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1.
Ann Bot ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Five species of cotton (Gossypium) were exposed to 38°C days during early vegetative development. Commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was contrasted with four wild cotton species (G. australe, G. bickii, G. robinsonii and G. sturtianum) that are endemic to central and northern Australia. METHODS: Plants were grown at daytime maxima of 30°C or 38°C for 25 d, commencing at the four-leaf stage. Leaf areas and shoot biomass were used to calculate relative rates of growth and specific leaf areas. Leaf gas exchange measurements revealed assimilation and transpiration rates, as well as electron transport rates (ETR) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in steady-state conditions. Finally, leaf morphological traits (mean leaf area and leaf shape were quantified), along with leaf surface decorations, imaged using scanning electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Shoot morphology was differentially affected by heat, with three of the four wild species growing faster at 38°C than at 30°C, whereas early growth in G. hirsutum was severely inhibited by heat. Areas of individual leaves and leaf numbers both contributed to these contrasting growth responses, with fewer, smaller leaves at 38°C in G. hirsutum. CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates of G. hirsutum were also dramatically reduced by heat. Cultivated cotton failed to achieve evaporative cooling, contrasting with the transpiration-driven cooling in the wild species. Heat substantially reduced ETR and CE in G. hirsutum, with much smaller effects in the wild species. We speculate that leaf shape, as assessed by invaginations of leaf margins, and leaf size contributed to heat dispersal differentially among the five species. Similarly, reflectance of light radiation was also highly distinctive for each species. CONCLUSIONS: These four wild Australian relatives of cotton have adapted to hot days that are inhibitory to commercial cotton, deploying a range of physiological and structural adaptations to achieve accelerated growth at 38°C.

2.
Exp Physiol ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980930

RESUMO

Prematurity has physical consequences, such as lower birth weight, decreased muscle mass and increased risk of adult-onset metabolic disease. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has therapeutic potential to improve the growth and quality of muscle and tendon in premature births, and thus attenuate some of these sequalae. We investigated the effect of IGF-1 on extensor carpi radialis muscle and biceps brachii tendon of preterm piglets. The preterm group consisted of 19-day-old preterm (10 days early) piglets, treated with either IGF-1 or vehicle. Term controls consisted of groups of 9-day-old piglets (D9) and 19-day-old piglets (D19). Muscle samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to determine the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibres, fibre type composition, satellite cell content and central nuclei-containing fibres in the muscle. Tendon samples were analysed for CSA, collagen content and maturation, and vascularization. Gene expression of the tendon was measured by RT-qPCR. Across all endpoints, we found no significant effect of IGF-1 treatment on preterm piglets. Preterm piglets had smaller muscle fibre CSA compared to D9 and D19 control group. Satellite cell content was similar across all groups. For tendon, we found an effect of age on tendon CSA, and mRNA levels of COL1A1, tenomodulin and scleraxis. Immunoreactivity for elastin and CD31, and several markers of tendon maturation, were increased in D9 compared to the preterm piglets. Collagen content was similar across groups. IGF-1 treatment of preterm-born piglets does not influence the growth and maturation of skeletal muscle and tendon.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2401588, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981023

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are escalating global health concerns. Despite their distinct clinical presentations, both disorders share intricate genetic and molecular interactions. The Hippo signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating cell processes and is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and CRC. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have gained attention for their roles in various diseases, including IBD and CRC. However, a comprehensive understanding of specific circRNAs involved in both IBD and CRC, and their functional roles is lacking. Here, it is found that circHIPK2 (hsa_circRNA_104507) is a bona fide circRNA consistently upregulated in both IBD and CRC suggesting its potential as a biomarker. Furthermore, silencing of circHIPK2 suppressed the growth of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, decreased circHipk2 potentiated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis but alleviated colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Most significantly, mechanistic investigations further unveil that circHIPK2, mediated by FUS, interacting with EIF4A3 to promote the translation of TAZ, ultimately increasing the transcription of downstream target genes CCN1 and CCN2. Taken together, circHIPK2 emerges as a key player in the shared mechanisms of IBD and CRC, modulating the Hippo signaling pathway. CircHIPK2-EIF4A3 axis contributes to cell growth in intestinal epithelial of colitis and CRC by enhancing TAZ translation.

4.
J Physiol ; 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975864

RESUMO

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs in 8% of human pregnancies, and the growth restricted newborn is at a greater risk of developing heart disease in later adult life. In sheep, experimental restriction of placental growth (PR) from conception results in FGR, a decrease in cardiomyocyte endowment and an upregulation of pathological hypertrophic signalling in the fetal heart in late gestation. However, there is no change in the expression of markers of cellular proliferation nor in the level of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the heart of the PR fetus in late gestation. This suggests that FGR arises early in gestation and programs a decrease in cardiomyocyte endowment in early, rather than late, gestation. Here, control and PR fetal sheep were humanely killed at 55 days' gestation (term, 150 days). Fetal body and heart weight were lower in PR compared with control fetuses and there was evidence of sparing of fetal brain growth. While there was no change in the proportion of cardiomyocytes that were proliferating in the early gestation PR heart, there was an increase in measures of apoptosis, and markers of autophagy and pathological hypertrophy in the PR fetal heart. These changes in early gestation highlight that FGR is associated with evidence of early cell death and compensatory hypertrophic responses of cardiomyocytes in the fetal heart. The data suggest that early placental restriction results in a decrease in the pool of proliferative cardiomyocytes in early gestation, which would limit cardiomyocyte endowment in the heart of the PR fetus in late gestation. KEY POINTS: Placental restriction leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR) and chronic fetal hypoxaemia in sheep results in a decrease in cardiomyocyte endowment in late gestation. FGR did not change cardiomyocyte proliferation during early gestation but did result in increased apoptosis and markers of autophagy in the fetal heart, which may result in the decreased endowment of cardiomyocytes observed in late gestation. FGR in early gestation also results in increased hypoxia inducible factor signalling in the fetal heart, which in turn may result in the altered expression of epigenetic regulators, increased expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during late gestation and after birth.

5.
New Phytol ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952260

RESUMO

Securing agricultural supplies for the increasing population without negative impacts on environment demands new crop varieties with higher yields, better quality, and stronger stress resilience. But breeding such super crop varieties is restrained by growth-defense (G-D) trade-off. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are versatile regulators of plant growth and immune responses, with several being demonstrated to simultaneously regulate crop growth and defense against biotic stresses and to balance G-D trade-off. Increasing evidence also links miRNAs to the metabolism and signaling of phytohormones, another type of master regulator of plant growth and defense. Here, we synthesize the reported functions of miRNAs in crop growth, development, and responses to bio-stressors, summarize the regulatory scenarios of miRNAs based on their relationship with target(s), and discuss how miRNAs, particularly those involved in crosstalk with phytohormones, can be applied in balancing G-D trade-off in crops. We also propose several open questions to be addressed for adopting miRNAs in balancing crop G-D trade-off.

6.
J Exp Bot ; 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970333

RESUMO

Autopolyploidization, which refers to a polyploidization via genome duplication without a hybridization, promotes growth in autotetraploids, but suppresses growth in high-polyploids (autohexaploids or autooctoploids). The mechanism underlying this growth suppression (i.e., "high-ploidy syndrome") has not been comprehensively characterized. In this study, we conducted a kinematic analysis of the root apical meristem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana autopolyploids (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid) to determine the effects of the progression of genome duplication on root growth. The results of the root growth analysis showed that tetraploidization increases the cell volume, but decreases cell proliferation. However, cell proliferation and volume growth are suppressed in high-polyploids. The whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed extensive chromosome polytenization in the region where cell proliferation does not usually occur in the high-polyploid roots, which is likely at least partly correlated with the suppression of endoreduplication. The study findings suggest that chromosome polytenization is important for the suppressed growth of high-polyploids.

7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(13): e18523, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957039

RESUMO

This research explores the role of microRNA in senescence of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by replication. Hsa-miR-134-5p was found up-regulated in senescent EPCs where overexpression improved angiogenic activity. Hsa-miR-134-5p, which targeted transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase 1-binding protein 1 (TAB1) gene, down-regulated TAB1 protein, and inhibited phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) in hsa-miR-134-5p-overexpressed senescent EPCs. Treatment with siRNA specific to TAB1 (TAB1si) down-regulated TAB1 protein and subsequently inhibited p38 activation in senescent EPCs. Treatment with TAB1si and p38 inhibitor, respectively, showed angiogenic improvement. In parallel, transforming growth factor Beta 1 (TGF-ß1) was down-regulated in hsa-miR-134-5p-overexpressed senescent EPCs and addition of TGF-ß1 suppressed the angiogenic improvement. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) disclosed expression levels of hsa-miR-134-5p altered in adult life, reaching a peak before 65 years, and then falling in advanced age. Calculation of the Framingham risk score showed the score inversely correlates with the hsa-miR-134-5p expression level. In summary, hsa-miR-134-5p is involved in the regulation of senescence-related change of angiogenic activity via TAB1-p38 signalling and via TGF-ß1 reduction. Hsa-miR-134-5p has a potential cellular rejuvenation effect in human senescent EPCs. Detection of human PBMC-derived hsa-miR-134-5p predicts cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Senescência Celular , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais , Leucócitos Mononucleares , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Feminino , Idoso , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Adulto , Fatores de Risco
8.
IUCrJ ; 11(Pt 4): 438-439, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958012

RESUMO

From its conception, X-ray crystallography has provided a unique understanding of the structure, bonding and electronic state of materials, which, in turn, unlocks a means of examining the properties and function of crystalline systems. Using state-of-the-art single-crystal X-ray diffraction, along with UV-Vis spectroscopy and DFT calculations, Zwolenik et al. [(2024). IUCrJ, 11, 519-527] have provided a comprehensive study of the structure-optical property relationship of 1,3-diacetylpyrene with methodologies that are increasingly accessible to non-specialist laboratories.

9.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 13(5): 1881-1886, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948572

RESUMO

Background: Dysphagia can involve any structure from the mouth to the lower esophageal sphincter. The etiologies vary from benign causes to malignant lesions. There is dearth of data regarding dysphagia in our population. Methods: A total of 208 patients with complaints of dysphagia were screened for the study. After ruling out neurological/local oropharyngeal causes of dysphagia, 200 patients with suspected esophageal dysphagia (ED) were recruited in the study. Dysphagia was graded as per the dysphagia scoring system. All patients underwent upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and were evaluated for the presence of mechanical and non-mechanical causes of ED. Results: The mean age of patients with dysphagia was 53.8 ± 15.4 years. with males and females being 82 and 118, respectively. The mean duration of the symptom was 7.2 ± 10.6 months (median 3 months). Ninety-eight patients (49%) having dysphagia were in the age group of 56-65 years. The dysphagia score was 0 among 58, and 4 among 26 subjects. Foreign body sensation was the most frequent chief complaint in 90 (45%) patients. Ninety-six (48%) and 104 (52%) patients had mechanical and non-mechanical causes of dysphagia, respectively. Among mechanical causes of dysphagia, 68 patients (70.8%) had esophageal growth and 28 (29.2%) had esophageal stricture. Sixty-seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Among non-mechanical causes, 50 (48.1%) had globus sensation, 24 (23.1%) had hiatus hernia, and 16 (15.4%) functional dysphagia. Conclusion: Dysphagia is a common problem with varied etiologies. The esophageal growth and globus sensation are among the predominant causes of ED. We stress that all patients of dysphagia must be meticulously investigated.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1391348, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952849

RESUMO

Introduction: Arsenate, a metalloid, acting as an analog to phosphate, has a tendency to accumulate more readily in plant species, leading to adverse effects. Methods: In the current study, sunflower seedlings were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 ppm of the arsenic. Results: Likewise, a notable reduction (p<0.05) was observed in the relative growth rate (RGR) by 4-folds and net assimilation rate (NAR) by 75% of Helianthus annuus when subjected to arsenic (As) stress. Nevertheless, the presence of Staphylococcus arlettae, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with As tolerance, yielded an escalation in the growth of H. annuus within As-contaminated media. S. arlettae facilitated the conversion of As into a form accessible to plants, thereby, increasing its uptake and subsequent accumulation in plant tissues. S. arlettae encouraged the enzymatic antioxidant systems (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (flavonoids, phenolics, and glutathione) in H. annuus seedlings following substantial As accumulation. The strain also induced the host plant to produce osmolytes like proline and sugars, mitigating water loss and maintaining cellular osmotic balance under As-induced stress. S. arlettae rectified imbalances in lignin content, reduced high malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, and minimized electrolyte leakage, thus counteracting the toxic impacts of the metal. Conclusion: The strain exhibited the capability to concurrently encourage plant growth and remediate Ascontaminated growth media through 2-folds rate of biotransformation and bio-mobilization.

11.
BJOG ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify current practices in the management of selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: International. POPULATION: Clinicians involved in the management of MCDA twin pregnancies with sFGR. METHODS: A structured, self-administered survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical practices and attitudes to diagnostic criteria and management strategies. RESULTS: Overall, 62.8% (113/180) of clinicians completed the survey; of which, 66.4% (75/113) of the respondents reported that they would use an estimated fetal weight (EFW) of <10th centile for the smaller twin and an inter-twin EFW discordance of >25% for the diagnosis of sFGR. For early-onset type I sFGR, 79.8% (75/94) of respondents expressed that expectant management would be their routine practice. On the other hand, for early-onset type II and type III sFGR, 19.3% (17/88) and 35.7% (30/84) of respondents would manage these pregnancies expectantly, whereas 71.6% (63/88) and 57.1% (48/84) would refer these pregnancies to a fetal intervention centre or would offer fetal intervention for type II and type III cases, respectively. Moreover, 39.0% (16/41) of the respondents would consider fetoscopic laser surgery (FLS) for early-onset type I sFGR, whereas 41.5% (17/41) would offer either FLS or selective feticide, and 12.2% (5/41) would exclusively offer selective feticide. For early-onset type II and type III sFGR cases, 25.9% (21/81) and 31.4% (22/70) would exclusively offer FLS, respectively, whereas 33.3% (27/81) and 32.9% (23/70) would exclusively offer selective feticide. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variation in clinician practices and attitudes towards the management of early-onset sFGR in MCDA twin pregnancies, especially for type II and type III cases, highlighting the need for high-level evidence to guide management.

12.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 312, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand factors affecting visual prognosis and the number of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections needed to stabilize wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, 119 treatment-naïve wet AMD patients were followed for two years. In patients with bilateral disease, the eye with worse best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) or that received more intravitreal injections was recruited as the study eye. In all visits, BCVA was recorded, ophthalmological examination was performed including macular optical coherence tomography imaging. Twenty health status/lifestyle questions were asked to the patients via phone as potential risk factors. All patients received 3 loading doses of intravitreal bevacizumab injections and received repeat injections of aflibercept or ranibizumab when the eye had a new, active neovascular lesion. RESULTS: Patients who took regular micronutrition had similar visual outcome and injection numbers compared to the ones who did not. Patients with bilateral disease needed less intravitreal injections compared to unilateral AMD patients (p = 0.016) and women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) required less injections compared to the women who were not (p = 0.024). Female patients had a mean gain of 2.7 letters while male patients lost 3.8 letters (p = 0.038). Wet AMD started at an earlier age in smokers (p = 0.002). Patients with a better education level presented earlier with better BCVA (p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: HRT and anti-VEGF injections to the fellow eye improved the prognosis of wet AMD, while male patients had slightly worse prognosis. Estrogen's protective effects and potential contribution in wet AMD needs further attention. Retrospectively registered: 2020/0622.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Bevacizumab , Injeções Intravítreas , Ranibizumab , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Ranibizumab/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Prognóstico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos
13.
Environ Health ; 23(1): 60, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and maternal social hardships are individually associated with impaired fetal growth, but it is unclear whether the effects of environmental chemical exposure on infant birth weight are modified by maternal hardships. METHODS: We used data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a pan-Canadian cohort of 1982 pregnant females enrolled between 2008 and 2011. We quantified eleven environmental chemical concentrations from two chemical classes - six organochlorine compounds (OCs) and five metals - that were detected in ≥ 70% of blood samples collected during the first trimester. We examined fetal growth using birth weight adjusted for gestational age and assessed nine maternal hardships by questionnaire. Each maternal hardship variable was dichotomized to indicate whether the females experienced the hardship. In our analysis, we used elastic net to select the environmental chemicals, maternal hardships, and 2-way interactions between maternal hardships and environmental chemicals that were most predictive of birth weight. Next, we obtained effect estimates using multiple linear regression, and plotted the relationships by hardship status for visual interpretation. RESULTS: Elastic net selected trans-nonachlor, lead, low educational status, racially minoritized background, and low supplemental folic acid intake. All were inversely associated with birth weight. Elastic net also selected interaction terms. Among those with increasing environmental chemical exposures and reported hardships, we observed stronger negative associations and a few positive associations. For example, every two-fold increase in lead concentrations was more strongly associated with reduced infant birth weight among participants with low educational status (ß = -100 g (g); 95% confidence interval (CI): -215, 16), than those with higher educational status (ß = -34 g; 95% CI: -63, -3). In contrast, every two-fold increase in mercury concentrations was associated with slightly higher birth weight among participants with low educational status (ß = 23 g; 95% CI: -25, 71) compared to those with higher educational status (ß = -9 g; 95% CI: -24, 6). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal hardships can modify the associations of gestational exposure to some OCs and metals with infant birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Exposição Materna , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Canadá , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Metais/sangue , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos de Coortes , Masculino
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 275(Pt 1): 133557, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955293

RESUMO

Autologous or allogeneic bone tissue grafts remain the mainstay of treatment for clinical bone defects. However, the risk of infection and donor scarcity in bone grafting pose challenges to the process. Therefore, the development of excellent biomaterial grafts is of great clinical importance for the repair of bone defects. In this study, we used gas-assisted microfluidics to construct double-cross-linked hydrogel microspheres with good biological function based on the ionic cross-linking of Cu2+ with alginate and photo-cross-linking of gelatin methacryloylamide (GelMA) by loading vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and His-tagged bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) (AGMP@VEGF&BMP2). The Cu2+ component in the microspheres showed good antibacterial and drug-release behavior, whereas VEGF and BMP2 effectively promoted angiogenesis and bone tissue repair. In in vitro and in vivo experiments, the dual cross-linked hydrogel microspheres showed good biological function and biocompatibility. These results demonstrate that AGMP@VEGF&BMP2 microspheres could be used as a bone defect graft substitute to promote effective healing of bone defects and may be applied to other tissue engineering studies.

15.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1389738, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974336

RESUMO

The experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of different ratios of Clostridium autoethanogenum protein (CAP) used in the diets on the growth performance, muscle quality, serum indexes, and mTOR pathway of white feather broilers. Four hundred and eighty 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, comprising equal numbers of males and females, were randomly assigned to one of four treatments, and each treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 10 birds. Four diets were formulated based on isoenergetic and isonitrogenous principles. The control group (CAP 0) did not receive any CAP, while the experimental groups received 2% (CAP 2), 3% (CAP 3), and 4% (CAP 4) of CAP for six weeks. Compared with the CAP0, (1) The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower (p < 0.05), and the leg muscle yield was higher (p < 0.05) in the CAP3 and CAP4; (2) The serum levels of TP, ALB, T-AOC, and SOD were improved in the CAP3 (p < 0.05); (3) The expression of Lipin-1 gene was down-regulated and AMPKɑ2, Akt, and 4E-BP1 genes were up-regulated in the experiment group (p < 0.05); (4) The inclusion of 3% CAP in the diet increased the levels of 4E-BP1, S6K1, Akt, and AMPKɑ2 phosphorylation by modulating the mTOR signaling pathway (p < 0.05). In conclusion, broiler diets containing 3% CAP can activate the mTOR signaling pathway to promote muscle synthesis and improve growth performance.

16.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1424855, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974335

RESUMO

Probiotics are a group of active microorganisms that form colonies within the body and alter the composition of the flora in a specific area to provide benefits to the host. In this study, a total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire weaned piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 8.56 ± 0.53 kg were employed in a randomized complete block design for a 28-day experiment. Pigs were randomly divided into two treatment groups: the control group (CON) and the complex probiotic group (CON + 0.2% probiotics), respectively. The study found that through the 28-day experiment, the average daily gain (ADG) of the complex probiotic group was significantly higher than that of the CON (p < 0.05). However, compared with the CON, the feed conversion efficiency significantly decreased on days 0-14 (p < 0.05). The addition of dietary complex probiotic significantly increased the villus height (VH) of duodenum and ileum, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces, and decreased fecal methyl mercaptans, acetic acid, and CO2 (p < 0.05). It concluded that feeding weaned piglets 0.2% complex probiotic increased the VH of duodenum and ileum, as well as changed the content of SCFAs in feces. This ultimately led to an increase in ADG.

17.
Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod ; 17(1): 93, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are classified into three types based on their enzyme structures. Among them, type III PKSs, catalyzing the iterative condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) with a CoA-linked starter molecule, are important synthases of valuable natural products. However, low efficiency and byproducts formation often limit their applications in recombinant overproduction. RESULTS: Herein, a rapid growth selection system is designed based on the accumulation and derepression of toxic acyl-CoA starter molecule intermediate products, which could be potentially applicable to most type III polyketides biosynthesis. This approach is validated by engineering both chalcone synthases (CHS) and host cell genome, to improve naringenin productions in Escherichia coli. From directed evolution of key enzyme CHS, beneficial mutant with ~ threefold improvement in capability of naringenin biosynthesis was selected and characterized. From directed genome evolution, effect of thioesterases on CHS catalysis is first discovered, expanding our understanding of byproduct formation mechanism in type III PKSs. Taken together, a whole-cell catalyst producing 1082 mg L-1 naringenin in flask with E value (evaluating product specificity) improved from 50.1% to 96.7% is obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The growth selection system has greatly contributed to both enhanced activity and discovery of byproduct formation mechanism in CHS. This research provides new insights in the catalytic mechanisms of CHS and sheds light on engineering highly efficient heterologous bio-factories to produce naringenin, and potentially more high-value type III polyketides, with minimized byproducts formation.

18.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 15(1): 91, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Broilers stand out as one of the fastest-growing livestock globally, making a substantial contribution to animal meat production. However, the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the rapid growth and development of broiler chickens are still unclear. This study aims to explore muscle development patterns and regulatory networks during the postnatal rapid growth phase of fast-growing broilers. We measured the growth performance of Cornish (CC) and White Plymouth Rock (RR) over a 42-d period. Pectoral muscle samples from both CC and RR were randomly collected at day 21 after hatching (D21) and D42 for RNA-seq and ATAC-seq library construction. RESULTS: The consistent increase in body weight and pectoral muscle weight across both breeds was observed as they matured, with CC outpacing RR in terms of weight at each stage of development. Differential expression analysis identified 398 and 1,129 genes in the two dimensions of breeds and ages, respectively. A total of 75,149 ATAC-seq peaks were annotated in promoter, exon, intron and intergenic regions, with a higher number of peaks in the promoter and intronic regions. The age-biased genes and breed-biased genes of RNA-seq were combined with the ATAC-seq data for subsequent analysis. The results spotlighted the upregulation of ACTC1 and FDPS at D21, which were primarily associated with muscle structure development by gene cluster enrichment. Additionally, a noteworthy upregulation of MUSTN1, FOS and TGFB3 was spotted in broiler chickens at D42, which were involved in cell differentiation and muscle regeneration after injury, suggesting a regulatory role of muscle growth and repair. CONCLUSIONS: This work provided a regulatory network of postnatal broiler chickens and revealed ACTC1 and MUSTN1 as the key responsible for muscle development and regeneration. Our findings highlight that rapid growth in broiler chickens triggers ongoing muscle damage and subsequent regeneration. These findings provide a foundation for future research to investigate the functional aspects of muscle development.

19.
Explor Target Antitumor Ther ; 5(3): 568-580, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966165

RESUMO

Background: This article is based on our previous research, which was presented at the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting I and published in Journal of Clinical Oncology as Conference Abstract (JCO. 2023;41:e16148. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2023.41.16_suppl.e16148). Both anti-programmed death 1/ligand-1 (PD-1/L1) antibody + anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody (A + A) and anti-PD-1/L1 antibody + VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (A + T) are effective first-line therapies for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there lacks evidence from head-to-head comparisons between these two treatments. We conducted a network meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of them. Methods: After a rigorous literature research, 6 phase III trials were identified for the final analysis, including IMbrave150, ORIENT-32, COSMIC-312, CARES-310, LEAP-002, and REFLECT. The experiments were classified into three groups: A + A, A + T, and intermediate reference group. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and incidence of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for OS and PFS, odds ratio (OR) for ORR, and relative risk (RR) for all grade and grade ≥3 TRAEs were calculated. Under Bayesian framework, the meta-analysis was conducted using sorafenib as intermediate reference. Results: With the rank probability of 96%, A + A showed the greatest reduction in the risk of death, without significant difference from A + T (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.65-1.04). A + T showed the greatest effect in prolonging PFS and improving ORR with the rank probability of 77%, but there were no statistical differences with A + A. A + A was safer than A + T in terms of all grade of TRAEs (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.82-1.00) and particularly in those grade ≥3 (RR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54-0.77). Conclusions: A + A had the greatest probability of delivering the longest OS, while A + T was correlated with larger PFS benefits at the cost of a lower safety rate.

20.
Explor Target Antitumor Ther ; 5(3): 449-464, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966183

RESUMO

Recently, the development of targeted therapy approaches such as those based on tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) greatly improved the clinical outcomes of patients affected by oncogene addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Similarly, the improvement of radiation therapy techniques has permitted to deliver high radiation doses to a limited number of metastatic target lesions (oligopersistent or oligoprogressive), with limited high-dose normal tissue exposure that leads to low severe toxicity rates. The aim of this narrative review was to provide an overview of the currently established definition of oligometastatic and oligoprogressive disease, to define first line and subsequent lines targeted therapies and the role of consolidative non-invasive local ablative treatments (LATs) in these settings. The potential benefit of local treatment (LT) such as radiotherapy (RT) or surgery might be represented by an overall reduction of switching to subsequent systemic treatments lowering the risk of further systemic dissemination. Further randomized clinical trials will clarify the role of LT and their correct timing in relation to systemic targeted therapies.

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