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1.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effects of episiotomy and second-degree tears on postpartum sexual function are key areas of enquiry in women's health research. Episiotomy and second-degree tears are common procedures and injuries that occur during childbirth. Understanding their impact on post-childbirth sexuality is crucial to women's overall well-being. This study aimed to examine the relationship between episiotomy, second-degree tears, and post childbirth sexuality. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed, including 83 women who gave birth to Cáceres in 2017. Participants were evaluated based on sociodemographic and sexual health factors. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in dyspareunia or sexual function between women who underwent episiotomies and those with second-degree tears. However, women who underwent episiotomies waited longer before resuming sexual activity after childbirth. Factors such as age, number of previous births, employment status, educational level, and breastfeeding status affected the timing and frequency of postpartum sexual activity. CONCLUSION: Dyspareunia negatively affects various aspects of sexual function. When comparing episiotomy and second-degree tears, their impacts on postpartum sexual function were similar. However, episiotomy delays the resumption of sexual activity. Sociodemographic factors significantly influence postpartum sexual health. These findings highlight the importance of individualised interventions and support for new mothers during the postpartum period to address potential sexual health concerns.

2.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; : 102463, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if use of cesarean delivery in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is guideline-concordant. We compared the odds of cesarean delivery among primiparous individuals with IBD versus without, overall and by disease characteristics, as well as time to subsequent delivery. METHODS: Retrospective matched population-based cohort study between 1 April 1994 and 31 March 2020. Primiparous individuals aged 15-55 years with IBD were matched to those without on age, year, hospital, and number of newborns delivered. Primary outcome was cesarean delivery versus vaginal delivery. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds of cesarean delivery among individuals with and without IBD as a binary exposure, and a categorical exposure based on IBD-related indications for cesarean delivery. Time to subsequent delivery was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: We matched 7472 individuals with IBD to 37 360 individuals without (99.02% match rate). Individuals with IBD were categorized as having perianal disease (IBD-PA, n = 764, 10.2%), prior ileo-anal pouch anastomosis (IBD-IPAA, n = 212, 2.8%), or IBD-Other (n = 6496, 86.9%). Cesarean delivery rates were 35.4% in the IBD group versus 30.4% in their controls (adjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20-1.34). IBD-IPAA had a cesarean delivery rate of 66.5%, compared to 49.9% in IBD-PA and 32.7% in IBD-Other. There was no significant difference in the rate of subsequent delivery in those with and without IBD (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 1-1.07). CONCLUSION: The higher risk of cesarean delivery in people with IBD reflects guideline-concordant use. Individuals with and without IBD were equally likely to have a subsequent delivery with similar timing.

3.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606296, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577390

RESUMO

Objective: Episiotomy, defined as the incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth, is one of the most commonly performed surgical interventions in the world. We aimed to determine if migrant status is associated with episiotomy, and if individual characteristics mediate this association. Methods: We analyzed data from the Bambino study, a national, prospective cohort of migrant and native women giving birth at a public hospital in mainland Portugal between 2017 and 2019. We included all women with vaginal delivery. The association between migrant status and episiotomy was assessed using multivariable multilevel random-effect logistic regression models. We used path analysis to quantify the direct, indirect and total effects of migrant status on episiotomy. Results: Among 3,583 women with spontaneous delivery, migrant parturients had decreased odds of episiotomy, especially those born in Africa, compared to native Portuguese women. Conversely, with instrumental delivery, migrant women had higher odds of episiotomy. Disparities in episiotomy were largely explained by maternity units' factors, and little by maternal and fetal characteristics. Conclusion: Our results suggest non-medically justified differential episiotomy use during childbirth and highlight the importance of developing evidence-based recommendations for episiotomy use in a country with a high frequency of medical interventions during delivery.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Migrantes , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Episiotomia/métodos , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Parto Obstétrico
4.
Cureus ; 16(3): e55383, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Episiotomy, despite being one of the most common interventions during childbirth, carries significant risks and uncertain benefits. Previous global studies highlight varying awareness levels and practices, with decreasing episiotomy rates attributed to increased knowledge. This study aims to assess women's knowledge to enhance intrapartum decision-making and communication between patients and obstetricians, ultimately improving maternal outcomes in the region. METHODOLOGY:  The study was a cross-section design. It was conducted through an online survey that was distributed by different social media platforms (Twitter, WhatsApp, and Telegram) from February 2023 to January 2024. It included women living in the Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, who were 15 years old or older. Data was analyzed using the SPSS program (IBM, Chicago, Illinois, USA). RESULTS: Among the 402 participants, 62.7% demonstrated awareness of episiotomy, with 94.0% accurately identifying it as a surgical cutting with scissors. About 82.5% acknowledged that not all women require episiotomies, while 48.8% recognized the necessity of anesthesia before the procedure. Understanding the indications for episiotomy varied, with facilitating and accelerating childbirth (64.3%) and dealing with a large baby (62.3%) being the most recognized reasons. Impressively, 90.5% believed that there are methods to avoid perineal cutting, with knowing the correct mechanism for pushing during childbirth (69.4%) and exercise (54.4%) being the most acknowledged preventive measures. Regarding post-cutting care, antibiotics (61.5%) were identified as essential, followed by analgesia (52.8%) and laxatives (48.8%). CONCLUSION: The study reveals a notable awareness among participants, with a majority demonstrating a solid understanding of the procedure, its indications, and post-procedure care. It identified specific knowledge gaps, such as the need for anesthesia awareness and divergent beliefs about post-episiotomy care practices.

5.
Belitung Nurs J ; 10(1): 105-113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425689

RESUMO

Background: Maternal outcomes are closely associated with birth satisfaction, and the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R), a concise, multidimensional self-report measure, has undergone translation and validation internationally. However, research on birth satisfaction in Saudi Arabia is scarce. The absence of valid Arabic-language tools for the Saudi population may impede critical research on this topic, necessitating the translation and use of psychometrically sound instruments for measuring birth satisfaction in Saudi women. Objective: This study aimed to translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Saudi Arabian version of the BSS-R (SA-BSS-R). Methods: A total of 218 Saudi women participated in the study, and psychometric analysis of the translated SA-BSS-R involved confirmatory factor analysis, divergent validity analysis, and known-group discriminant validity assessment within a cross-sectional study design. Results: The three-factor BSS-R measurement model displayed poor fit, and internal consistency fell below the threshold value. Additionally, it was observed that women undergoing an episiotomy had significantly lower overall SA-BSS-R scores. Conclusion: The SA-BSS-R manifested atypical measurement properties in this population. Despite insightful observations related to episiotomy, the identified measurement shortcomings highlight the need for a more robust and culturally sensitive translation to enhance measurement characteristics.

6.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14826, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512112

RESUMO

The efficacy of episiotomy, particularly the angle of incision in mediolateral episiotomies, remains a significant area of inquiry in obstetrics. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of low-angle mediolateral episiotomy on perineal wound healing and pain outcomes in women undergoing vaginal childbirth. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted using the PICO framework. Studies were selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving low-angle mediolateral episiotomies. Comprehensive literature searches were performed across major electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Data extraction and quality assessments were meticulously carried out by independent reviewers, employing the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. A total of 1246 articles were initially identified, with 8 articles meeting the strict inclusion criteria for the final analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity among studies regarding postoperative pain (p < 0.0001, I2 = 77.5%), and employed a random-effects model. Results showed that low-angle episiotomies significantly reduced postoperative pain (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17-0.42, p < 0.001), and increased first-degree healing rates (OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 2.20-3.96, p < 0.001) compared to traditional angles. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the stability of these findings, and no significant publication bias was detected. The analysis suggests that low-angle episiotomies can potentially reduce postoperative perineal pain and enhance wound healing. However, the limited number and varying quality of the included studies warrant cautious interpretation of these results. Further well-designed studies are needed to corroborate these findings and guide clinical practice.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Dor Pós-Operatória , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Períneo/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório
7.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 115: 109318, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Episiotomy is a procedure during vaginal delivery to facilitate a safer delivery. However, it can also have complications including hemorrhage, perineal tears, infections, and vaginal hematoma which should be managed and monitored carefully. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 27-year-old woman with term pregnancy, had a normal vaginal delivery at 39 weeks of gestation, and a large episiotomy was performed due to the estimated neonate weight to prevent shoulder dystocia. She was complicated with a huge pelvic hematoma that was expanded to prerenal space. DISCUSSION: This complication was managed by conservative therapy, including antibiotic therapy, intensive observation of the patient's situation, and follow-up with a CT scan after consulting with a radiologist. The huge hematoma was reduced. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive management and close monitoring for pelvic hematoma due to episiotomy in a low-risk patient are successful; however, consulting with radiologists and experts and a multidisciplinary approach should be considered.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are severe complications to vaginal births with potential long-term consequences. Maternal origin has been proposed to affect the overall risk, but the association and underlying explanation are uncertain. The objective was to assess the association between maternal country of birth and OASIS. METHODS: A Swedish nationwide cohort study including singleton term vaginal births during 2005-2016. Data were extracted from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and Statistics Sweden. Modified Poisson regression analyses were performed to obtain crude and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Adjustments were made in four cumulative steps. Sub-analyses were performed to investigate the risk of OASIS associated with female genital circumcision (FGC). RESULTS: In all, 988 804 births were included. The rate of OASIS in Swedish-born women was 3.5%. Women from East/Southeast Asia had an increased risk of OASIS (adjusted RR [aRR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.83), as did women born in Sub-Saharan Africa (aRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.49-1.72). The risk remained significantly increased also after adjustment for maternal height. By contrast, women from South/Central America had a decreased risk of OASIS (aRR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56-0.76). FGC was associated with an increased risk of OASIS (aRR 3.05, 95% CI 2.60-3.58). Episiotomy appeared to have an overall protective effect (aRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), but not significantly more protective among women with female genital mutilation. CONCLUSIONS: Country of birth plays an important role in the risk of OASIS. Women from East/Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are at significantly increased risk as compared with Swedish-born women, whereas women from South/Central America are at lower risk. FGC is also a significant risk factor for OASIS.

9.
Clin Ter ; 175(1): 57-67, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358478

RESUMO

Introduction: Historical mistreatment and violence directed toward women's bodies extend to the field of medicine, and obstetric and gynecological practices are not immune to such misconduct. Obstetric violence (OV) refers to actions involving disrespectful, abusive, or coercive treatment directed at pregnant and birthing women. This includes institutional and personal attitudes that lead to the violation of women's autonomy, human rights, and sexual and reproductive health. Despite various international legislative initiatives and recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) addressing disrespectful and abusive treatment, OV is still poorly known to Italian public opinion. This study aims to investigate whether the concept of OV has been conversely assimilated in judicial decisions. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted to scrutinize judgments in Italy until June 2023 related to OV. The Italian legal database 'De Jure Giuffrè', which collects sentences by various Courts, and the terms 'obstetric' and 'violence' as keywords were used for the research. Results: The full-text revision of the results (n. 41 sentences) al-lowed the selection of 5 eligible contributions covering the following issues: Informed Consent, Kristeller maneuver, Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC), Acceleration of childbirth without indication, and Episiotomy. The analysis of individual judgments was complemented by an examination of the key issues involved. Conclusions: The reviewed judgments frequently seemed to be grounded in technical aspects and inclined towards a predominant evaluation of childbirth outcomes. However, some encouraging aspects emerged, particularly in terms of attention to the female body, acknowledgment of consequences within the intimate-relational dimension, and a commitment to the principle of self-determination through the provision of free and informed consent. Ensuring the psychophysical well-being of women and unborn children, fostering positive interactions between pregnant women and medical staff, and actively working to reduce the grounds for litigation are among actual emerging priorities in healthcare. In this sense, fundamental elements include the implementation of continuous staff training and education as well as a focus on promoting the self-determination of women, leveraging new technologies for this purpose, and ensuring legal protection of their rights.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Violência , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Itália
10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391816

RESUMO

This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to analyze the relationship between maternal positions during the expulsion phase and perineal outcomes in 367 eutocic births attended by midwives or midwifery residents at a public hospital in northern Spain in 2018. A total of 94.3% of women opted for horizontal positions. Limited sacral retroversion was observed in 71.7%, potentially influencing perineal outcomes. A low incidence of tears indicated effective management during the expulsive phase, with an episiotomy rate of 15.3%, which was slightly above the 15% standard. Primiparity and maternal age were identified as risk factors associated with episiotomy. Additionally, sacral mobilization and vertical positions during delivery were significantly related to fewer perineal injuries, suggesting benefits for both mother and newborn. The correlation between maternal positions and the need for epidural analgesia highlighted the importance of considering these in pain management during childbirth. Despite limitations, the study provides valuable insight into obstetric practices and advocates for a woman-centered approach that respects autonomy during childbirth. Further research is needed to explore biomechanical parameters and enhance childbirth experiences.

11.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 294: 238-244, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the postnatal psychological health and parenting adjustment of primiparous women experiencing perineal trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study assessing body image, perceptions of traumatic birth, psychological distress, perineal pain, impact upon parental tasks and mother-infant bonding at 6-12 weeks (n = 103) and 6-10 months postnatally (n = 91). Primiparous women were recruited following vaginal birth and perineal suturing in a UK-based maternity hospital. al. Comparisons made according to the objective classification of perineal trauma experienced; 1st/2nd degree tear, episiotomy, and Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASI). RESULTS: At 6-12 weeks women with an episiotomy reported a more negative perception of their body image than those with OASI. Women with OASI or an episiotomy were more likely to have experienced birth as traumatic, and those with OASI reported more avoidance symptoms of post-traumatic stress and a greater negative impact on parenting tasks. At 6-10 months significantly more avoidance symptoms continued to be reported by those with OASI, whereas those with an episiotomy reported more anxiety related symptoms in general than those with OASI. CONCLUSIONS: OASI, whilst associated with traumatic birth and some early parenting impacts, may not be linked to general negative psychological outcomes when specialist routine follow-up care is provided. Psychological impacts for women with episiotomy may merit further input than currently provided. Consideration should be given with regards to widening the access to postnatal perineal care by extending the criteria for specialist follow up beyond those sustaining OASI.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento , Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/métodos , Mães , Canal Anal/lesões , Vagina , Lacerações/etiologia , Períneo/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 46(5): 102415, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify variation in the association between episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) by maternity care provider in spontaneous and operative vaginal deliveries (SVDs and OVDs). METHODS: Population-based retrospective cohort study of vaginal, term deliveries among nullipara in Canada (2004-2015). Adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using log-binomial regression to quantify the associations between episiotomy and OASI, stratified by care provider (obstetrician [OB], family physician [FP], or registered midwife [RM]) while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The study included 631 642 deliveries. Episiotomy use varied by provider: among SVDs, the episiotomy rate was 19.6%, 14.4%, and 8.4% in the OB, FP, and RM groups, respectively. The rate of OASI was higher among SVDs with versus without episiotomy (5.8% vs 4.6%). Conversely, OASI occurred less frequently in operative vaginal deliveries with episiotomy (15.3%) compared with those without (16.7%). In all provider groups, the ARR for OASI was increased with episiotomy in SVD and decreased with episiotomy with forceps delivery. No differences in these associations were observed by provider except among vacuum delivery (ARR with episiotomy vs. without, OB: 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.92; FP: 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.96, RM: 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.48). CONCLUSIONS: In nullipara, irrespective of maternity care provider, there is a positive association between episiotomy and OASI among SVDs and an inverse association between episiotomy and deliveries with forceps. The relationship between episiotomy and OASI is modified by maternity care providers among vacuum deliveries.

13.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies point to antibacterial properties and beneficial effects of honey on scar tissue formation, which is a low-cost and easy-to-use option. This study aimed to compare honey versus a placebo for cicatrization and pain control of obstetric wounds, and determine if one is superior to the other, in terms of efficacy, through a meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Two independent investigators identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing honey and a placebo for obstetric wounds. The primary outcomes were wound healing and pain control. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials and 353 patients were included, of whom, 177 (50.1%) were treated with honey. Differences were not found in the final wound healing between the honey and placebo groups (MD -0.34; 95% CI -1.13, 0.44; p = 0.39); however, there was a decrease in pain levels in the middle of the treatment (SMD -0.54; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.25, p = 0.03), reduction in the use of pain medication (ORR 0.26; 95% CI 0.08, 0.86; p = 0.03), increase in personal satisfaction in women who underwent the intervention (ORR 0.81; 95% CI 0.65, 0.98), and reduction in complications. CONCLUSION: According to the study results, honey treatments showed greater efficiency and provided benefits to the patients by accelerating wound healing and decreasing reported pain.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Mel , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Manejo da Dor , Dor/etiologia
14.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 52(2): 95-101, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a progressive reduction in the rate of episiotomies since the recommendations of the French college of gynaecologists. Our objective was to study the evolution of the rate of episiotomies and Obstetric Anus Sphincter Injury (OASI) since the restriction of episiotomies in our department. METHODS: Observational monocentric retrospective study performed at the Rouen University Hospital. The inclusion criteria were monofetal pregnancies, delivery at a term greater than or equal to 37 weeks of amenorrhea of a living, viable child and by cephalic presentation. We compared two periods corresponding to before and after the 2018 recommendations. We used logistic regression modelling to identify factors associated with the risk of episiotomies and of obstetrical anal injuries, overall and in case of instrumental delivery. RESULTS: We included 3329 patients for the 1st period and 3492 for the 2nd period, and the rate of instrumental deliveries were respectively of 16.4% (n=547) and 17.9% (n=626). Multivariate analysis showed a significant decrease in the rate of episiotomies in the 2nd period (OR 0.14, CI 95% [0.12; 0.16], P<0.0001). Main factors associated with the risk of OASI were primiparity (OR 6.21, CI 95% [3.19; 12.11]) and the use of forceps (OR 4.23, CI 95% [2.17; 8.27]) overall; and instrumental delivery using forceps (OR 3.25, CI 95% [1.69; 6.22]) and delivery during the 2nd period (OR 1.98, CI 95% [1.01; 3.88]) in case of instrumental delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that the voluntary reduction in the episiotomy rate does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of OASI, overall and in case of instrumental delivery. However, we show an increase in the rate of OASI in case of instrumental delivery since the latest recommendations.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Canal Anal/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Recém-Nascido
15.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 103(3): 488-497, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38053429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are many risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and the interaction between these risk factors is complex and understudied. The many observational studies that have shown a reduction of OASIS rates after implementation of perineal support have short follow-up time. We aimed to study the effect of integration of active perineal support and lateral episiotomy on OASIS rates over a 15-year period and to study interactions between risk factors known before delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study over the periods 1999-2006 and 2007-2021 at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway. The main outcome was OASIS rates. Women without a previous cesarean section and a live singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at term were eligible. The department implemented in 2007 the Finnish concept of active perineal protection, which includes support of perineum, control of fetal expulsion, good communication with the mother and observation of perineal stretching. The practice of mediolateral episiotomy was replaced with lateral episiotomy when indicated. We analyzed the OASIS rates in groups with and without episiotomy stratified for delivery mode, fetal position at delivery and for parity, and adjusted for possible confounders (maternal age, gestational age, oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia). RESULTS: We observed a long-lasting reduction in OASIS rates from 4.9% to 1.9% and an increase in episiotomy rates from 14.4% to 21.8%. Lateral episiotomy was associated with lower OASIS rates in nulliparous women with instrumental vaginal deliveries and occiput anterior (OA) position; 3.4% vs 10.1% (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.24-0.40) and 6.1 vs 13.9% (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.82) in women with occiput posterior (OP) position. Lateral episiotomy was also associated with lower OASIS rates in nulliparous women with spontaneous deliveries and OA position; 2.1% vs 3.2% (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49-0.80). The possible confounders had little confounding effects on the risk of OASIS in groups with and without episiotomy. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a long-lasting reduction in OASIS rates after implementation of preventive procedures. Lateral episiotomy was associated with lower OASIS rates in nulliparous women with an instrumental delivery. Special attention should be paid to deliveries with persistent OP position.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Períneo/lesões , Canal Anal/lesões , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lacerações/complicações
16.
Ultrasonography ; 43(1): 47-56, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38029735

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of perineal trauma during childbirth and to assess the correlations of the pelvic floor dimensions and fetal head station with obstetric trauma in a prospectively recruited cohort of women. METHODS: The study included women with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks, who were carrying a single fetus in a cephalic presentation. Transperineal ultrasound (TPU) was performed prior to the onset of labor or labor induction. The purpose was to measure the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the levator ani muscle (LAM) and the angle of progression, at both rest and maximum Valsalva maneuver. The head-perineum distance was assessed only at rest. RESULTS: A total of 296 women were included. Of the 253 women who delivered vaginally, 19% (48/253) experienced no perineal trauma, 18.2% (46/253) received an episiotomy during childbirth, 34.4% (87/253) sustained a first-degree laceration, 25.3% (64/253) had a second-degree laceration, and 3.2% had a third- or fourth-degree laceration (8/253). Women with episiotomy had a significantly shorter median APD under Valsalva than women without perineal trauma. Furthermore, women with LAM coactivation (identified by a negative difference between the APD at Valsalva and the APD at rest) were approximately three times more likely to undergo an operative vaginal delivery and over five times more likely to sustain a third- or fourth-degree tear during childbirth than women who exhibited normal relaxation of the LAM during the Valsalva maneuver. CONCLUSION: TPU may predict the risk of perineal trauma in women with term pregnancy during childbirth.

17.
Int Urogynecol J ; 35(2): 319-326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Evidence suggests that episiotomies reduce the risk for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) in operative vaginal deliveries (OVDs). However, there is limited evidence on the importance of episiotomy technique in this context. The primary objective of this study was to assess if an episiotomy suture angle >45° from the median line would be associated with a lower risk for OASIs at the time of OVD. METHODS: This was an ancillary study from the multicentre prospective cohort INSTRUMODA study. Of the 2,620 patients who had an OVD with a concomitant episiotomy between April 2021 and March 2022, a total of 219 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Post-suturing photographs were used to assess episiotomy characteristics. RESULTS: Based on suture angles of ≤45° and >45° the study cohort was categorized into groups A (n = 155) and B (n = 64) respectively. The groups had comparable demographic and birth-related characteristics. The mean episiotomy length was significantly longer in group A than in group B (3.21 cm vs 2.84 cm; p = 0.009). Senior obstetricians performed more acute angled episiotomies than junior residents (p = 0.016). The total prevalence of OASIS was 2.3%, with no significant difference in rate of OASI between the two study groups. Birthweight was significantly higher in OASI births (p = 0.018) and spatula-assisted births were associated with higher risk for OASIs than ventouse or forceps (p = 0.0039). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not demonstrate a significant reduction in risk for OASI at the time of OVD when the episiotomy suture angle was >45° from the median line. However, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to the low prevalence of OASIs in our cohort.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Lacerações , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , França/epidemiologia , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 309(3): 843-869, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37632600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce the complications of perineal damage and the pain caused by it for the mother, this study was conducted to determine the effect of warm perineal compress on perineal trauma (1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-degree perineal tears), postpartum pain, intact perineum (primary outcomes), episiotomy, length of the second stage, and APGAR score at 1 and 5 min after childbirth (secondary outcome). METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SID, Magiran, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify the relevant articles from inception to November 1, 2022, with language restriction (only English and Persian). A manual search was also performed. Risk of bias 2 (RoB2) and ROBIN-I were employed to evaluate the quality of the included papers. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. In cases with high heterogeneity, subgroup analysis was utilized based on the parity and ethnicity, and time of pain measurement after delivery also a random-effects model was used instead of a fixed-effects model. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed for the primary outcomes. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: A total number of 228 articles were found in databases. Of these articles, eighty-six were screened by title, 27 by abstract, and 21 by full text. Finally, 14 articles were included, of which ten were RCT and four were non-RCT. Meta-analysis results revealed that warm perineal compress significantly reduced perineal pain (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.66; P = 0.0006), average pain (SMD - 0.73, 95% CI 1.23 to - 0.23; P = 0.004), second-degree perineal tear (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54-0.79; P˂0.00001), third-degree perineal tear (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.67; P = 0.003), fourth-degree perineal tear (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.87; P = 0.04), episiotomy (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.86; P = 0.004), and intact perineum significantly increased (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.79-5.22; P < 0.0001) compared to the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of first-degree tear (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25; P = 0.72), length of the second stage of labor (MD - 0.60, 95% CI - 2.43 to 1.22; P = 0.52), the first minute (MD - 0.03, 95% CI - 0.07 to 0.02; P = 0.24) and the fifth minute Apgar score (MD - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.07 to 0.03; P = 0.46) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Warm perineal compress administered during the second stage of labor reduce postpartum pain, second and third-degree perineal tears, and episiotomy rate while it increases the incidence of intact perineum compared to the control group.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Períneo/lesões , Parto , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle
19.
Women Birth ; 37(1): 159-165, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598048

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The perineal-bundle is a complex intervention widely implemented in Australian maternity care facilities. BACKGROUND: Most bundle components have limited or conflicting evidence and the implementation required many midwives to change their usual practice for preventing perineal trauma. AIM: To measure the effect of perineal bundle implementation on perineal injury for women having unassisted births with midwives. METHODS: A retrospective pre-post implementation study design to determine rates of second degree, severe perineal trauma, and episiotomy. Women who had an unassisted, singleton, cephalic vaginal birth at term between two time periods: January 2011 - November 2017 and August 2018 - August 2020 with a midwife or midwifery student accoucheur. We conducted logistic regression on the primary outcomes to control for confounding variables. FINDINGS: data from 20,155 births (pre-implementation) and 6273 (post-implementation) were analysed. After implementation, no significant difference in likelihood of severe perineal trauma was demonstrated (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.04, p = 0.124). Nulliparous women were more likely to receive an episiotomy (aOR 1.49 95% CI 1.31-1.70 p < 0.001) and multiparous women to suffer a second degree tear (aOR 1.18 95% CI 1.09-1.27 p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: This study adds to the growing body of literature which suggests a number of bundle components are ineffective, and some potentially harmful. Why, and how, the bundle was introduced at scale without a research framework to test efficacy and safety is a key concern. CONCLUSION: Suitably designed trials should be undertaken on all proposed individual or grouped perineal protection strategies prior to broad adoption.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Períneo/lesões
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(4): e20231003, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550649

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the impact of mode of delivery on health-related quality of life in mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2022 on healthy singleton pregnant women aged between 18 and 45 years. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinic features, pregnancy and birth characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were collected. Health-related quality of life was assessed by using EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,015 healthy pregnant women were included. The EQ-5D-5L index score was higher in those with regular sleep patterns (p<0.001), those who did physical activity (PA) during pregnancy (p<0.001), those who received spousal support (p<0.001), and those with very good and good perceived health (p<0.001). EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-5D-5L-VAS scores were lower in those with unplanned pregnancy, those who preferred cesarean section, those who had cesarean section, those who underwent episiotomy, and those who admitted to the intensive care unit (p<0.001). Emergency cesarean section and elective cesarean section had the lowest and second lowest health-related quality of life mean scores, while normal vaginal deliveries had the highest health-related quality of life mean scores, respectively (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed that health-related quality of life was higher after vaginal delivery than after cesarean section. In addition, spousal support, regular sleep pattern, and PA during pregnancy play an important role in maternal health-related quality of life.

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