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1.
ACS Sens ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847105

RESUMO

Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)-expressing exosomes are considered a potential marker for diagnosis and classification of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). There is an urgent need to develop highly sensitive and accurate chemiluminescence (CL) immunosensors for the detection of PD-L1-expressing exosomes. Herein, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisopropanol-functionalized nickel-cobalt hydroxide (NiCo-DH-AA) with a hollow nanoflower structure as a highly efficient CL nanoprobe was synthesized using gold nanoparticles as a "bridge". The resulting NiCo-DH-AA exhibited a strong and stable CL emission, which was ascribed to the exceptional catalytic capability and large specific surface area of NiCo-DH, along with the capacity of AuNPs to facilitate free radical generation. On this basis, an ultrasensitive sandwich CL immunosensor for the detection of PD-L1-expressing exosomes was constructed by using PD-L1 antibody-modified NiCo-DH-AA as an effective signal probe and rabbit anti-CD63 protein polyclonal antibody-modified carboxylated magnetic bead as a capture platform. The immunosensor demonstrated outstanding analytical performance with a wide detection range of 4.75 × 103-4.75 × 108 particles/mL and a low detection limit of 7.76 × 102 particles/mL, which was over 2 orders of magnitude lower than the reported CL method for detecting PD-L1-expressing exosomes. Importantly, it was able to differentiate well not only between healthy persons and LUAD patients (100% specificity and 87.5% sensitivity) but also between patients with minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma (92.3% specificity and 52.6% sensitivity). Therefore, this study not only presents an ultrasensitive and accurate diagnostic method for LUAD but also offers a novel, simple, and noninvasive approach for the classification of LUAD.

2.
J Biol Eng ; 18(1): 36, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845032

RESUMO

Exosomes are nanovesicles with multiple components used in several applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) have been shown to mediate tissue regeneration in various diseases, including neurological, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, cancer, ischemic heart disease, lung injury, and liver fibrosis. They can modulate the immune response by interacting with immune effector cells in the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds and are involved in intercellular communication through various types of cargo. This review summarizes the MSC-Exos-mediated tissue regeneration in various diseases, including neurological, cardiovascular, liver, kidney, articular cartilage, and oral tissue applications. In addition, we discuss the challenges and prospects of MSC-Exos in tissue regeneration.

3.
Tissue Cell ; 89: 102415, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851032

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) originating from the umbilical cord (UC) or Wharton's jelly (WJ) have attracted substantial interest due to their potential to augment therapeutic approaches for a wide range of disorders. These cells demonstrate a wide range of capabilities in the process of differentiating into a multitude of cell types. Additionally, they possess a significant capacity for proliferation and are conveniently accessible. Furthermore, they possess a status of being immune-privileged, exhibit minimal tumorigenic characteristics, and raise minimal ethical concerns. Consequently, they are well-suited candidates for tissue regeneration and the treatment of diseases. Additionally, UC-derived MSCs offer a substantial yield compared to other sources. The therapeutic effects of these MSCs are closely associated with the release of nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), containing lipids, microRNAs, and proteins that facilitate intercellular communication. Due to their reduced tumorigenic and immunogenic characteristics, in addition to their convenient manipulability, EVs have arisen as a viable alternative for the management of disorders. The favorable characteristics of UC-MSCs or WJ-MSCs and their EVs have generated significant attention in clinical investigations encompassing diverse pathologies. Therefore, we present a review encompassing current preclinical and clinical investigations, examining the implications of UC-MSCs in diverse diseases, including those affecting bone, cartilage, skin, liver, kidney, neural, lung, cardiovascular, muscle, and retinal tissues, as well as conditions like cancer, diabetes, sepsis, and others.

4.
Life Sci ; : 122787, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exosomes play a crucial role in promoting tumor progression, dissemination, and resistance to treatment. These extracellular vesicles hold promise as valuable indicators for cancer detection. Our investigation focuses on exploring the significance and clinical relevance of exosomal miRNAs in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: Serum exosomes were isolated from both SCLC patients and healthy controls, and subjected to exosomal miRNA sequencing analysis. Mimics and inhibitors were employed to investigate the function of exosomal miR-1128-5p in cell migration and proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot and luciferase assay were utilized to identify the interaction between miR-1228-5p and dual specificity phosphatase 22 (DUSP22). RESULTS: Exosomal miRNA sequencing analysis revealed enrichment of specific miRNAs in SCLC compared to healthy controls. Circulating miR-1228-5p was upregulated in SCLC patients, associated with advanced stages, suggesting its potential oncogenic role. In vitro, miR-1228-5p expression was significantly higher in SCLC cells than in normal cells. SCLC cell-derived exosomes contained elevated levels of miR-1228-5p, facilitating its entry into co-cultured cells. Notably, migration and proliferation induced by SCLC exosomes were mainly mediated by miR-1228-5p. In vivo experiments confirmed these findings. Western blot analysis demonstrated miR-1228-5p's regulation of DUSP22 expression, and luciferase reporter assay validated DUSP22 as a direct target gene. Overexpressing DUSP22 counteracted miR-1228-5p's promotion of SCLC cell proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that exosomes play a role in facilitating cancer growth and metastasis by delivering miR-1228-5p. Moreover, circulating exosomal miR-1228-5p may serve as a potential marker for SCLC diagnosis and prognosis.

5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1384946, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835784

RESUMO

Breast cancer has a high incidence and a heightened propensity for metastasis. The absence of precise targets for effective intervention makes it imperative to devise enhanced treatment strategies. Exosomes, characterized by a lipid bilayer and ranging in size from 30 to 150 nm, can be actively released by various cells, including those in tumors. Exosomes derived from distinct subsets of immune cells have been shown to modulate the immune microenvironment within tumors and influence breast cancer progression. In addition, tumor-derived exosomes have been shown to contribute to breast cancer development and progression and may become a new target for breast cancer immunotherapy. Tumor immunotherapy has become an option for managing tumors, and exosomes have become therapeutic vectors that can be used for various pathological conditions. Edited exosomes can be used as nanoscale drug delivery systems for breast cancer therapy, contributing to the remodeling of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments and influencing the efficacy of immunotherapy. This review discusses the regulatory role of exosomes from different cells in breast cancer and the latest applications of exosomes as nanoscale drug delivery systems and immunotherapeutic agents in breast cancer, showing the development prospects of exosomes in the clinical treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Exossomos , Imunoterapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Exossomos/imunologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoterapia/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 12: 1356028, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835975

RESUMO

The increasing risk of amputation due to diabetic foot ulcer calls for new therapeutic options; for that, we determined the role of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP (ICRP) and its parts in the wound healing process of superficial wounds in diabetic BALB/c mice. A potency test was performed to confirm the batch of ICRP, and then its parts were separated into pellets, supernatants, and exosomes, and another group of exosomes loaded with insulin was added. Viability and scratch healing were assessed in NIH-3T3, HUVEC, and HACAT cell lines. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin, and wounds were made by dissecting the back skin. Treatments were topically applied, and closure was monitored; inflammatory cytokines in sera were also evaluated by flow cytometry, and histological analysis was performed by Masson's staining and immunohistochemistry for p-AKT, p-FOXO, p-P21, and p-TSC2. ICRP pellets and exosomes increased cellular viability, and exosomes and exosome-insulin accelerated scratch healing in vitro. Exosome-insulin releases insulin constantly over time in vitro. In vivo, treatments accelerated wound closure, and better performance was observed in pellet, exosome, and exosome-insulin treatments. Best collagen expression was induced by ICRP. P-AKT and p-FOXO were overexpressed in healing tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were downregulated by all treatments. In conclusion, IMMUNEPOTENT CRP components, especially exosomes, and the process of encapsulation of exosome-insulin accelerate diabetic wound healing and enhance cellular proliferation, collagen production, and inflammation modulation through the phosphorylation of components of the AKT pathway.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1398077, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836056

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of Tuberculosis, is an intracellular bacterium well known for its ability to subvert host energy and metabolic pathways to maintain its intracellular survival. For this purpose, the bacteria utilize various mechanisms of which extracellular vehicles (EVs) related mechanisms attracted more attention. EVs are nanosized particles that are released by almost all cell types containing active biomolecules from the cell of origin and can target bioactive pathways in the recipient cells upon uptake. It is hypothesized that M.tb dictates the processes of host EV biogenesis pathways, selectively incorporating its molecules into the host EV to direct immune responses in its favor. During infection with Mtb, both mycobacteria and host cells release EVs. The composition of these EVs varies over time, influenced by the physiological and nutritional state of the host environment. Additionally, different EV populations contribute differently to the pathogenesis of disease at various stages of illness participating in a complex interplay between host cells and pathogens. These interactions ultimately influence immune responses and disease outcomes. However, the precise mechanisms and roles of EVs in pathogenicity and disease outcomes remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we explored the properties and function of EVs in the context of M.tb infection within the host microenvironment and discussed their capacity as a novel therapeutic strategy to combat tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Humanos , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Animais
8.
J Orthop Translat ; 46: 103-115, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841339

RESUMO

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), predominantly generated by mitochondria, play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Reduction of ROS levels may be an effective strategy to delay IVDD. In this study, we assessed whether umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-exosomes (UCMSC-exos) can be used to treat IVDD by suppressing ROS production caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Materials and methods: Human UCMSC-exos were isolated and identified. Nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) were stimulated with H2O2 in the presence or absence of exosomes. Then, 4D label free quantitative (4D-LFQ) proteomics were used to analyze the differentially expressed (DE) proteins. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial ROS and protein levels were determined via immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and western blotting respectively. Additionally, high-throughput sequencing was performed to identify the DE miRNAs in NPCs. Finally, therapeutic effects of UCMSC-exos were investigated in a puncture-induced IVDD rat model. Degenerative grades of rat IVDs were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and histochemical staining. Results: UCMSC-exos effectively improved the viability of NPCs and restored the expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type II alpha-1 (COL2A1) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 induced by H2O2. Additionally, UCMSC-exos not only reduced the total intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide levels, but also increased MMP in pathological NPCs. 4D-LFQ proteomics and western blotting further revealed that UCMSC-exos up-regulated the levels of the mitochondrial protein, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), in H2O2-induced NPCs. High-throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR uncovered that UCMSC-exos down-regulated the levels of miR-194-5p, a potential negative regulator of TFAM, induced by H2O2. Finally, in vivo results showed that UCMSC-exos injection improved the histopathological structure and enhanced the expression levels of COL2A1 and TFAM in the rat IVDD model. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that UCMSC-exos promote ECM synthesis, relieve mitochondrial oxidative stress, and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and in vivo, thereby effectively treating IVDD. The translational potential of this article: This study provides solid experimental data support for the therapeutic effects of UCMSC-exos on IVDD, suggesting that UCMSC-exos will be a promising nanotherapy for IVDD.

9.
Discov Oncol ; 15(1): 212, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsies, for example, exosomal circular RNA (circRNA) can be used to assess potential predictive markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients after curative resection. This study aimed to search for effective prognostic biomarkers for HCC in patients after surgical resection based on exosomal circRNA expression profiles. We developed two nomograms incorporating circRNAs to predict the postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients. METHOD: Plasma exosomes isolated from HCC patients and healthy individuals were used for circRNA microarray analysis to explore differentially expressed circRNAs. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between circRNAs and clinicopathological features. Cox regression analysis was used to explore the correlation between circRNA and postoperative survival time as well as recurrence time. A nomogram based on circRNA and clinicopathological characteristics was established and further evaluated to predict prognosis and recurrence. RESULT: Among 60 significantly upregulated circRNAs and 25 downregulated circRNAs, hsa_circ_0029325 was selected to verify its power for predicting HCC outcomes. The high expression level of exosomal hsa_circ_0029325 was significantly correlated with OS (P = 0.001, HR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.41-3.32) and RFS (P = 0.009, HR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.14-2.30). Among 273 HCC patients, multivariate regression analysis showed that hsa_circ_0029325 (HR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.21-3.18), tumor size (HR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.33-3.32), clinical staging (HR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.54-3.48), and tumor thrombus (HR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.12-2.7) were independent risk factors for poor prognosis in HCC patients after radical resection. These independent predictors of prognosis were incorporated into the two nomograms. The AUCs under the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival and recurrence curves of the OS and RFS nomograms were 0.755, 0.749, and 0.742 and 0.702, 0.685, and 0.642, respectively. The C-index, calibration curves, and clinical decision curves showed that the two prediction models had good predictive performance. These results were verified in the validation cohort with 90 HCC patients. CONCLUSION: Our study established two reliable nomograms for predicting recurrence and prognosis in HCC patients. We also show that it is feasible to screen potential predictive markers for HCC after curative resection through exosomal circRNA expression profile analysis.

10.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 315, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840207

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B poses a significant global burden, modulating immune cells, leading to chronic inflammation and long-term damage. Due to its hepatotropism, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) cannot infect other cells. The mechanisms underlying the intercellular communication among different liver cells in HBV-infected individuals and the immune microenvironment imbalance remain elusive. Exosomes, as important intercellular communication and cargo transportation tools between HBV-infected hepatocytes and immune cells, have been shown to assist in HBV cargo transportation and regulate the immune microenvironment. However, the role of exosomes in hepatitis B has only gradually received attention in recent years. Minimal literature has systematically elaborated on the role of exosomes in reshaping the immune microenvironment of the liver. This review unfolds sequentially based on the biological processes of exosomes: exosomes' biogenesis, release, transport, uptake by recipient cells, and their impact on recipient cells. We delineate how HBV influences the biogenesis of exosomes, utilizing exosomal covert transmission, and reshapes the hepatic immune microenvironment. And based on the characteristics and functions of exosomes, potential applications of exosomes in hepatitis B are summarized and predicted.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatócitos , Fígado , Exossomos/imunologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/virologia , Animais , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Comunicação Celular , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia
11.
Biol Direct ; 19(1): 43, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The intercellular communication in post-infarction angiogenesis remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we explored the role and mechanism of action of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes (M2-exos) in angiogenesis after MI. M2-exos were harvested and injected intramyocardially at the onset of MI. Two distinct endothelial cells (ECs) were cultured with M2-exos to explore the direct effects on angiogenesis. RESULTS: We showed that M2-exos improved cardiac function, reduced infarct size, and enhanced angiogenesis after MI. Moreover, M2-exos promoted angiogenesis in vitro; the molecules loaded in the vesicles were responsible for its proangiogenic effects. We further validated that higher abundance of miR-132-3p in M2-exos, which recapitulate their functions, was required for the cardioprotective effects exerted by M2-exos. Mechanistically, miR-132-3p carried by M2-exos down-regulate the expression of THBS1 through direct binding to its 3´UTR and the proangiogenic effects of miR-132-3p were largely reversed by THBS1 overexpression. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that M2-exos promote angiogenesis after MI by transporting miR-132-3p to ECs, and by binding to THBS1 mRNA directly and negatively regulating its expression. These findings highlight the role of M2-exos in cardiac repair and provide novel mechanistic understanding of intercellular communication in post-infarction angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Macrófagos , MicroRNAs , Infarto do Miocárdio , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Masculino , Humanos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo , Trombospondina 1/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Angiogênese
12.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 121, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread endocrine disorder among women, characterized by symptoms like ovarian cysts, hormonal imbalance, and metabolic issues. This research evaluates the therapeutic potential of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-Exo) in treating PCOS symptoms within a mouse model. METHODS: BMSC-Exo were isolated from NMRI mice, characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), and administered to a PCOS mouse model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The efficacy of BMSC-Exo was assessed in three groups of mice: a control group, a PCOS group, and a PCOS group treated with intravenous BMSC-Exo. Morphological changes in ovarian tissue were examined by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining, apoptosis was determined using the TUNEL assay, and CD31 expression was analyzed through immunofluorescent staining to assess angiogenic activity. RESULTS: The existence of BMSCs-Exo was confirmed via TEM and NTA, revealing their distinct cup-shaped morphology and a size range of 30 to 150 nanometers. H&E staining revealed that BMSCs-Exo treatment improved ovarian morphology in PCOS models, increasing corpora lutea and revitalizing granulosa cell layers, suggesting a reversal of PCOS-induced damage. TUNEL assays showed that BMSCs-Exo treatment significantly reduced apoptosis in PCOS-affected ovarian cells to levels comparable with the control group, highlighting its role in mitigating PCOS-induced cellular apoptosis. Immunofluorescence for CD31 indicated that BMSCs-Exo treatment normalized endothelial marker expression and angiogenic activity in PCOS models, suggesting its effectiveness in modulating the vascular irregularities of PCOS. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of BMSCs-Exo in addressing ovarian dysfunction, cellular apoptosis, and aberrant angiogenesis associated with PCOS. CONCLUSION: The study substantiates the role of BMSC-Exo in mitigating the deleterious effects of PCOS on ovarian tissue, with implications for enhanced follicular development and reduced cellular stress. The modulation of CD31 by BMSC-Exo further highlights their potential in normalizing PCOS-induced vascular anomalies. These findings propel the need for clinical investigations to explore BMSC-Exo as a promising therapeutic avenue for PCOS management.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Desidroepiandrosterona , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Animais , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Desidroepiandrosterona/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Angiogênese
13.
Bioact Mater ; 39: 375-391, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846528

RESUMO

The reconstruction of neural function and recovery of chronic damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain significant clinical challenges. Exosomes derived from neural stem cells (NSCs) offer various benefits in TBI treatment. Numerous studies confirmed that appropriate preconditioning methods enhanced the targeted efficacy of exosome therapy. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) possesses immunomodulatory capabilities and is widely involved in neurological disorders. In this study, IFN-γ was employed for preconditioning NSCs to enhance the efficacy of exosome (IFN-Exo, IE) for TBI. miRNA sequencing revealed the potential of IFN-Exo in promoting neural differentiation and modulating inflammatory responses. Through low-temperature 3D printing, IFN-Exo was combined with collagen/chitosan (3D-CC-IE) to preserve the biological activity of the exosome. The delivery of exosomes via biomaterial scaffolds benefited the retention and therapeutic potential of exosomes, ensuring that they could exert long-term effects at the injury site. The 3D-CC-IE scaffold exhibited excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Subsequently, 3D-CC-IE scaffold significantly improved impaired motor and cognitive functions after TBI in rat. Histological results showed that 3D-CC-IE scaffold markedly facilitated the reconstruction of damaged neural tissue and promoted endogenous neurogenesis. Further mechanistic validation suggested that IFN-Exo alleviated neuroinflammation by modulating the MAPK/mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, the results of this study indicated that 3D-CC-IE scaffold engaged in long-term pathophysiological processes, fostering neural function recovery after TBI, offering a promising regenerative therapy avenue.

14.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831604

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) poses significant treatment challenges due to its chronic nature and the side effects associated with long-term use of conventional therapies like topical corticosteroids. In the search for alternative treatments, exosomes, particularly those derived from rose stem cells (RSCEs), offer a promising avenue due to their potential in managing chronic skin conditions. OBJECTIVE: This case report examines the efficacy of a topical moisturizer containing RSCEs in treating a patient with refractory SD, aiming to provide an alternative treatment pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 40-year-old male with a long-standing history of SD, unresponsive to traditional treatments, underwent a novel treatment regimen. This regimen included an initial topical application of 2.5 mL of RSCEs followed by a maintenance phase involving the application of a RSCE-containing moisturizer. Clinical outcomes were assessed through the Patient's Global Assessment (PGA) and Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) scores, along with evaluations of scaling and erythema. RESULTS: Remarkable clinical improvement was noted as early as 1-day post-treatment, with significant reductions in redness, scaling, and itching. The patient experienced sustained relief throughout the 6-month follow-up, with a recurrence in the sixth month that was less severe than previous flare-ups. This demonstrated not only the efficacy of RSCEs in symptom management but also their potential in extending remission periods. CONCLUSION: The chronic management of SD can benefit from innovative treatments like the RSCE-containing moisturizer, as shown in this case report. While the observed outcomes are promising, indicating substantial improvements in skin condition and symptom management, larger controlled studies are necessary to validate the therapeutic potential of exosome-containing moisturizers fully. This case underscores the need for alternative therapies in SD treatment, highlighting the role of exosomes as a viable option.

15.
Breast Cancer ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in women. Exosomes are important mediators of intercellular communication; however, their regulatory mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis in breast cancer remain unknown. METHODS: We isolated and characterized breast cancer cell-derived exosomes and investigated their functions. Exosomal sequencing and the TCGA database were used to screen long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to investigate the role of exosomal lncRNA in HUVEC angiogenesis and tumor growth. Molecular methods were used to demonstrate the molecular mechanism of lncRNA. RESULTS: We demonstrated that breast cancer cell-derived exosomes promoted HUVEC proliferation, tube formation, and migration. Combining exosomal sequencing results with The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer database, we screened lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12), which was highly expressed in breast cancer cells. SNHG12 was also upregulated in HUVECs co-cultured with exosome-overexpressed SNHG12. Moreover, overexpression of SNHG12 in exosomes increased HUVEC proliferation and migration, whereas deletion of SNHG12 in exosomes showed the opposite effects. In vivo experiments showed that SNHG12 knockdown in exosomes inhibited breast cancer tumor growth. Transcriptome sequencing identified MMP10 as the target gene of SNHG12. Functional experiments revealed that MMP10 overexpression promoted HUVEC angiogenesis. Mechanistically, SNHG12 blocked the interaction between PBRM1 and MMP10 by directly binding to PBRM1. Moreover, exosomal SNHG12 promoted HUVEC angiogenesis via PBRM1 and MMP10. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings confirmed that exosomal SNHG12 promoted HUVEC angiogenesis via the PBRM1-MMP10 axis, leading to enhanced malignancy of breast cancer. Exosomal SNHG12 may be a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.

16.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1360618, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827737

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting skin and joints characterized by a chronically altered immune and inflammatory response. Several factors occur from the onset to the development of this disease due to different types of cells spatially and temporally localized in the affected area, such as, keratinocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and T helper lymphocytes. This scenario leads to the chronic release of high levels of inflammatory mediators (i.e., IL-17, IL-23, IL-22, TNF-α, S100 proteins, Defensins) and lastly parakeratosis and thickening of the stratum spinosum. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small double membraned biological nanoparticles that are secreted by all cell types and classified, based on dimension and biogenesis, into exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Their role as vessels for long range molecular signals renders them key elements in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, as well as innovative platforms for potential biomarker discovery and delivery of fine-tuned anti-inflammatory therapies. In this review, the role of EVs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and the modulation of cellular microenvironment has been summarized. The biotechnological implementation of EVs for therapy and research for new biomarkers has been also discussed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Vesículas Extracelulares , Psoríase , Humanos , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/metabolismo , Psoríase/etiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Animais , Pele/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Microambiente Celular/imunologia
17.
Biomaterials ; 311: 122648, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833761

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with an urgent need for safe and effective therapeutic interventions. The process of shell formation in oysters is similar to that of bone formation in mammals, and oyster extracts have been proven to exert osteoprotective effects. Oyster mantle is the most crucial organ regulating shell formation, in which exosomes play an important role. However, the effects of oyster mantle-derived exosomes (OMEs) on mammalian osteoporosis and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The OMEs investigated herein was found to carry abundant osteogenic cargos. They could also survive hostile gastrointestinal conditions and accumulate in the bones following oral administration. Moreover, they promoted osteoblastic differentiation and inhibited osteoclastic differentiation simultaneously. Further mechanistic examination revealed that OMEs likely promoted osteogenic activity by activating PI3K/Akt/ß-catenin pathway in osteoblasts and blunted osteoclastic activity by inhibiting NF-κB pathway in osteoclasts. These favorable pro-osteogenic effects of OMEs were also corroborated in a rat femur defect model. Importantly, oral administration of OMEs effectively attenuated bone loss and improved the bone microstructure in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic mice, and demonstrating excellent biosafety. The mechanistic insights from our data support that OMEs possess promising therapeutic potential against osteoporosis.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 176: 116848, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834005

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is an intrahepatic chronic damage repair response caused by various reasons such as alcoholic liver, fatty liver, viral hepatitis, autoimmune diseases, etc., and is closely related to the progression of liver disease. Currently, the mechanisms of liver fibrosis and its treatment are hot research topics in the field of liver disease remedy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of adult stem cells with self-renewal and multidirectional differentiation potential, which can ameliorate fibrosis through hepatic-directed differentiation, paracrine effects, and immunomodulation. However, the low inner-liver colonization rate, low survival rate, and short duration of intervention after stem cell transplantation have limited their wide clinical application. With the intensive research on liver fibrosis worldwide, it has been found that MSCs and MSCs-derived exosomes combined with drugs have shown better intervention efficiency than utilization of MSCs alone in many animal models of liver fibrosis. In this paper, we review the interventional effects and mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes combined with drugs to alleviate hepatic fibrosis in vivo in animal models in recent years, which will provide new ideas to improve the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes in treating hepatic fibrosis in the clinic.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2400533, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822532

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), crucial mediators of cell-to-cell communication, hold significant diagnostic potential due to their ability to concentrate protein biomarkers in bodily fluids. However, challenges in isolating EVs from biological specimens hinder their widespread use. The preferred strategy involves direct analysis, integrating isolation and analysis solutions, with immunoaffinity methods currently dominating. Yet, the heterogeneous nature of EVs poses challenges, as proposed markers may not be as universally present as thought, raising concerns about biomarker screening reliability. This issue extends to EV-mimics, where conventional methods may lack applicability. Addressing these challenges, the study reports on Membrane Sensing Peptides (MSP) as pan-vesicular affinity ligands for both EVs and their non-canonical analogs, streamlining capture and phenotyping through Single Molecule Array (SiMoA). MSP ligands enable direct analysis of circulating EVs, eliminating the need for prior isolation. Demonstrating clinical translation, MSP technology detects an EV-associated epitope signature in serum and plasma, distinguishing myocardial infarction from stable angina. Additionally, MSP allow analysis of tetraspanin-lacking Red Blood Cell-derived EVs, overcoming limitations associated with antibody-based methods. Overall, the work underlines the value of MSP as complementary tools to antibodies, advancing EV analysis for clinical diagnostics and beyond, and marking the first-ever peptide-based application in SiMoA technology.

20.
Carcinogenesis ; 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829328

RESUMO

Cancer cells exhibit heterogenous metastatic potential, and high metastatic subclones can enhance metastatic potential of low metastatic subclones by transmitting some factors. Exosomal miRNAs play a pivotal role in the crosstalk of heterogenous metastatic subclones. This study discovered that miR-20a-3p was upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRA), correlated with metastasis, and potentially served as a prognostic indicator for CRA. miR-20a-3p could promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of CRA cells. Interestingly, high metastatic CRA cells could promote malignant phenotypes of low metastatic CRA cells by transmitting exosomal miR-20a-3p. Mechanically, miR-20a-3p could inhibit NF1, thereby activate the RAS-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway to drive the metastasis of CRA. In summary, our study provided the evidence that colorectal cancer cells with high metastatic potential drive metastasis by transmitting exosomal miR-20a-3p through modulating NF1/MAPK pathway.

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