Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
1.
Environ Manage ; 73(5): 1032-1048, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466407

RESUMO

Successful management of invasive species often requires working across public and private landownerships. A prime example of an invasive species that commonly occurs on privately and publicly owned and managed lands is the wild pig (Sus scrofa). Because of the multitude of negative impacts associated with wild pigs, management must occur across both private and public lands to achieve widespread control and sustained success. However, managing wild pigs across property boundaries is challenging as we know very little about differing management practices and landowner perspectives. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand wild pig management efforts on privately owned lands, the perceived economic, ecological, and human health impact of wild pigs, and beliefs related to policy. Generally, stakeholders believe wild pigs have negative impacts on wildlife, the economy, and ecological and public health, however less than half of landowners participate in wild pig control. Furthermore, stakeholders believe that the responsibility of managing and paying for damages associated with wild pigs lies with individual landowners. Our findings suggest that increased efficacy of wild pig control and collaboration between private and public landowners is not only possible but also necessary if wild pig population control is to be regionally successful.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Humanos , Alabama , Espécies Introduzidas , Políticas
2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(11): e0097723, 2023 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37902410

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: This work provides evidence that early-life fungal community composition, or host genetics, influences long-term mycobiome composition. In addition, this work provides the first comparison of the feral pig mycobiome to the mycobiome of intensively raised pigs.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Animais , Suínos , Longevidade , Animais Selvagens , Sus scrofa , Fezes/microbiologia
3.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 23(12): 645-652, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37672628

RESUMO

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus and the leading cause of pediatric encephalitis in the Asian Pacific region. The transmission cycle primarily involves Culex spp. mosquitoes and Ardeid birds, with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) being the source of infectious viruses for the spillover of JEV from the natural endemic transmission cycle into the human population. Although many studies have concluded that domestic pigs play an important role in the transmission cycle of JEV, and infection of humans, the role of feral pigs in the transmission of JEV remains unclear. Since domestic and feral pigs are the same species, and because feral pig populations in the United States are increasing and expanding geographically, the current study aimed to test the hypothesis that if JEV were introduced into the United States, feral pigs might play a role in the transmission cycle. Materials and Methods: Sinclair miniature pigs, that exhibit the feral phenotype, were intradermally inoculated with JEV genotype Ib. These pigs were derived from crossing miniature domestic pig with four strains of feral pigs and were used since obtaining feral swine was not possible. Results: The Sinclair miniature pigs became viremic and displayed pathological outcomes similar to those observed in domestic swine. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we conclude that in the event of JEV being introduced into the United States, feral pig populations could contribute to establishment and maintenance of a transmission cycle of JEV and could lead to the virus becoming endemic in the United States.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Criança , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Porco Miniatura , Aves , Fenótipo
4.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 57(8): 941-948, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37313853

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections in the world. Human infections are the result of direct exposure to infected animals or ingestion of unprocessed dairy products. While Brucella sp. infection has largely been eliminated from commercial cattle and swine with aggressive vaccination, there is a significant prevalence of Brucella sp. infection in the expanding population of feral swine in the US. We report the surgical treatment of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta due to Brucella suis in a woman living in a rural community with a large population of feral swine. Vascular surgeons should be aware that brucellosis can result in arterial infection and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a history of exposure to feral swine or the ingestion of unprocessed dairy products.


Assuntos
Brucella suis , Brucelose , Doenças dos Suínos , Feminino , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária
5.
J Vet Intern Med ; 37(3): 980-991, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37158452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis in dogs caused by Brucella suis is an emerging zoonotic disease. OBJECTIVES: To document clinical characteristics, serology, microbiology, and clinical response to treatment in B. suis-seropositive dogs. ANIMALS: Longitudinal study of 27 privately-owned dogs. Dogs that tested positive by serology, culture, or real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were included in the study. METHODS: Clinical (physical examination and imaging) and laboratory (serology, hematology, serum biochemistry, and qPCR or culture) assessments were made at baseline and after approximately 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS: Dogs were followed for 10 895 dog days, with 17/27 dogs completing the 18-month follow-up. Ten dogs had signs consistent with brucellosis before enrollment (n = 4), at baseline (n = 2) or during follow-up (n = 6), with 2 dogs experiencing relapse of historical signs. Antibody titers persisted for the duration of follow-up in 15/17 dogs (88%). Radiographic (n = 5) and ultrasound (n = 11) findings, of variable clinical relevance, were observed. Brucella DNA and organisms were detected in 3 dogs, all of which had clinical signs, including in the milk of a bitch around the time of whelping. Brucella DNA was not detected in blood (n = 92 samples), urine (n = 80), saliva (n = 95) or preputial swabs (n = 78) at any time during follow-up. Six dogs underwent treatment, all of which achieved clinical remission although remission was not reflected by decreasing antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Most dogs with B. suis infections have subclinical infections. Serology is poorly associated with clinical disease. Excretion of organisms appears rare except in whelping bitches. Clinical management using antibiotics with or without surgery is recommended.


Assuntos
Brucella suis , Brucelose , Animais , Brucella suis/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cães
6.
Evol Appl ; 15(7): 1115-1128, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899256

RESUMO

The admixture of domestic pig into French wild boar populations has been monitored since the 1980s thanks to the existence of a cytogenetic difference between the two sub-species. The number of chromosomes is 2n = 36 in wild boar and 2n = 38 in pig, respectively. This difference makes it possible to assign the "hybrid" status to wild boar individuals controlled with 37 or 38 chromosomes. However, it does not make it possible to determine the timing of the hybridization(s), nor to guarantee the absence of domestic admixture in an animal with 2n = 36 chromosomes. In order to analyze hybridization in greater detail and to avoid the inherent limitations of the cytogenetic approach, 362 wild boars (WB) recently collected in different French geographical areas and in different environments (farms, free ranging in protected or unprotected areas, animals with 2n = 36, 37 or 38 chromosomes) were genotyped on a 70K SNP chip. Principal component analyses allowed the identification of 13 "outliers" (3.6%), for which the proportion of the genome of "domestic" origin was greater than 40% (Admixture analyses). These animals were probably recent hybrids, having Asian domestic pig ancestry for most of them. For the remaining 349 animals studied, the proportion of the genome of "wild" origin varied between 83% and 100% (median: 94%). This proportion varied significantly depending on how the wild boar populations were managed. Local ancestry analyses revealed adaptive introgression from domestic pig, suggesting a critical role of genetic admixture in improving the fitness and population growth of WB. Overall, our results show that the methods used to monitor the domestic genetic contributions to wild boar populations should evolve in order to limit the level of admixture between the two gene pools.

7.
Food Microbiol ; 103: 103956, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082073

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fate of generic Escherichia coli in fecal pats under different field conditions and to predict Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) survival dynamics based on developed models. Eight trials were conducted during spring and fall in both North and Central Florida. Fresh cattle feces (1g) was placed on mature green round tomatoes located inside (TIP) and outside (TOP) of the plant canopy. Fecal pats (10 g) were placed under (MUP) and distant (MDP) to tomato plants on plastic mulch. Pathogen populations were predicted based on developed models. Declines in generic E. coli populations over 7 days (Log CFU/g) in fecal pats were between 0.9 and 2.7 on TIP, 1.2 and 3.0 on TOP, 0.2 and 1.2 on MUP, and 0.4 and 1.5 on MDP in the Central Florida fall and spring trials, respectively. E. coli populations remained stable at ≤4.2 and ≤ 6.5 Log CFU/g during all North Florida trials. The concentration changes in predicted Salmonella and STEC population were less than 2.1 Log CFU/g in fecal pats for all conditions. Developed models predicted similar pathogen survival trends to generic E. coli with no dramatical impact under the field conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Solanum lycopersicum , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas
8.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073023

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) was identified in domestic pigs worldwide. Although PCV-3 has also been detected in wild boars, information regarding its circulation in this free-living animal species is scarce. To investigate PCV-3 occurrence in free-living wild boars in Brazil, 70 serum samples collected between January 2017 and June 2019 in Paraná state, Brazil were analyzed by PCR assay. Amplicons measuring 330 bp in length were amplified in seven (10.0%) of the serum samples and confirmed to be PCV3-specific by nucleotide (nt) sequencing. As the amplified products from the serum samples yielded only intermediate levels of viral DNA, lung samples from the seven PCR-positive wild boars were also evaluated by PCR. Of these samples, five lung samples were positive and provided high levels of viral DNA. The three lung samples that presented the highest levels of viral DNA were selected for amplification and sequencing of the whole PCV-3 genome. The three full-length sequences obtained were grouped in PCV-3 clade "a", and the sequences exhibited 100% nucleotide similarity among them. The PCV-3 field strains of this study showed nucleotide and amino acid similarities of 98.5-99.8% and 98.8-100%, respectively, with whole-genome PCV-3 sequences from around the world.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419061

RESUMO

Wild boars (Sus scrofa) were introduced in Mexico for sport hunting and meat trading for human consumption, but the available data regarding their role in pathogen transmission are limited. This research and field work aimed to identify the helminths of the wild boar produced in three units of conservation management and sustainable use of wildlife placed in the eastern economic region of Mexico. Samples of feces and serum were collected from 90 animals that came from three different ranches. Stool examination and antibody determination to Fasciola hepatica, Taenia crassciceps, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis (ELISA), and Trichinella spiralis (Western blot) were performed. In addition, 30 diaphragm samples from one ranch were obtained for artificial digestion. Eggs of Strongyloides sp. (72.2%), Metastrongylus sp. (57.7%), Oesophagostomum sp. (53.3%), and Trichuris sp. (37.7%) were found in addition to oocysts of Eimeria sp. (75.6%). Antibodies to Fasciola (8.9%), Taenia (4.4%), Ascaris (32.2%), Toxocara (20%), and Trichinella (5.5%) were found. The eggs of Strongyloides and Oesophagostomum were associated to female hosts. One nematode larva was found by artificial digestion. This is the first report to identify helminths from wild boars in Mexico. In addition, this study identifies the potential risk of the wild boar as a transmission channel of parasites that can have an impact on public health.

10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 68mar. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507603

RESUMO

Introduction: Isla del Coco is the only island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific with humid tropical forests; 296 plant species are reported, of them, 22% are endemic. Their ecology is poorly understood. Deforestation and the introduction of rats, feral pigs and white-tailed deer are the primary agents of forest degradation. After more than 120 years, the deforested areas have never recovered the native forest. Objective: To analyse if the deforested area keeps its resilience, we evaluated the natural regeneration and ecological processes associated. Methods: From August 2016 to June 2018, we conducted a restoration experiment consisting of a randomized complete blocks design including vegetation cutting, vegetation uprooting and controls as treatments. Plots were protected with an exclusion fence to avoid herbivores. Results: There were no differences between plant cutting and uprooting in stimulating natural regeneration. We only recorded the seedlings of two tree species, 35 individuals of Cecropia pittieri and three of Sacoglottis holdridgei, both endemic. Their regeneration established during the first 15 months mainly. At the end of the experiment, the structure and composition of the vegetation changed from bushes dominated by Entada gigas (28%) and Clidemia strigillosa (12%) to grasses dominated by Paspalum conjugatum (39%). Entada gigas has a high recolonizing potential with a growing rate of 1.6±0.2m/month. Conclusions: As filters for restoration we determined herbivores, which pose a strong negative impact in the development of the forest; the exhausted seed bank of tree species and scarce or null seed dispersion.


Introducción: Isla del Coco es la única isla en el Pacífico oriental con bosques tropicales húmedos, albergando 296 especies de plantas, de las cuales un 22% son endémicas. De su ecología se conoce muy poco. El bosque fue degradado con la introducción de cerdos y venados cola blanca y por deforestación. Las áreas deforestadas hace más de 120 años nunca recuperaron el bosque nativo. Objetivo: Para analizar si el área deforestada mantiene su capacidad de recuperación, se evaluó la regeneración natural y los procesos ecológicos asociados. Metodología: Desde agosto de 2016 hasta junio de 2018, se monitoreó un ensayo de restauración, establecido como un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Los tratamientos incluyeron corte de vegetación, arranque de vegetación y controles. Se utilizó una cerca de exclusión para evitar los herbívoros. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en los tratamientos de corte y arranque de la vegetación para estimular la regeneración natural. Se registró la regeneración de dos especies de árboles: 35 individuos de Cecropia pittieri y tres de Sacoglottis holdridgei, ambas endémicas. La regeneración se estableció principalmente en los primeros 15 meses. Luego de aplicados los tratamientos, la estructura y composición de la vegetación cambió de arbustos dominados por Entada gigas (28%) y Clidemia strigillosa (12%), a pastos dominados por Paspalum conjugatum (39%). Entada gigas tiene el mayor potencial de recolonización por su tasa de crecimiento de 1.6±0.2m/mes. Conclusiones: Los filtros determinados asociados con la regeneración del bosque son los herbívoros; el banco de semillas de las especies arbóreas agotado y la dispersión de semillas escasa o nula, según la especie.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652568

RESUMO

Hunting feral pigs using dogs is a popular recreational activity in Australia. Dogs are used to flush, chase, bail, and hold feral pigs, and their use for these activities is legal in some states and territories and illegal in others. However, there is little knowledge about the health and welfare of dogs owned specifically for the purpose of pig hunting. We conducted a review of the literature on working dogs in Australia and overseas to determine the likely welfare impacts confronting pig-hunting dogs. We identified numerous challenges facing pig-hunting dogs throughout their lives. Risks to welfare include overbreeding, wastage due to behavioural incompatibilities, the use of aversive training techniques including electronic shock collars, solitary kenneling and tethering, high exposure to infectious diseases including zoonotic diseases, inadequate vaccination and anthelmintic prophlyaxis, high incidence of traumatic and other injuries during hunts, climatic exposure during transportation, mortality during hunts, and a suboptimal quality of life after retirement. There are also significant welfare concerns for the wild pigs hunted in this manner. We conclude that research needs to be conducted in order to determine the current health and welfare of pig-hunting dogs, specifically in Australia. The humaneness of this method of pest control urgently requires further assessment.

12.
Ecol Evol ; 9(13): 7761-7767, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346438

RESUMO

Biological invasions often have contrasting consequences with reports of invasions decreasing diversity at small scales and facilitating diversity at large scales. Thus, previous literature has concluded that invasions have a fundamental spatial scale-dependent relationship with diversity. Whether the scale-dependent effects apply to vertebrate invaders is questionable because studies consistently report that vertebrate invasions produce different outcomes than plant or invertebrate invasions. Namely, vertebrate invasions generally have a larger effect size on species richness and vertebrate invaders commonly cause extinction, whereas extinctions are rare following invertebrate or plant invasions. In an agroecosystem invaded by a non-native ungulate (i.e., feral swine, Sus scrofa), we monitored species richness of native vertebrates in forest fragments ranging across four orders of magnitude in area. We tested three predictions of the scale-dependence hypothesis: (a) Vertebrate species richness would positively increase with area, (b) the species richness y-intercept would be lower when invaded, and (c) the rate of native species accumulation with area would be steeper when invaded. Indeed, native vertebrate richness increased with area and the species richness was 26% lower than should be expected when the invasive ungulate was present. However, there was no evidence that the relationship was scale dependent. Our data indicate the scale-dependent effect of biological invasions may not apply to vertebrate invasions.

13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2283-2290, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753509

RESUMO

The feral pig populations of many countries continue to increase. Scientific studies on population size are scarce, while the numbers of reported observations on presence of and damage caused by feral pigs are increasing. Feral pigs can carry and spread several diseases (including zoonotic), but African Swine Fever (ASF) is of most concern. It is a highly transmissible viral disease associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Since 2009 ASF has appeared in several European countries, with cases being identified first among local feral pigs and consequently in domestic pig production units, indicating a clear linkage with the movement of the feral pig population and the spread of the disease across national boundaries. Control of feral pig populations is currently under discussion. Because massive culling raises questions of animal welfare and ethics, fertility control could represent an important and effective means to control feral pig populations. Contraceptive vaccines have been used with some degree of success in many wild species because they are able to provide a long-term effect without any consequent health problems. However, extensive and efficacious use of vaccines to control feral pig populations is not simple. The aim of this article was to review the progress in immunocontraception use in feral pigs, providing an account of the current status and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Anticoncepção Imunológica/veterinária , Controle da População/métodos , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/imunologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticoncepção Imunológica/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos
14.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 16(3): 153-165, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481068

RESUMO

Wild boar populations around the world have increased dramatically over past decades. Climate change, generating milder winters with less snow, may affect their spread into northern regions. Wild boars can serve as reservoirs for a number of bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which are transmissible to humans and domestic animals through direct interaction with wild boars, through contaminated food or indirectly through contaminated environment. Disease transmission between wild boars, domestic animals, and humans is an increasing threat to human and animal health, especially in areas with high wild boar densities. This article reviews important foodborne zoonoses, including bacterial diseases (brucellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, and yersiniosis), parasitic diseases (toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis), and the viral hepatitis E. The focus is on the prevalence of these diseases and the causative microbes in wild boars. The role of wild boars in transmitting these pathogens to humans and livestock is also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Suínos
15.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 19(4): e20180719, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019527

RESUMO

Abstract: Despite the great impacts of invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa) to natural ecosystems, habitat use by this species in the neotropics remains poorly studied. Here, we investigated the effects of local habitat and landscape covariates (vegetation types, running watercourses and roads) on occupancy patterns of wild pig in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. We used single season occupancy modeling to estimate detection (p) and occupancy (ψ) probabilities, using 8-day camera-trap monitoring of 100 sampled sites. The cameras detected wild pig in 64 sites (naïve occupancy = 64 %). The four best models explained 72.7 % of the occupancy patterns, and the top model (with "water" variable) had a weight of 28.5 %. Even though none of the tested variables had high explanatory power of wild pig occupancy, the water variable had a negative effect trend (β = -1.124; SE = 0.734), with 59 % of occupancy when water was present and 82 % when it was absent around the sampling sites. Vestiges of the presence of wild pig in different vegetation types revealed that they used plantations of Pinus sp., native forests, and corn and oat crops. The occupation pattern shows that wild pig are generalist at our study site at the Atlantic Forest being found everywhere, raising ecological and economic concerns about the high potential negative effects of its invasion.


Resumo: Apesar dos grandes impactos da invasão do javali (Sus scrofa) nos ecossistemas naturais, o uso de hábitats por esta espécie nos neotrópicos ainda permanece pouco estudado. Aqui, nós investigamos os efeitos do hábitat local e de covariáveis da paisagem (tipos de vegetação, cursos d'água e estradas) sobre os padrões de ocupação do javali na Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Utilizamos a modelagem de ocupação de estação única para estimar as probabilidades de detecção (p) e de ocupação (ψ) dos javalis, usando monitoramento de armadilha fotográfica por 8 dias em 100 locais. As câmeras detectaram javalis em 64 locais (ocupação ingênua = 64%). Os quatro melhores modelos explicaram 72,7% dos padrões de ocupação, e o melhor modelo (com variável "água") teve um peso de 28,5%. Embora nenhuma das variáveis testadas apresentaram alto poder explicativo na ocupação do javali, a variável água foi a que contribuiu com uma tendência de efeito negativo (β = -1,124; SE = 0,734), com 59% de ocupação quando a água estava presente e 82% quando estava ausente nos pontos de amostragem. Vestígios da presença de javali em diferentes tipos de vegetação revelaram que eles utilizaram plantações de Pinus sp., florestas nativas e culturas de milho e aveia. O padrão de ocupação mostra que o javali é extremamente generalista em nosso local de estudo na Mata Atlântica, sendo encontrado em todos os lugares, o que levanta preocupações ecológicas e econômicas sobre os potenciais efeitos negativos de sua invasão.

16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 74(4): 853-860, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Populations of wild boar and feral pigs are increasing worldwide, in parallel with their significant environmental and economic impact. Reliable methods of monitoring trends and estimating abundance are needed to measure the effects of interventions on population size. The main aims of this study, carried out in five English woodlands were: (i) to compare wild boar abundance indices obtained from camera trap surveys and from activity signs; and (ii) to assess the precision of density estimates in relation to different densities of camera traps. For each woodland, we calculated a passive activity index (PAI) based on camera trap surveys, rooting activity and wild boar trails on transects, and estimated absolute densities based on camera trap surveys. RESULTS: PAIs obtained using different methods showed similar patterns. We found significant between-year differences in abundance of wild boar using PAIs based on camera trap surveys and on trails on transects, but not on signs of rooting on transects. The density of wild boar from camera trap surveys varied between 0.7 and 7 animals/km2 . Increasing the density of camera traps above nine per km2 did not increase the precision of the estimate of wild boar density. CONCLUSION: PAIs based on number of wild boar trails and on camera trap data appear to be more sensitive to changes in population size than PAIs based on signs of rooting. For wild boar densities similar to those recorded in this study, nine camera traps per km2 are sufficient to estimate the mean density of wild boar. © 2017 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fotografação/instrumentação , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Inglaterra , Densidade Demográfica
17.
J Anim Ecol ; 86(5): 1214-1223, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656732

RESUMO

Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and morphological characteristics of this species, coupled with behavioural thermoregulation.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Clima , Espécies Introduzidas , Sus scrofa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Dieta , Ecossistema , Reprodução , Suínos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 574: 1164-1173, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27744261

RESUMO

Wild pigs are a widespread invasive species that pose significant environmental and social risks. A number of wild pig eradication and control measures exist, but many eradication campaigns are ultimately unsuccessful. Decision making regarding how to design and execute an eradication plan is difficult because of multiple costs and benefits spanning various decision criteria that are associated with different eradication and control countermeasures. Moreover, multiple stakeholders are often involved with differing and sometimes competing objectives, and wild pigs are adaptive adversaries, meaning that the ideal countermeasure may change over time. In this paper, we propose the use of formal decision analytic tools which can structure decision problems into a set of relevant criteria, countermeasures, and stakeholder preferences to facilitate the evaluation of tradeoffs. We operationalize this method in a simple Excel-based decision tool and conclude with a path forward regarding how to successfully implement such tools for effective wild pig control.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tomada de Decisões , Espécies Introduzidas , Suínos , Animais , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Risco , Sus scrofa
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 123: 39-51, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26711303

RESUMO

Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0.007-0.022) and L. intracellularis (median 0.006, 0.003-0.011) for pigs in free-range piggeries. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the presence and number of wild animals around piggeries, their access to piggeries and pig food and water, and, in the case of feral pigs, their proximity to piggeries, are the most influential parameters on the probability of exposure. Findings from this study support identification of mitigation strategies that could be implemented at on-farm and industry level to minimize the exposure risk from European starlings, rats and feral pigs.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Aves Canoras , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
20.
N Z Vet J ; 63 Suppl 1: 54-67, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295713

RESUMO

In New Zealand, wild deer and feral pigs are assumed to be spillover hosts for Mycobacterium bovis, and so are not targeted in efforts aimed at locally eradicating bovine tuberculosis (TB) from possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the main wildlife host. Here we review the epidemiology of TB in deer and pigs, and assess whether New Zealand's TB management programme could be undermined if these species sometimes achieve maintenance host status. In New Zealand, TB prevalences of up to 47% have been recorded in wild deer sympatric with tuberculous possums. Patterns of lesion distribution, age-specific prevalences and behavioural observations suggest that deer become infected mainly through exposure to dead or moribund possums. TB can progress rapidly in some deer (<10%), but generalised disease is uncommon in wild deer; conversely some infected animals can survive for many years. Deer-to-deer transmission of M. bovis is rare, but transmission from tuberculous deer carcasses to scavengers, including possums, is likely. That creates a small spillback risk that could persist for a decade after transmission of new infection to wild deer has been halted. Tuberculosis prevalence in New Zealand feral pigs can reach 100%. Infections in lymph nodes of the head and alimentary tract predominate, indicating that TB is mostly acquired through scavenging tuberculous carrion, particularly possums. Infection is usually well contained, and transmission between pigs is rare. Large reductions in local possum density result in gradual declines (over 10 years) in TB prevalence among sympatric wild deer, and faster declines in feral pigs. Elimination of TB from possums (and livestock) therefore results in eventual disappearance of TB from feral pigs and wild deer. However, the risk of spillback infection from deer to possums substantially extends the time needed to locally eradicate TB from all wildlife (compared to that which would be required to eradicate disease from possums alone), while dispersal or translocation of pigs (e.g. by hunters) creates a risk of long-distance spread of disease. The high rate at which pigs acquire M. bovis infection from dead possums makes them useful as sentinels for detecting TB in wildlife. It is unlikely that wild deer and feral pigs act as maintenance hosts anywhere in New Zealand, because unrestricted year-round hunting keeps densities low, with far less aggregation than on New Zealand farms. We conclude that active management of wild deer or feral pigs is not required for local TB eradication in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis , Suínos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bovinos , Espécies Introduzidas , Nova Zelândia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...