile basin as a study area, we estimated the spatiotemporal distribution of annual water yield (AWY), carbon storage (CS), habitat quality (HQ), and soil retention (SR) from 2000 to 2020, using InVEST models and associated formulas. Changes in ESs per inward-outward land cover transition were quantified based on the Cross-Tabulation Matrix. An improved pairwise method was employed to assess the spatially diverse interactions between ESs pairs and their relationship with influencing factors. The statistical significance of influencing factors was evaluated using partial least square regression. The findings indicated that high HQ values were prevalent in the west, while they were in the east for SR. The central and southern areas experienced higher CS and AWY values. During the study period, variations were observed in the mean values of SR (ranging from 22.89 to 23.88 × 102 t/ha/y), AWY (32.13-42.2 × 102 mm/ha/y), CS (90.5-102.9 × 103gC/ha/y) and HQ (0.62-0.64). Synergies were predominant in AWY-CS, AWY-SR, and CS-SR pairs. HQ revealed more of a no-effect and tradeoff relationship with other ESs. The interactions between ESs and influencing factors were dominated by synergies, followed by tradeoffs and no-effect. The influence of landscape structure (gyrate and landscape shape index) and land surface temperature on all ESs and precipitation on AWY and SR was significant (1.049 ≤ Variable Importance in the Projection ≤ 1.371). Overall, the spatiotemporal dynamics of key ESs and the modeling of their drivers are essential policy information for taking spatially explicit conservation measures. This study will also serve as a valuable methodological reference for future research.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30704, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742082

RESUMO

This study investigated the impacts of LULC changes on selected ecosystem services in Maze National Park (MzNP) and its environs in southwestern Ethiopia. Landsat images from 1985, 2005, and 2020 were used to examine land use land cover (LULC) changes. Images were classified using the Random Forest (RF) classifier, and their accuracy was computed in QGIS. Ecosystem service values (ESVs) were then estimated using the benefit transfer method employing Ecosystem Service Valuation Database (ESVD) coefficients. Additionally, socioeconomic survey was conducted to understand the local community's perceptions regarding the dynamics of ecosystem services. The findings revealed a significant increase in croplands (103.7 %) and built-up areas (31.32 %), while riverine forests, water bodies, and wooded grasslands declined. The overall ESVs decreased by 20 %, from 2038.42 million USD in 1985 to 1628.72 million USD in 2020, mainly driven by reductions in riverine forests and wooded grasslands. As for the individual ESVs for the period 1985 to 2020, only food production increased by 0.7 million USD, while water supply, climate regulation, raw materials, and recreation and tourism declined by 180.35, 2.67, 45.72, and 481.62 million USD, respectively. The coefficient of sensitivity ranged from 0.01 to 0.94, <1, revealed that our estimates are relatively robust. Ecosystem services such as grazing, recreation, wild food, and firewood are highly valued by local residents, but they are declining over time due to environmental degradation and restrictions on access to the park. Thus, understanding LULC changes and their impacts on ESVs can help decision-makers design effective protected area management plans and reduce potential conflicts over resource uses. Further investigations are suggested to more accurately quantify ESVs using high resolution satellite imageries and different valuation methods.

11.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121081, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733840

RESUMO

A more comprehensive understanding of how recreational values and forest visitation rates vary across different activities enables forest managers to tailor conservation and management strategies to align with preferences among visitors, ensuring more effective allocation of budgetary resources. However, current research often focuses on only a few recreational activities, resulting in limited insights for forest managers. This study aims to expand the nature-based activities considered so that management can better serve the broader public. We conduct a travel cost analysis using a large survey-based dataset to estimate the value of nature-based recreation in national forests in the Sierra Nevada region and assess how these values differ across main activities. We categorize recreational activities into five broad groups (Passive, Active, Camping, Winter, and Other) to offer a comprehensive view of recreational preferences. A truncated negative binomial regression accounting for endogenous stratification is used to analyze the relationship between the number of trips to the forests, travel cost, activity categories, and socio-demographic variables. Our results suggest a mean consumer surplus (CS) of $65 per visit per person to national forests in the Sierra Nevada. Aggregated over annual per person visits, the total CS is approximately $313.3 million per year. Our findings reveal variations in CS across activity groups, with winter activities (e.g., skiing, snowboarding) and active activities (e.g., hiking, fishing) attracting the highest number of visits, and the highest total CS. Our results provide valuable insights for national forest managers, facilitating the strategic allocation of limited resources to recreational activities that maximize societal welfare.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695217

RESUMO

The achievements of the Green Revolution in meeting the nutritional needs of a growing global population have been won at the expense of unintended consequences for the environment. Some of these negative impacts are now threatening the sustainability of food production through the loss of pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests, the evolution of pesticide resistance, declining soil health and vulnerability to climate change. In the search for farming systems that are sustainable both agronomically and environmentally, alternative approaches have been proposed variously called 'agroecological', 'conservation agriculture', 'regenerative' and 'sustainable intensification'. While the widespread recognition of the need for more sustainable farming is to be welcomed, this has created etymological confusion that has the potential to become a barrier to transformation. There is a need, therefore, for objective criteria to evaluate alternative farming systems and to quantify farm sustainability against multiple outcomes. To help meet this challenge, we reviewed the ecological theories that explain variance in regulating and supporting ecosystem services delivered by biological communities in farmland to identify guiding principles for management change. For each theory, we identified associated system metrics that could be used as proxies for agroecosystem function. We identified five principles derived from ecological theory: (i) provide key habitats for ecosystem service providers; (ii) increase crop and non-crop habitat diversity; (iii) increase edge density: (iv) increase nutrient-use efficiency; and (v) avoid extremes of disturbance. By making published knowledge the foundation of the choice of associated metrics, our aim was to establish a broad consensus for their use in sustainability assessment frameworks. Further analysis of their association with farm-scale data on biological communities and/or ecosystem service delivery would provide additional validation for their selection and support for the underpinning theories.

13.
Conserv Biol ; : e14286, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708866

RESUMO

Driven by the United Nations Decade on Restoration and international funding initiatives, such as the Mangrove Breakthrough, investment in mangrove restoration is expected to increase. Yet, mangrove restoration efforts frequently fail, usually because of ad hoc site-selection processes that do not consider mangrove ecology and the socioeconomic context. Using decision analysis, we developed an approach that accounts for socioeconomic and ecological data to identify sites with the highest likelihood of mangrove restoration success. We applied our approach in the Biosphere Reserve Marismas Nacionales Nayarit, Mexico, an area that recently received funding for implementing mangrove restoration actions. We identified 468 potential restoration sites, assessed their restorability potential based on socioeconomic and ecological metrics, and ranked sites for implementation with spatial optimization. The metrics we used included favorable conditions for propagules to establish and survive under sea-level rise, provision of ecosystem services, and community dynamics. Sites that were selected based on socioeconomic or ecological metrics alone had lower likelihood of mangrove restoration success than sites that were selected based on integrated socioeconomic and ecological metrics. For example, selecting sites based on only socioeconomic metrics captured 16% of the maximum attainable value of functioning mangroves able to provide propagules to potential restoration sites, whereas selecting sites based on ecological and socioeconomic metrics captured 46% of functioning mangroves. Our approach was developed as part of a collaboration between nongovernmental organizations, local government, and academics under rapid delivery time lines given preexisting mangrove restoration implementation commitments. The systematic decision process we used integrated socioeconomic and ecological considerations even under short delivery deadlines, and our approach can be adapted to help mangrove restoration site-selection decisions elsewhere.


Integración de datos socioeconómicos y ecológicos en las prácticas de restauración Resumen Se espera que la inversión en la restauración de los manglares incremente debido a la Década de Restauración de las Naciones Unidad y las iniciativas internacionales de financiamiento, como The Mangrove Breakthrough. Sin embargo, los esfuerzos de restauración de manglares fallan con frecuencia, generalmente por los procesos de selección de sitios ad­hoc que no consideran la ecología del manglar y el contexto socioeconómico. Usamos el análisis de decisiones para desarrollar una estrategia que considera los datos socioeconómicos y ecológicos para identificar los sitios con mayor probabilidad de éxito de restauración. Aplicamos nuestra estrategia en la Reserva de la Biósfera Marismas Nacionales Nayarit, México, un área que recibió financiamiento reciente para la restauración del manglar. Identificamos 468 sitios potencialmente restaurables, evaluamos su potencial de restauración con base en medidas ecológicas y socioeconómicas y clasificamos los sitios para la implementación con la optimización espacial. Las medidas que usamos incluían las condiciones favorables para que los propágulos se establezcan y sobrevivan con el incremento en el nivel del mar, el suministro de servicios ambientales y las dinámicas de la comunidad. Los sitios seleccionados sólo con base en las medidas ecológicas o socioeconómicas tuvieron una menor probabilidad de éxito de restauración que los sitios que se seleccionaron con base en medidas socioeconómicas y ecológicas integradas. Por ejemplo, la selección de sitios con base sólo en las medidas socioeconómicas capturó el 16% del máximo valor alcanzable de manglares funcionales capaces de proporcionar propágulos a los sitios potenciales de restauración, mientras que la selección basada en medidas ecológicas y socioeconómicas capturó el 46% de los manglares funcionales. Desarrollamos nuestra estrategia como parte de una colaboración entre organizaciones no gubernamentales, el gobierno local y académicos sujetos a una fecha pronta de entrega debido a los compromisos preexistentes para la restauración de manglares. El proceso de decisión sistemática que usamos integró las consideraciones ecológicas y socioeconómicas incluso con plazos cortos de entrega. Nuestra estrategia puede adaptarse para apoyar en la selección de sitios de restauración de manglares en otros sitios.

14.
Ambio ; 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709449

RESUMO

The study examines the governance of low trophic species mariculture (LTM) using Sweden as a case study. LTM, involving species such as seaweeds and mollusks, offers ecosystem services and nutritious foods. Despite its potential to contribute to blue growth and Sustainable Development Goals, LTM development in the EU and OECD countries has stagnated. A framework for mapping governance elements (institutions, structures, and processes) and analyzing governance objective (effective, equitable, responsive, and robust) was combined with surveys addressed to the private entrepreneurs in the sector. Analysis reveals ineffective institutions due to lack of updated legislation and guidance, resulting in ambiguous interpretations. Governance structures include multiple decision-making bodies without a clear coordination agency. Licensing processes were lengthy and costly for the private entrepreneurs, and the outcomes were uncertain. To support Sweden's blue bioeconomy, LTM governance requires policy integration, clearer direction, coordinated decision-making, and mechanisms for conflict resolution and learning.

15.
Ecol Evol ; 14(5): e11239, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694752

RESUMO

Butyrate-producing bacteria are found in many outdoor ecosystems and host organisms, including humans, and are vital to ecosystem functionality and human health. These bacteria ferment organic matter, producing the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. However, the macroecological influences on their biogeographical distribution remain poorly resolved. Here we aimed to characterise their global distribution together with key explanatory climatic, geographical and physicochemical variables. We developed new normalised butyrate production capacity (BPC) indices derived from global metagenomic (n = 13,078) and Australia-wide soil 16S rRNA (n = 1331) data, using Geographic Information System (GIS) and modelling techniques to detail their ecological and biogeographical associations. The highest median BPC scores were found in anoxic and fermentative environments, including the human (BPC = 2.99) and non-human animal gut (BPC = 2.91), and in some plant-soil systems (BPC = 2.33). Within plant-soil systems, roots (BPC = 2.50) and rhizospheres (BPC = 2.34) had the highest median BPC scores. Among soil samples, geographical and climatic variables had the strongest overall effects on BPC scores (variable importance score range = 0.30-0.03), with human population density also making a notable contribution (variable importance score = 0.20). Higher BPC scores were in soils from seasonally productive sandy rangelands, temperate rural residential areas and sites with moderate-to-high soil iron concentrations. Abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria in outdoor soils followed complex ecological patterns influenced by geography, climate, soil chemistry and hydrological fluctuations. These new macroecological insights further our understanding of the ecological patterns of outdoor butyrate-producing bacteria, with implications for emerging microbially focused ecological and human health policies.

16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17306, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699931

RESUMO

Cattle heat stress causes billions of dollars' worth of losses to meat and milk production globally, and is projected to become more severe in the future due to climate change. Tree establishment in pastoral livestock systems holds potential to reduce cattle heat stress and thus provide nature-based adaptation. We developed a general model for the impact of trees on cattle heat stress, which can project milk and meat production under future climate scenarios at varying spatial scales. The model incorporates the key microclimate mechanisms influenced by trees, including shade, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed. We conducted sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the relative influence of different mechanisms through which trees can impact cattle heat stress, and how tree impacts are influenced by climatic context globally. Trees hold the greatest potential to reduce cattle heat stress in higher latitudes and altitudes, with minor benefits in the lowland tropics. We projected the future contributions of current trees in mitigating climate change impacts on the dairy and beef herds of Aotearoa-New Zealand (A-NZ) in 2070-2080. Trees were simulated to contribute to A-NZ milk yields by over 491 million liters (lower CI = 112 million liters, upper CI = 850 million liters), and meat yields by over 8316 tonnes (lower CI = 2431 tonnes, upper CI = 13,668 tonnes) annually. The total economic contribution of existing trees in mitigating future cattle heat stress was valued at $US 244 million (lower CI = $US 58 million, upper CI = $US 419 million). Our findings demonstrate the importance of existing trees in pastoral landscapes and suggest that strategic tree establishment can be a valuable adaptation option for reducing cattle heat stress under climate change. Tree establishment in the next few years is critical to provide adaptation capacity and economic benefit in future decades.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Leite , Árvores , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Nova Zelândia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Modelos Teóricos
17.
Heliyon ; 10(8): e29877, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699718

RESUMO

Effective restoration strategies play a crucial role in mitigating the environmental impact of mining and colliery activities while promoting ecological resilience and rejuvenating ecosystem services. However, many organizations find it challenging to understand and balance their efforts in restoring degraded lands. For example, their restoration plans lack clarity and overlook relevant ecosystem services. This study reviews and focuses on the potential restoration of ecosystem services at TATA Steel's Noamundi Iron Ore Mine and West Bokaro Colliery to contribute to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG-15, for localization. The approach involved assessing the number of preventive measures being implemented to restore a particular ecosystem service. Moreover, the potential of each preventive measure is to restore that ecosystem service. The findings underscore the significance of preventive measures and comprehensive restoration plans in enhancing carbon sequestration, soil fertility, habitat creation, and genetic diversity conservation. Our results showed that the impact scores and ranks of various ecosystem services demonstrate the positive effects of restoration efforts, emphasizing the importance of reestablishing forests, restoring water bodies and wetlands, and allocating land for agriculture and public use. The research provides valuable insights for decision-makers in developing sustainable land management strategies, ensuring biodiversity conservation and local communities' well-being. By prioritizing ecosystem services in restoration initiatives, stakeholders can contribute to the sustainable management of natural resources and foster a harmonious coexistence between human activities and the environment.

18.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705769

RESUMO

The continuing biodiversity losses through agricultural expansion and intensification are dramatic. We argue that a mix of on- and off-field measures is needed, overcoming the false dichotomy of the land sharing-sparing debate. Protected land is essential for global biodiversity, while spillover between farmed and natural land is key to reducing species extinctions. This is particularly effective in landscapes with small and diversified fields. Focusing only on protected land fails to conserve a wealth of species, which often provide major ecosystem services such as pest control, pollination, and cultural benefits. On-field measures must minimise yield losses to prevent increased demand for food imports from biodiversity-rich regions, requiring enforcement of high social-ecological land-use standards to ensure a good life for all.

19.
Conserv Biol ; : e14276, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721859

RESUMO

Restoring ecosystems is an imperative for addressing biodiversity loss and climate change, and achieving the targets of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. One form of restoration, rewilding, may have particular promise but may also be precluded by requirements for other forms of land use now or in the future. This opportunity space is critical but challenging to assess. We explored the potential area available for rewilding in Great Britain until the year 2080 with a multisectoral land-use model with several distinct climatic and socioeconomic scenarios. By 2080, areas from 5000 to 7000 km2 were either unmanaged or managed in ways that could be consistent with rewilding across scenarios without conflicting with the provision of ecosystem services. Beyond these areas, another 24,000-42,000 km2 of extensive upland management could provide additional areas for rewilding if current patterns of implementation hold in the future. None of these areas, however, coincided reliably with ecosystems of priority for conservation: peatlands, ancient woodlands, or wetlands. Repeatedly, these ecosystems were found to be vulnerable to conversion. Our results are not based on an assumption of support for or benefits from rewilding and do not account for disadvantages, such as potential losses of cultural landscapes or traditional forms of management, that were beyond the modeled ecosystem services. Nevertheless, potential areas for rewilding emerge in a variety of ways, from intensification elsewhere having a substantial but inadvertent land-sparing effect, popular demand for environmental restoration, or a desire for exclusive recreation among the wealthy elite. Our findings therefore imply substantial opportunities for rewilding in the United Kingdom but also a need for interventions to shape the nature and extent of that rewilding to maintain priority conservation areas and societal objectives.


Una evaluación del potencial futuro de la resilvestración en el Reino Unido Resumen La restauración de ecosistemas es urgente para abordar la pérdida de biodiversidad y el cambio climático, así como para lograr los objetivos del Marco Mundial de Biodiversidad de Kunming­Montreal. Un método de restauración, la resilvestración, puede ser particularmente prometedor, aunque también puede ser excluido por los requerimientos para otras formas de uso de suelo actuales o en el futuro. Este espacio de oportunidad es crítico, pero también un reto para evaluar. Exploramos el área potencial disponible para el resilvestrado en Gran Bretaña hasta el año 2080 con un modelo multisectorial de uso de suelo con varios escenarios climáticos y socioeconómicos. Para este año, las áreas entre 5,000 y 7,000 km2 no estaban gestionadas o lo estaban, pero de manera que podían ser consistentes con el resilvestrado de los escenarios sin conflictuar el suministro de servicios ambientales. Más allá de estas áreas, otros 24,000­42,000 km2 de gestión extensiva tierra arriba podrían proporcionar áreas adicionales para el resilvestrado si los patrones actuales de implementación siguen en pie en el futuro. Sin embargo, ninguna de estas áreas coincidió de manera confiable con los ecosistemas de prioridad para la conservación: las turberas, bosques antiguos o humedales. Estos ecosistemas aparecieron varias veces como vulnerables a la conversión. Nuestros resultados no están basados en una suposición de apoyo para o los beneficios de la resilvestración y no consideran las desventajas, como la pérdida potencial de paisajes culturales o las maneras tradicionales de manejo, que estaban fuera del alcance de los servicios ambientales modelados. Sin embargo, las áreas potenciales para el resilvestrado emergen en una variedad de formas, desde la intensificación en otros lugares con un efecto de ahorro de tierras sustancial pero inadvertido, la demanda popular por la restauración ambiental o el deseo de una recreación exclusiva entre la elite acaudalada. Por lo tanto, nuestros descubrimientos implican una oportunidad sustancial para la resilvestración en el Reino Unido, aunque también una necesidad de intervenciones para moldear la naturaleza y la extensión de ese resilvestrado para mantener las áreas prioritarias de conservación y los objetivos sociales.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717702

RESUMO

Land use transition and its impact on ecosystem service value (ESV) are the foundation for optimizing the layout of territorial space and ecological civilization construction. With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, the area of construction land expands in China. To accurately estimate the ESV in industrial counties, the impact of construction land on the ecological environment should be fully considered. This paper took Gangcheng District, Jinan City, a steel base in the Shandong Province of China as an example, then the value coefficients of "three wastes" factors (waste gas, wastewater, and waste) were introduced, and an improved calculation method of ESV was put forward for industrial counties in combination with remote sensing and land use data. Finally, the land use transition and its ESV effect in typical industrial counties were analyzed using geo-informatic Tupu and grid method. The results showed that the most important land use transitions were from grassland and forestland to cultivated land, from cultivated land and forestland to construction land in 1990-2010, and from cultivated land transformed to forestland in 2010-2021. The types of land use transition were mainly repetitive and continuous. The ESV first decreased and then increased, with a slight overall decline for more than 30 years, showing a spatial distribution characteristic of "low in the south-central and high around." Land use transition had the impact on ESV with the negative contribution rate of 68.28% in 1990-2000 and 73.16% in 2000-2010, mainly caused by the transition from forestland and grassland to cultivated land and construction land, and the positive contribution rate of 81.72% in 2010-2021, mainly caused by the transition from cultivated land to forestland. Compared with the ESV calculation method without introducing the "three wastes" factor and Xie Gaodi's method, the improved method in this paper considered the inevitable impact of construction land on ESV in industrial counties and made the ESV calculated more accurate according to the regional nature. This paper cannot only enrich the theories and technical methods of land use transition and its effects, and provide a case reference for similar industrial counties, but also provide data and decision-making support for the spatial layout and ecological protection in the study area.

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