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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 335-343, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232726

RESUMO

El presente estudio investigó si la satisfacción con la vida se predice a partir de la felicidad subjetiva, afectos positivos y negativos, alteración psicológica y emociones de gratitud y si la emoción de gratitud está mediando la relación con la felicidad subjetiva, los afectos y la satisfacción con la vida. Se hicieron correlación de Pearson, pruebas de regresión lineal múltiple y modelos de mediación en una muestra de 1537 adultos españoles, 73.6% mujeres y 26.4% hombres, edad 18-88 años (M = 42.56 años; DT = 16.29). Se halló que las emociones de gratitud median la relación entre felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida y entre los afectos positivos y la satisfacción con la vida. Los afectos positivos son los que más se relacionan con la satisfacción con la vida, seguidos por la felicidad subjetiva y las emociones de gratitud. Los hombres están más satisfechos con la vida cuando sienten menos afecto negativo. Además, las emociones de gratitud median la relación entre felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida y entre los afectos positivos y la satisfacción con la vida. La diferencia principal radica en que las emociones de gratitud son más fuertes en las mujeres que en los hombres.(AU)


This study aims to examine the predictability of satisfaction with life on the basis of subjective happiness, positive and negative affect, psy-chological disturbance and emotion of gratitude. It also seeks to assess whether the emotion of gratitude is a mediating variable withsubjective happiness, affect, and satisfaction with life. Statistical analyses of Pearson'scorrelation, multiple linear regression tests, and mediation models were conducted on asample of 1537 Spanish adults, 73.6% were females, 26.4% males, age between 18-88 yearsold (M = 42.56; SD = 16.29). The emo-tions of gratitude were found to mediate therelationship between subjec-tive happiness and satisfaction with life and between positiveaffect and satisfaction with life. Of the variables studied, positive affect is the most related tosatisfaction with life, followed by subjective happiness and emo-tions of gratitude. Maleparticipants are more satisfied with life when they feel the less negative affect. Regardingmediation models, emotions of grat-itude mediate the relationship between subjectivehappiness and satisfac-tion with life and between positive affect and satisfaction with life. Themaindifferenceis thatemotions of gratitudearestronger infemalesthan in males.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Felicidade , Emoções , Sintomas Afetivos , Espanha
2.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 53042, Jan.-Jun. 2024. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550250

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução: A violência contra idosos é um fenômeno crescente, ocasionando prejuízos à saúde, com diferentes desfechos e consequências às vítimas. A chance de idosas sofrerem-na no âmbito familiar supera a dos homens, sendo o gênero um fator de risco considerável. Objetivo: Analisar a compreensão da violência contra pessoas idosas segundo mulheres gerontes. Metodologia: Pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa desenvolvida com 22 idosas de uma comunidade no estado da Paraíba, Brasil, escolhidas por conveniência. Utilizou-se para coleta de dados entrevistas semiestruturadas, processadas pelo software Iramuteq, com posterior Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: Foram evidenciadas cinco classes: ciclo de violência; rede de apoio ao idoso vítima de violência; Vivência de situações violentas; violência financeira; e simbologia da violência na sociedade, as quais denotam compreensão da violência envolvendo os diferentes tipos. Apoiam-se nos fatores da vivência familiar, cultura e outros, consubstanciando o profissional de saúde como fundamental para o desfecho. O gênero influenciou no que concerne ao olhar lançado sobre a violência física e psicológica, bem como na relevância dada às equipes de saúde para identificação de ocorrências e prevenção de possíveis danos. Conclusão: Os diversos tipos de violência contra a pessoa idosa foram reconhecidos, incluindo fatores individuais, comunitários e sociais no ciclo violento. Além disso, associaram o envelhecimento a maior suscetibilidade para sofrer violência, independente da tipologia. Destaca-se a potencialidade do serviço de saúde na assistência à pessoa idosa vítima de violência, elucidando casos e atuando precocemente para interrupção dos ciclos perpetrados, exigindo a necessidade constante de atualização profissional para lidar com situações detectadas.


Resumen Introducción: La violencia contra las personas adultas mayores es un fenómeno creciente, que causa daños a la salud, con diferentes desenlaces y consecuencias para las víctimas. La posibilidad de que las mujeres adultas mayores la sufran en el ámbito familiar supera la de los hombres, siendo el género un factor de riesgo considerable. Objetivo: Analizar la comprensión de la violencia contra las personas mayores según las mujeres adultas mayores. Metodología: Investigación descriptiva con enfoque cualitativo desarrollada con 22 mujeres adultas mayores de una comunidad en el estado de Paraíba, Brasil, elegidas por conveniencia. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, procesadas por el software Iramuteq, con posterior análisis de contenido. Resultados: Se evidenciaron cinco tipos de violencia: ciclo de la violencia, red de apoyo población adulta mayor víctima de violencia, experimentar situaciones violentas, violencia financiera y simbología de la violencia en la sociedad, que denotan la comprensión de la violencia de diferentes tipos. Estas ideas están respaldadas en los factores de la experiencia familiar, la cultura y otros, donde la persona profesional de la salud se identifica como fundamental para el cuidado y apoyo. El género influyó en la mirada lanzada sobre la violencia física y psicológica, así como en la relevancia dada a los equipos de salud para la identificación de sucesos y la prevención de posibles daños. Conclusión: Se han reconocido los diversos tipos de violencia contra las personas mayores, incluidos los factores individuales, comunitarios y sociales en el ciclo de violencia. Además, asociaron el envejecimiento con una mayor susceptibilidad a sufrir violencia, independientemente de la tipología. Destaca la potencialidad del servicio de salud en la asistencia a la persona mayor víctima de violencia, mediante la identificación de casos y la actuación temprana para la interrupción de los ciclos perpetrados. De manera que, se evidencia la necesidad constante de actualización profesional para hacer frente a situaciones detectadas.


Abstract Introduction: Violence against the elderly is a growing phenomenon, causing damage to health, with different outcomes and consequences to the victims. The possibility of elderly women suffering it in the family context surpasses that of men, with gender being a considerable risk factor. Objective: To analyze the understanding of violence against the elderly according to elderly women. Method: Descriptive research with a qualitative approach developed with 22 elderly women from a community in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, chosen for convenience. The data collection was based on semi-structured interviews, processed by the Iramuteq software, with subsequent Content Analysis. Results: Five classes of violence against the elderly were evidenced: cycle of violence; support network for the elderly victims of violence; experience of violent situations; financial violence; and symbolism of violence in society, which denote an understanding of violence involving the different types. They are based on the factors of family experience, culture, and others, placing the health professional as a fundamental element for care and support. Gender influenced the perspective on physical and psychological violence, as well as the relevance given to health teams for the identification of occurrences and the prevention of possible damage. Conclusion: The various types of violence against the elderly have been recognized, including individual, community, and social factors in the violent cycle. In addition, they associated aging with greater susceptibility to suffering violence, regardless of the typology. It highlights the potential of the health service in assisting the elderly victim of violence, elucidating cases, and acting early to interrupt the cycles perpetrated, requiring the constant need for professional updating to deal with detected situations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção à Saúde , Abuso de Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil
3.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535338

RESUMO

In recent years, there have been international references to the vocal approach for the specific group of transgender individuals, although the Latin American literature is still very timid on this matter. The purpose of this article is to identify the current norms, statistics, and vocal approach towards transgender individuals in Chile and Argentina, considering the experience of two speech and language pathologists with more than twenty years of experience on voice therapy. Reflections were made on the transgender reality in these countries, the limitations in the implementation of the depathologization of the transgender group were outlined, some current and unreliable statistics were presented, some innovative actions in the public system were highlighted, and the lack of knowledge about the benefits of vocal work for transgender men and women was discussed. The identified aspects could benefit from multicenter research that strengthens speech therapy actions with this group, contributing to depathologization and positive approach.


Desde los últimos años es posible encontrar referencias internacionales sobre el abordaje vocal al grupo específico de las personas transgénero, aunque la literatura latinoamericana sigue muy tímida en este asunto. La propuesta de este artículo es identificar las normas vigentes, estadísticas y abordaje vocal hacia las personas transgénero en Chile y Argentina, considerando la experiencia de dos fonoaudiólogas con más de veinte años de experiencia en terapia vocal. Se hicieron reflexiones sobre la realidad transgénero en los países citados, se delinearon las limitaciones en la puesta en práctica de la despatologización del grupo transgénero, se expusieron algunas estadísticas -vigentes y poco confiables-, se plasmaron algunas acciones novedosas en el sistema público y el desconocimiento sobre los beneficios del trabajo vocal en hombres y mujeres transgénero. Los aspectos detectados podrían beneficiarse de investigaciones multicéntricas que fortalezcan acciones fonoaudiológicas con este grupo, contribuyendo a la despatologización y el abordaje positivo.

4.
J Health Econ ; 95: 102886, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703637

RESUMO

This study examines the gender-specific and enduring impacts of parental health shocks on adult children's employment in China, where both formal care and health insurance are limited. Using an event-study approach, we establish a causal link between parental health shocks and a notable decline in female employment, which persists for at least six years following the shock. Male employment, however, exhibits minimal change on average, although this conceals an increase among poor families, indicating a channel beyond heightened informal care. Our findings underscore the consequences of "growing old before getting rich" for developing countries.


Assuntos
Filhos Adultos , Emprego , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Fatores Sexuais , Pais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nível de Saúde
5.
Microb Pathog ; 192: 106684, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria have an important influence on colorectal cancer (CRC). The differences of gut bacteria between genders have been the hot spots. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between gut bacteria and gender differences in patients with CRC. METHODS: A total of 212 patients with CRC and 212 healthy volunteers were recruited. The subjects' fecal samples were obtained, and the fecal microorganisms were analyzed by the third-generation sequencing PacBio. The composition of gut bacteria was analyzed. Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) was used to analyze the differences in gut bacteria. Pearson coefficient was used to calculate the correlation between differential bacteria. CRC risk prediction models were used to rank the importance of effective differential bacteria. RESULTS: Escherichia flexneri and Phocaeicola vulgatus were the most frequent bacteria in both male and female CRC patients. Bacteroides, Verrucomicrobia and Akkermansiaceae were highly enriched in male CRC group, while Bacteroidetes, Phocaeicola and Tissierellales were highly enriched in female CRC group. Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Phocaeicola vulgatus were important CRC related bacteria in males and females, respectively. Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was the most important characteristic bacterium of males (AUC = 0.951), and the sensitivity and specificity of the discovery set were 78.74 % and 93.98 %, respectively. Blautia stercoris was the most important characteristic bacterium of females (AUC = 0.966), and the sensitivity and specificity of the discovery set were 90.63 % and 90.63 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: Gut bacteria varied in different genders. Therefore, gender should be considered when gut bacteria are applied in the diagnose and prevention of CRC.

6.
Am Heart J ; 272: 113-115, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705638

RESUMO

Despite a perceived increase in attention to gender differences in medicine, a comprehensive assessment of gender equality research, particularly in cardiology, remains underexplored. This observational retrospective study, focusing on documents related to "Gender Equality" according to the Sustainable Development Goals, reveals cardiology as a significant area for gender equality research, albeit with a decline in publications post-2018. The analysis highlighted a concentrated effort in the United States and a considerable impact gap between gender-focused and general cardiology research. The global academic community must intensify research into gender disparities, which is essential for achieving professional gender equality and addressing the burden of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Cardiologia , Equidade de Gênero , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Sexismo
7.
J Aging Soc Policy ; : 1-16, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701195

RESUMO

Drawing on data from two waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2010 and 2018), this study examined how community-dwelling older men and women (65+) with functional limitations utilized formal and informal sources of care and how their patterns of care utilization changed over time. The usage patterns of formal and informal caregiving services were categorized into three groups: (a) informal help only, (b) formal-informal mix, and (c) no help from either. More men and women used both formal and informal help for their care needs in 2018 than in 2010 (15% compared to 7%). The proportion of older men who relied on informal help only remained similar across survey years, whereas a smaller proportion of older women relied on informal help only in 2018. Although formal care use has been expanded in South Korea, older men continue to utilize help from their families. However, for older women, the proportion who did not receive any help increased - despite an increase in formal care utilization. These findings highlight the importance of considering gendered resources in caregiving in Korea.

8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the demographic and academic characteristics of current neurosurgery residents may provide prospective students with insight into factors that affect research output. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the research output among neurosurgery residents. METHODS: US neurosurgery residency programs were abstracted from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Demographic data on 1690 current residents across 119 programs were collected using publicly available institutional websites, Doximity, and LinkedIn. The h-index of each resident was recorded using Scopus and exported into the NIH iCite tool to determine the weighted relative citation ratio (w-RCR) and mean relative citation ratio (m-RCR). The total number of publications, h-index, and w-RCR were used as a proxy for research output, while m-RCR was used to measure research impact. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis H-tests were used to assess the statistical significance of relationships between demographic data and measures of research activity. RESULTS: A total of 1690 residents (25.4% female), representing 119 programs, were evaluated. Neurosurgery residents had an average of 17 publications, h-index of 5.5, m-RCR of 1.4, and w-RCR of 16.9, with an upward trend of research activity by postgraduate year (PGY) class. Male residents on average had a greater total number of publications (p < 0.001), higher h-index (p < 0.001), and higher w-RCR (p = 0.002) compared with their female peers. Significant differences in research activity were also observed by degree (Doctor of Medicine [MD], Doctor of Osteopathy [DO], or other), where those with MD and other degrees had higher metrics than those with DO degrees. International medical graduates (IMGs) also had higher research output than American medical graduates (AMGs) (p < 0.001). Differences in all measures of research activity except impact were also observed in research activity when pre-residency medical school ranks were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The authors observed overall high research activity among neurosurgery residents. Factors such as gender, degree, PGY, IMG/AMG status, and medical school rank may therefore be related to the success of matching within neurological surgery. Although large disparities in gender representation have been identified in neurosurgery, newer classes are trending toward shrinking the gap. These data may be used by prospective residents to gauge changes and progress occurring in the neurosurgery match.

9.
Int J Pharm X ; 7: 100254, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774112

RESUMO

Zileuton is a leukotriene inhibitor used to treat asthma. As a BCS class II drug it exhibits challenges with solubility which likely impact its absorption. As patient gender significantly impacts the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, this study aimed to investigate potential gender-based pharmacokinetic differences after oral zileuton administration in rats. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats received single oral gavage doses of pure zileuton as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (30 mg/kg body weight (bw)), physical mixture (PM; at 30 mg/kg bw of the formulation contains zileuton, kollidon VA64 fine, dowfax2A1 and trehalose), and nanocrystalline formulation of zileuton (NfZ; at 30 mg/kg bw of the formulation). Plasma, tissue, and urine concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis showed higher zileuton levels in the plasma of female versus male rats across all evaluated forms of zileuton (API, PM, and NfZ). Female rats demonstrated higher peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) relative to males, regardless of formulation. These findings reveal substantial gender disparities in the pharmacokinetics of zileuton in the rat model. This study emphasizes the critical need to evaluate gender differences during preclinical drug development to enable gender-based precision dosing strategies for equivalent efficacy/safety outcomes in male and female patients. Additional studies are warranted to investigate underlying mechanisms of such pharmacokinetic gender divergences.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1258495, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774227

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the treatment trajectories of Austrian children and adolescents with gender incongruence seeking gender-affirming medical care. Methods: Patients who presented with gender incongruence at the pediatric outpatient clinic for differences in sex development at a large university hospital in Austria from January 2008 to December 2022 were included in a retrospective chart review, and analyzed regarding referral numbers, patient characteristics, treatment trajectories, fertility preservation, and legal gender marker changes. Results: Of 310 eligible patients, 230 (74.2%) were assigned female at birth (AFAB), and 80 (25.8%) were assigned male at birth (AMAB). The number of referrals increased steeply from 2008 to 2018, whereafter it stabilized at around 50 per year. At the time of initial presentation, the median age of patients was 15.6 years (IQR 14.3-16.8). AMAB individuals tended to be younger (median 14.9 years, IQR 13.9-16.8) than AFAB individuals (median 15.8 years, IQR 14.4-16.8; p= 0.012). 207 (66,8%) completed the assessment process and were eligible for gender affirming medical treatment (GAMT). Of those, 89% (186/207) commenced gender affirming hormone therapy in the pediatric outpatient clinic (79/186 received GnRHa monotherapy, 91/186 GnRHa and sex steroids, and 16/186 sex steroid monotherapy). Of the 54 AMAB individuals receiving GAMT, 6 (11.1%) completed fertility preservation prior to therapy initiation. Only 1/132 AFAB adolescents receiving GAMT completed fertility preservation. Chest masculinization surgery was performed in 22 cases (16.7%), and breast augmentation in two cases (3.7%) between the ages of 16 and 18. Changes in legal gender marker were common, with 205 individuals (66.1%) having changed their legal gender marker. Conclusion: This is the first time that treatment trajectories, fertility preservation rates, and changes of legal gender marker have been described in Austrian adolescents with gender incongruence seeking GAMT. The majority received GAMT and changed their legal gender marker, while gender affirming surgery rates were low, and utilization of fertility preservation treatment options was rare.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disforia de Gênero/tratamento farmacológico , Disforia de Gênero/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Preservação da Fertilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Criança
11.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 5: 1335254, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774250

RESUMO

Background: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a pervasive global public health concern and a violation of human rights, particularly pronounced in conflict settings where it is often used as a tool of warfare to instill fear and control populations. Objective: Assessment of Magnitude, Associated Factors, and Health Consequences of GBV among women living in war-affected woredas of North Shewa zone, Ethiopia, 2022. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 845 randomly selected women living in conflict zones. Data on GBV experiences over the previous 3 months were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires developed from literature review. The collected data underwent validation, entry into EPI data, and analysis using SPSS. Findings are summarized using descriptive statistics, AOR and 95% confidence interval. Result: The magnitude of GBV in this study was (490, 58.0%) where, (466, 55.0%) psychological violence, (254, 30.1%) physical violence, and (135, 16.0%) reported sexual violence. A majority of the physical violence, (161, 63.4%), occurred during conflict period, with (143, 56.3%) of these cases involving armed forces, and (161, 63.4%) women experiencing physical violence in their homes. Urban Residence AOR = 2.65, CI, (1.82-3.89), Educational status of Secondary education AOR = 0.33, CI, (0.19-0.57, and ≥College AOR = 0.17, CI, (0.09-0.35), Occupation of Housewife AOR = 1.88, CI, (1.20-2.94), Private employee AOR = 6.95, CI, (3.70-13.04), Gov't employee AOR = 5.80, CI, (2.92-11.50), and others (Students) AOR = 3.46, CI, (1.98-6.01), Ever had sexual intercourse AOR = 0.46, CI, (0.25-0.83), Have heard about SRH AOR = 0.59, CI, (0.40-0.89), Have had previous GBV exposure AOR = 0.24, CI, (0.15-0.38), having a previous history of sexual violence AOR = 0.30, CI, (0.16-0.57), and Number of sexual partner AOR = 1.84, CI, (1.13-2.99) were identified to be associated factors of GBV in our study area. The most commonly reported consequences of GBV were Anxiety, depression, physical injuries, self-blame, women had school dropout, and abortion. Conclusion: The study reveals a higher prevalence of GBV, resulting in profound physical, social, mental, and reproductive health challenges for survivors. To address this, multi-sectoral cooperation is advised to enhance women's empowerment, access to information, and psycho-social support in affected areas. Furthermore, national policymakers are urged to implement preventive measures during conflict and establish legal mechanisms to ensure accountability for perpetrators.

12.
New Media Soc ; 26(6): 3541-3567, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774557

RESUMO

Implicit and explicit gender biases in media representations of individuals have long existed. Women are less likely to be represented in gender-neutral media content (representation bias), and their face-to-body ratio in images is often lower (face-ism bias). In this article, we look at representativeness and face-ism in search engine image results. We systematically queried four search engines (Google, Bing, Baidu, Yandex) from three locations, using two browsers and in two waves, with gender-neutral (person, intelligent person) and gendered (woman, intelligent woman, man, intelligent man) terminology, accessing the top 100 image results. We employed automatic identification for the individual's gender expression (female/male) and the calculation of the face-to-body ratio of individuals depicted. We find that, as in other forms of media, search engine images perpetuate biases to the detriment of women, confirming the existence of the representation and face-ism biases. In-depth algorithmic debiasing with a specific focus on gender bias is overdue.

13.
Health Sci Rep ; 7(5): e2121, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774591

RESUMO

Background and Aims: In Iran, few studies have addressed the moderating effect of gender on determinants of quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effect of social trust, physical activity, and sense of happiness on the perceived quality of life, considering the moderating role of gender. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study. The statistical population were men and women aged 16 years and above in five western provinces of Iran. The final sample size was estimated to be 1268 people calculated through the correlation coefficient estimation formula, and finally 1185 questionnaires received. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software. Results: The mean score of quality of life among women was significantly higher than that of men (p < 0.001). The direct standardized coefficient showed that the sense of happiness (ß = 0.40), social trust (ß = 0.20), and physical activity (ß = 0.12) had a significant effect on the perceived quality of life (p < 0.001). Also, gender had a moderating role in the relationship between sense of happiness and perceived quality of life (z-score = 3.246, p < 0.001). Totally, 21% of the changes in perceived quality of life were explained by three main variables. The main variables were stronger explanatory factors in men (R = 0.26) than in women (R = 0.17). Conclusions: The final model showed that sense of happiness had the most direct effect on the perceived quality of life, moderated by gender. Considering that the quality of life among men was lower than that among women and the direct effect of happiness on quality of life was more among men than that among women, it is suggested that gender-based health promotion interventions with an emphasis on men be carried out to strengthen the sources of happiness to improve quality of life.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if patient's gender significantly affected the long-term outcome of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to provide a cross-gender comparison of a large patient sample from a single regional register. METHODS: The Registry of Prosthetic Orthopedic Implant of Emilia Romagna (RIPO) investigated all primary TKAs performed from July 2000 to December 2020 by collecting data of men and women separately. Primary bicompartmental and tricompartmental TKAs were included. The survival rates and the reasons for revision were assessed to check if any other factor could have influenced implant failure. RESULTS: In total, 66,032 TKAs were included and analysed, comprising 46,774 women and 19,258 men. The 15-year Kaplan-Meier survival percentage was 93.6% for women and 92.5% for men (p = 0.001). Men exhibited a higher revision risk following primary TKA (p = 0.012), particularly when the primary diagnosis was arthritis resulting from rheumatic disorders (p = 0.018) and arthritis following high-tibial osteotomy (p = 0.024). Failure risk was also higher for men below the age of 60 years (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: The long-term outcome in TKA showed significant differences between men and women, with a significantly lower survival rate in men at 15 years, especially when they are under 60 years old or with a diagnosis of rheumatic disorders or arthritis following high-tibial osteotomy. It is necessary to design specific studies to have relevant data concerning gender differences in prosthetic surgery and to customise treatments to improve outcome and patient satisfaction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775010

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe how women academic department chairs in emergency medicine, surgery, and anesthesiology experience humor in the workplace. Method: Interviews were conducted with 35 women department chairs in academic medicine from 27 institutions that aimed to describe women's leadership emergence. The data from the primary study yielded rich and revealing themes involving participants' experiences with humor in the context of their leadership roles, justifying a secondary analysis focusing specifically on these experiences. Relevant remarks were extracted, coded, and summarized. Results: Participants discussed two broad types of humor-related experiences. First, they described how they responded to aggressive gender-based humor directed at themselves or their colleagues by tolerating it or expressing disapproval. This humor includes demeaning quips, insulting monikers, sexist jokes, and derogatory stories. Participants often did not confront this humor directly as they feared being rejected or ostracized by colleagues. Second, they described how they initiated humor to address gender-related workplace issues by highlighting gender inequalities, coping with sexual harassment and assault, and managing gender-based leadership challenges. Participants felt constrained in their own use of humor because of the need to be taken seriously as women leaders. Conclusion: Women leaders in academic medicine use humor to confront gender-related issues and experience aggressive gender-based humor in the workplace. The constraints placed on women leaders discourage them from effectively confronting this aggressive gender-based humor and perpetuating gender inequities. Eliminating aggressive gender-based humor is needed to create safe and equitable work environments in academic medicine.

16.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948241251553, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775312

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the experiences of seeking asylum and its impact on mental health among sexual minority forced migrant cisgender men living in Sweden. METHODS: Exploratory qualitative study based on individual semi-structured interviews with 15 adult gay and bisexual cisgender men recruited via a combination of purposeful, convenience and snowball sampling. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation through a collaborative approach with three migrants with lived experience. RESULTS: Seeking asylum had been an emotionally challenging journey for the participants in this study, involving several procedures that negatively impacted mental health. Being expected to disclose intimate information during asylum interviews had been a significant challenge, alongside needing to wait through long periods in uncertainty with little information about the progress of their asylum case. The behaviours and attitudes of professionals involved in the legal procedures had been a central aspect, as participants encountered interpreters and caseworkers who acted disrespectful and homophobic during asylum interviews. Participants mentioned that the behaviours of interpreters and the accuracy of the interpretation could influence the outcome of asylum claims and how comfortable they felt in sharing information. Thus, participants emphasized the importance of adequate and accurate interpreter services. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority men are faced with an unfamiliar and emotionally challenging position when seeking asylum and undergoing asylum interviews. The findings highlight the importance of adequate competence among professionals involved in asylum interviews, including interpreter utilization. Research is needed to determine effective methods to support these men throughout their asylum process.

17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755431

RESUMO

Academic engagement is vital for college students, yet existing studies reveal inconsistencies in how gender influences academic engagement. Building upon the statistical discrimination theory and identity-based motivation theory, this study develops an integrated model to examine gender differences in college students' academic engagement. Further, the role that gender-role orientation in influencing academic engagement was investigated. Using a sample of 524 college students (Mage = 21.11, SD = 1.98; 47.7% women) from a large university collected in two time periods, the findings indicate that in the Chinese context, women anticipate higher future sex discrimination than men. However, gender-role orientation restores parity between men and women through a moderated mediation: egalitarian gender-role orientation has a stronger effect on women's anticipated future sex discrimination than on men's, resulting in increased academic engagement of women. The findings highlight the need to consider female students' egalitarian beliefs in gender-related academic research.

18.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58426, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765358

RESUMO

Introduction Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a critical condition characterized by reduced blood flow to the heart and includes various conditions such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate age-related patterns of symptoms and risk factors in ACS patients and to evaluate how diagnostic test results differ among various age groups of ACS patients. Methodology This retrospective study was conducted from May to November of 2023 on patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted to the cardiology ward of Rehman Medical Institute (RMI), Peshawar. The sample size was 137 ACS-diagnosed patients based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After getting ethical approval from the institutional ethical approval board, data were collected for the entire year of 2022 based on proforma with the variables demographic data, troponin I level, presented symptoms, and associated co-morbidities of the patients. The inclusion criteria were patients of all genders, patients diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and patients whose records were available in the cardiology department of Rehman Medical Institute.  Results The results show that ACS is more prevalent in the age group of 50-69 years (p=0.037) and is significantly more common in males (p=0.019). Chest pain emerged as the predominant symptom, with a significant association of p=0.029 between chest pain and patients of ACS in the age group 30-49 years. While raised troponin I levels were prevalent across all age groups. Moreover, specific risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and family history of CAD showed the significance of p= 0.04, p=0.006, and p=0.021, respectively, with the age group 50-69 years old. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering age and gender in ACS management and provides insights into age-related patterns of symptoms and risk factors, which can contribute to optimizing preventive strategies and improving patient care. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and assess long-term outcomes in different age groups.

19.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58500, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765451

RESUMO

Background Forensic odontology has emerged as a crucial method for identifying skeletal or dental remains. Due to the restricted accuracy of current techniques for estimating age at death, researchers have endeavored to illustrate age-related alterations in dental hard tissues. Bone remodeling constitutes an ongoing and intricate process throughout our lifespan. It is believed that morphological changes in the mandible during an individual's lifetime are influenced by both dental condition and the individual's age. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of mandibular parameters such as projective ramus height (PRH), maximum ramus breadth (MaRB), bigonial width (BGW), antegonial depth (Ant.D), and antegonial angle (Ant.A), as a gender-determining tool and compare and analyze the mandibular parameter measurements using digital orthopantomography. Methodology In this study, the total number of samples used was 500 out of which 250 were males and 250 were females. Planmeca software (Version 6.0, Planmeca Romexis, Charlotte, NC) was used and the accuracy test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple regression, and discriminant analysis for gender were performed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Results For age estimation, the least standard error of 0.008 was observed for BGW. A maximum standard error of 0.230 was observed for Ant.D. For sex determination, the coefficient function was positive for PRH, BGW, and Ant.A, with values of 0.202, 0.805, and 0.052, respectively. Ant.D and MaRB both exhibited negative values of -0.204 and -0.379, respectively.  Conclusions Out of all the parameters assessed, BGW is the most preferred parameter for age estimation and Ant.A can be preferred for sex estimation. Age and gender can be estimated using the two parameters in the Indian population.

20.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1296955, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756489

RESUMO

Laughter is a universal, nonverbal vocal expression of broad significance for humans. Interestingly, rather little is known about how often we laugh and how laughter is associated with our personality. In a large, event-based, experience sampling method study (N = 52; k = 9,261 assessments) using wrist-worn wearables and a physical analogue scale, we analyzed belly laughs and fit of laughter events in participants' everyday life for 4 weeks. Additionally, we assessed associations with laughter frequency such as personality, happiness, life satisfaction, gelotophobia (i.e., fear of being laughed at), and cheerfulness. Validating our new measurement approach (i.e., wearables, physical analogue scale), laughter events elicited higher happiness ratings compared to reference assessments, as expected. On average, participants reported 2.5 belly laughs per day and on every fourth day a fit of laughter. As expected, participants who were happier and more satisfied with their life laughed more frequently than unhappier, unsatisfied participants. Women and younger participants laughed significantly more than men and older participants. Regarding personality, laughter frequency was positively associated with openness and conscientiousness. No significant association was found for gelotophobia, and results for cheerfulness and related concepts were mixed. By using state-of-the-art statistical methods (i.e., recurrent event regression) for the event-based, multi-level data on laughter, we could replicate past results on laughing.

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