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1.
J Med Access ; 8: 27550834231222382, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306366

RESUMO

Background: Health literacy proficiency is essential for health care professionals to provide quality patient care. There is limited research exploring health literacy proficiency among undergraduate health science students. Objectives: To determine health literacy among health science students in Singapore using the electronic Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Design: A cross-sectional survey using purposive sampling was conducted among undergraduate health science students. Methodology: This study hypothesises that health literacy is influenced by gender, and it increases with the level of health science education, attributed to the increased exposure to the health care system and health care education as undergraduates progress through the years of study. Eligible students from the 4-year entry-level programmes of diagnostic radiography, dietetics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy and speech and language therapy, aged from 21 to 50, were invited. Exclusion criteria were students who were no longer studying due to dropping out or having immediately graduated from these programmes and students in the accelerated programmes whose studies would be completed in less than 4 years. Results: In total, 111 respondents (72 females and 37 males) completed surveys (response rate, 7.7%) returned from physiotherapy (n = 69), occupational therapy (n = 25), diagnostic radiography (n = 12) and dietetics (n = 5), with nil from radiation therapy and speech and language therapy. All participants were English literate. Female participants demonstrated higher HLQ with a mean total score of 30.67 (standard deviation (SD) = 0.61) versus male participants 29.83 (SD = 0.53). Year 2, 3 and 4 students generally scored higher than Year 1 across all nine HLQ scales. Overall, dietetics students had the highest total score on the HLQ, while the diagnostic radiography students had the lowest scores for all the nine HLQ scales. Conclusion: This study established the health literacy level of health science students in Singapore. Gender and years of study influenced health literacy levels, supporting the hypothesis.


Background: Health care professionals need to understand health information well to provide good patient care. There is little research on how well health science students understand health information. Objectives: This study aims to determine how well health science students in Singapore understand health information using a questionnaire known as the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Design: The study surveyed health science students. Methodology: The study explored if the understanding of health information is influenced by gender and increases with more years of health science education. This is because students get more exposure to the health care system and education as they continue their studies. Students from various health science programmes aged 21 to 50 were invited to participate. Students who had dropped out or just graduated and were in accelerated programmes were excluded. Results: The survey was completed by 111 students (72 females and 37 males) from physiotherapy, occupational therapy, diagnostic radiography and dietetics. No students from radiation therapy and speech and language therapy participated. All participants could read and write in English. Female participants scored higher on the questionnaire than male participants. Students scored higher in their second, third and fourth years than in their first year of study. Dietetics students scored the highest overall, while diagnostic radiography scored the lowest. Conclusion: This study reported the level of understanding of health information among health science students in Singapore. The level of understanding was influenced by gender and years of study. Key messages: • Establishing the health literacy level of health science students in Singapore is important.• Senior students tend to have better health literacy compared with junior students.• Navigating the health care system and obtaining support from health care providers are areas where students can benefit from health literacy education.• Educational materials should be optimised to address potential health literacy deficits and ensure high literacy levels upon graduation.


Survey on the level of health information understanding among the health science students in Singapore.

2.
Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-7978

RESUMO

This study, a Doctorate Research excerpt, aimed to map the effects of an on-line pedagogical intervention guided on physical activity (PA) self-regulatory strategies during the pandemic at a public school. This is qualitative Research, of the pedagogical intervention type using an educational tool. 35 high school students (14 to 17 years old) were interviewed in 8 on-line focus groups. The software IRaMuTeQ was employed to interpret data. The results were organized in six classes: "Diary as in incentive to PA", "Strategies to increase motivation", "Choices and PA sociostructural factors", "How preferences and social support influences PA", "Goals and self-assessment reflections", "PA monitoring". Previously inactive, insufficiently active students (who identified themselves with the educational tool´s character) felt more confident to engage in PA (positive effect) using strategies taught in the intervention (PA diary). Previously physically active students rated the intervention effects as neutral, but praised critical debates on social inequalities and PA. During the intervention, some students employed simple self-regulatory strategies (graded goals), while others did not employ any due to not being something intuitive, lack of motivation, forgetting. This pedagogical intervention seems to be effective to teach the conceptual interfaces between PA, psychology, and society.


En este estudio, que forma parte de una investigación de Doctorado, nos propusimos mapear los efectos de una intervención pedagógica en línea anclada en estrategias autorreguladoras de actividad física (AF) durante la pandemia en un instituto público. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, del tipo intervención pedagógica con ayuda de recurso didáctico. Se realizaron 8 entrevistas semiestructuradas en grupo en línea con 35 alumnos (14 a 17 años) de la enseñanza secundaria. Se utilizó el software IRaMuTeQ para interpretar los datos. Los resultados se organizaron en seis clases: "Diario como estímulo para AF", "Estrategias para aumentar la motivación", "Elecciones y factores socioestructurales para AF", "Influencia del gusto y del incentivo para AF", "Reflexiones sobre metas y autoevaluación", "Monitoreo de la AF". Alumnos anteriormente inactivos o poco activos (identificados con el personaje del recurso didáctico) se sintieron más seguros para practicar AF (efecto positivo) con estrategias enseñadas en la intervención (diario de AF). Los estudiantes físicamente activos atribuyeron un efecto neutro a la intervención, pero valoraron las reflexiones críticas sobre las desigualdades sociales y la AF. Algunos estudiantes emplearon estrategias sencillas de autorregulación (metas graduales) de forma más consistente durante la intervención, mientras que otros no las emplearon porque: no eran intuitivas; les faltó motivación; se olvidaron de hacerlo. La intervención pedagógica parece ser eficaz para la enseñanza conceptual de las interfaces entre AF, psicología y sociedad.


Neste estudo, recorte de uma pesquisa de Doutorado, objetivou-se mapear os efeitos de uma intervenção pedagógica on-line ancorada em estratégias autorregulatórias de atividade física (AF) durante a pandemia em um colégio público. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo intervenção pedagógica com auxílio de recurso didático. Foram realizadas 8 entrevistas semiestruturadas em grupo on-line com 35 estudantes (14 a 17 anos) do Ensino Médio. Utilizou-se o software IRaMuTeQ para interpretar os dados. Os resultados foram organizados em seis classes: "Diário como estímulo para AF", "Estratégias para aumentar a motivação", "Escolhas e fatores socioestruturais para AF", "Influência do gosto e do incentivo para AF", "Reflexões sobre metas e autoavaliação", "Monitoramento da AF". Estudantes previamente inativos ou pouco ativos (identificados com o personagem do recurso didático) sentiram-se mais confiantes para praticar AF (efeito positivo) com estratégias ensinadas na intervenção (diário de AF). Estudantes ativos fisicamente atribuíram efeito neutro à intervenção, mas valorizaram as reflexões críticas sobre as desigualdades sociais e a AF. Alguns estudantes empregaram estratégias autorregulatórias simples (metas graduais) mais consistentemente durante a intervenção, enquanto outros não as empregaram por: não ser algo intuitivo; falta de motivação; esquecimento. A intervenção pedagógica parece ser eficaz para o ensino conceitual das interfaces entre AF, psicologia e sociedade.

3.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e080881, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: E-cigarettes have gained popularity, especially among young adults. This study aims to determine the prevalence of e-cigarette smoking, assess knowledge and attitudes and identify associated factors among Palestinian university students. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted among Palestinian university students in early 2023.A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey 1792 students from six Palestine universities in the West Bank. The questionnaire covered various aspects, including sociodemographic information, daily habits, exposure to smoking, attitudes and knowledge about e-cigarettes. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, χ2 tests and multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: The study revealed a high prevalence of tobacco use (41.2%), with e-cigarette use prevalent among 19.7% of participants. Knowledge about e-cigarettes was suboptimal, with misconceptions regarding their safety and health effects. Negative attitudes towards e-cigarettes were common, and students with negative attitudes were more likely to use e-cigarettes (aOR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.9 to 3.6). Gender (aOR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.0), waterpipe smoking (aOR=4.5, 95% CI: 3.2 to 6.3), physical inactivity (aOR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9), high coffee consumption (aOR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.3), spending time with friends (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.7), having a mother who is a smoker (aOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2) and having a friend who uses e-cigarettes (aOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.1) were significantly associated with e-cigarettes use. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use is a growing concern among Palestinian university students. Combating this trend should include educational initiatives, social interventions and policy measures to promote informed decision-making and discourage e-cigarette use. Comprehensive tobacco control programs considering various tobacco and nicotine products and involving multiple stakeholders are warranted.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Vaping/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Árabes , Estudantes
4.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54164, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee poses a significant public health challenge, with its prevalence escalating globally. This study addresses a critical knowledge gap by investigating the awareness and perceptions of knee OA in the Northern Borders Region, Saudi Arabia, focusing on demographic factors that may influence community perspectives. STUDY AIM: The primary aim of this cross-sectional study is to comprehensively examine the awareness and perceptions of knee OA, exploring the influence of demographic variables, including region, gender, age, nationality, and educational levels. METHODOLOGY: A total of 501 participants from various cities in the Northern Borders Region, Saudi Arabia, were enrolled in this study. Demographic characteristics, including region, gender, age, nationality, and educational levels, were documented. A structured survey instrument was utilized to collect data on awareness and perceptions of knee OA. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression to explore associations. RESULTS: Demographic insights revealed a predominance of participants from Arar (37.50%) and Rafha (36.50%), with a nearly equal gender distribution (52.90% male, 47.10% female). The majority fell within the 31-45 age group (37.50%), and 97.60% were Saudi nationals. Educational levels varied, with 55.30% holding a bachelor's degree. Awareness levels indicated that 75.40% recognized obesity as a significant factor in knee OA. Significant associations were found between gender and acknowledgment of obesity (p = 0.021), as well as between age and awareness of obesity (p = 0.040). Non-Saudi participants exhibited a higher awareness of knee injury as a reason for arthritis (p = 0.028). Educational levels demonstrated significant associations with awareness of rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.012), growing old as a reason for knee arthritis (p = 0.002), and various preventive measures and treatment options. CONCLUSION: This study provides a nuanced understanding of knee OA awareness and perceptions in the Northern Borders Region, Saudi Arabia. The high recognition of obesity as a risk factor, coupled with demographic variations, highlights the need for tailored health education interventions. Addressing gender-specific, age-related, and educational disparities is crucial for promoting effective community-wide initiatives to prevent and manage knee OA.

5.
Physiother Theory Pract ; : 1-11, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a health problem worldwide. To prevent it, experts recommend exercise and education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a Back School-based intervention for the prevention of nonspecific neck pain in a healthy adult population. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 58 participants with no history of neck pain within the past six months. The experimental group performed an 8-week Back School-based program. The control group maintained their usual lifestyle. Primary outcomes, which include the number of episodes, days and intensity of neck pain, and the number of medical visits, were recorded in a 1-year follow-up diary and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Secondary outcomes, such as neck flexor, neck extensor, and scapular muscles endurance, were analyzed using the ANOVA test. RESULTS: In the analysis of the primary outcomes, no significant differences were found in the number of episodes (p = 0.068,d = -0.49), number of days (p = 0.059,d = -0.54), or the average intensity of neck pain (p = 0.061,d = -0.53). There were significant changes in the number of medical visits (p = 0.033,d = -0.57). Moving to secondary outcomes, significant interactions were observed in neck flexor (p = 0.045, ηp2 = 0.036) and neck extensor endurance (p = 0.049, ηp2 = 0.035), but not in scapular muscle endurance (p = 0.536, ηp2 = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The Back School-based program reduced the number of medical visits and increased the endurance of the cervical musculature. Trial registration in ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05260645.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal medication adherence is common among patients with cardiovascular diseases. We sought evidence on non-pharmacological interventions used to support adherence for patients with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process, ClinicalTrials.gov, EUCTR, and conference proceedings from July 2011-July 2021 to identify trials evaluating effects of health education, phone reminders, or digital interventions on medication adherence or persistence of adult patients with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool v2. RESULTS: Of 64 studies, 62 used health education approaches (e.g. educational interviews, motivational meetings, advice from physicians, and mobile health content), 16 phone reminders (e.g. text reminders, electronic pill-box linked reminders, bi-directional text messaging), and 10 digital applications as interventions (e.g. various self-management applications). All studies assessed medication adherence; only two persistence. Overall, 30 studies (83%) assessing health education approaches alone and 25 (78%) combined with other strategies, 12 (75%) phone reminders and eight studies (80%) digital applications combined with other strategies reported improved medication adherence. Two studies assessing health education approaches reported improved persistence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate non-pharmacological interventions may positively impact adherence. Therefore, 'beyond the pill' approaches could play a role in preventing cardiovascular diseases.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(2)2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341191

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community engagement and participatory research are widely used and considered important for ethical health research and interventions. Based on calls to unpack their complexity and observed biases in their favour, we conducted a realist review with a focus on non-communicable disease prevention. The aim was to generate an understanding of how and why engagement or participatory practices enhance or hinder the benefits of non-communicable disease research and interventions in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We retroductively formulated theories based on existing literature and realist interviews. After initial searches, preliminary theories and a search strategy were developed. We searched three databases and screened records with a focus on theoretical and empirical relevance. Insights about contexts, strategies, mechanisms and outcomes were extracted and synthesised into six theories. Five realist interviews were conducted to complement literature-based theorising. The final synthesis included 17 quality-appraised articles describing 15 studies. RESULTS: We developed six theories explaining how community engagement or participatory research practices either enhance or hinder the benefits of non-communicable disease research or interventions. Benefit-enhancing mechanisms include community members' agency being realised, a shared understanding of the benefits of health promotion, communities feeling empowered, and community members feeling solidarity and unity. Benefit-hindering mechanisms include community members' agency remaining unrealised and participation being driven by financial motives or reputational expectations. CONCLUSION: Our review challenges assumptions about community engagement and participatory research being solely beneficial in the context of non-communicable disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries. We present both helpful and harmful pathways through which health and research outcomes are affected. Our practical recommendations relate to maximising benefits and minimising harm by addressing institutional inflexibility and researcher capabilities, managing expectations on research, promoting solidarity in solving public health challenges and sharing decision-making power.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Pública
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e079416, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper will describe the research protocol for the Deadly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nursing and Midwifery Mentoring (DANMM) Project, which will determine the feasibility and acceptability of a cultural mentoring programme designed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nurses and midwives across five diverse local health districts in New South Wales, Australia. Government and health agencies highlight the importance of culturally appropriate and safe environments for Aboriginal people. Specifically, New South Wales Health prioritises workforce strategies that support Aboriginal people to enter and stay in the health workforce. However, retaining Aboriginal nurses and midwives remains challenging. The DANMM Project aligns with these local and state-wide health plans and strategies, addressing critical issues of workforce cultural safety and retention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods study design will be employed to assess feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the DANMM Programme across five publicly funded local health districts in New South Wales, Australia. Adhering to cultural safety, a project cultural governance group will be formed. Quantitative outcome measures include the use of questionnaires (Nursing Workplace Satisfaction Questionnaire, Ganngaleh nga Yagaleh Cultural Safety assessment tool). Resource implications will be measured using the Organisational Commitment and Health Professional Program Readiness Assessment Compass. These will be triangulated with individual and group yarning circles to provide a holistic evaluation of the programme. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has ethics approval: Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (#2054/23); New South Wales Health Human Research Committees (Greater Western Human Research Committee #2022/ETH01971, Murrumbidgee-site-specific approval, Sydney Local Health District-site-specific approval, Western Sydney Local Health District-site-specific approval and Mid North Coast-site-specific approval); and Charles Sturt University Human Research Committee (#2054/23). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed articles, conferences and through roundtable discussions with key stakeholders.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Tutoria , Tocologia , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Competência Cultural , Povos Aborígenes Australianos e Ilhéus do Estreito de Torres , Estudos de Viabilidade , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico
9.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 21: 100353, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312946

RESUMO

Background: Early behavioural risk factors such as unbalanced diets, physical inactivity and tobacco and alcohol consumption lead to chronic diseases in later life. We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to measure the effect of a school-based health-promotion intervention in reducing the behavioural risk factors of chronic diseases. Methods: Twelve public schools in the Chandigarh, India were randomised to the intervention and control arm. Adolescents studying in eighth grade (n = 453), their parents (n = 395) and teachers (n = 94) were recruited for the current study. The Precede-Proceed Model was followed for intervention development. Intervention in each cluster comprised of one classroom session, four physical activity (PA) sessions every week for adolescents and four separate sessions for parents and teachers. Primary outcomes were eight binary or continuous measures of behavioural risk factors among adolescents (n = 359). Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescents (PAQ-A) scores were used to estimate physical activity. The ANCOVA based on cluster proportions or means was used to estimate the intervention effect accounting for baseline data. Findings: Among adolescents, the intervention reduced salt intake by 0.5 g/d (95% CI: -0.9, -0.1), proportion of current alcohol users by 5% (95% CI: -9, -0.007), and increased fruit consumption by 18 g/d (95% CI: 5, 30) and PA by 0.2 PAQ-A score (95% CI: 0.07, 0.3). However, the intervention had no effect on the sugar and vegetable intake and on smokers and tobacco chewers. Exploratory analysis revealed that among parents, PA increased by 205 metabolic equivalents task (MET) units (95% CI: 74.5, 336), fruits intake by 20 g/d (95% CI: 6, 34), and vegetable intake by 117 g/d (95% CI: 50.5, 183). Whereas salt consumption decreased by 0.5 g/d (95% CI: 0.15, 0.9) and the proportion of current alcohol users declined by 5% (95% CI: 9, -1) among parents. Vegetable consumption increased by 149 g/d (95% CI: 12, 286) among teachers. Interpretation: The intervention package implemented among adolescents by involving parents and teachers is an effective model for school-based behaviour-change interventions. Funding: MK received partial funding from the George Institute for Global Health, Hyderabad, India for the salt-reduction component of the study.

10.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 96, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many U.S. colleges and universities offer access to a healthcare center that provides sexual and reproductive health (SRH) resources, services, and products. The importance of health centers in college and university settings in reducing sexual health disparities in student populations cannot be stressed enough. This article evaluates a student-led, mutual-aid, grassroots health promotion strategy for students with limited access to healthcare services, supplies, and tools via an anonymous and discrete distribution of SRH resources without charge. METHODS: In partnership with faculty, undergraduate students worked to address their school's unmet SRH needs by increasing on-campus access to comprehensive, evidence-based, and sex-positive resources. Referred to as Just in Case, this student-led, grassroots health promotion program provided students with supply kits containing contraceptives, sexual health wellness products, basic hygiene supplies, and education materials. Students were surveyed in a pre- (n = 95) post- (n = 73) pilot study to identify contraception acquisition barriers, discern perceptions of on-campus SRH resources, and elucidate trends in this program's use and impact. Chi-square tests of independence were used to compare survey group responses, and association rule mining was employed in tandem to identify SRH items that students requested. RESULTS: Students identified cost and privacy as significant barriers to acquiring sexual health products on campus. Of the 182 Just in Case supply kits requested by students during the 2022-2023 academic year, condoms were requested most frequently in 75% of fulfilled kits, while emergency contraception and pregnancy tests were asked most often in 61% of kits. 50% of students reported access to contraceptives on campus before this program's implementation, growing to 75% (p < 0.001) 1 year later post-implementation. Similar jumps were observed for reported access to sexual health education (30 to 73%, p < 0.001) and services (36 to 73%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A student-led SRH supply and resource delivery strategy may immediately reduce SRH inequities and decrease barriers to contraceptive use for students with limited access to on-site SRH product availability.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Anticoncepcionais
11.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606790, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322305

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to understand the public's expectations regarding type 2 diabetes prevention and to identify factors associated with willingness to participate in preventive activities among adults in Poland. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) on a representative sample of 1,046 adults in Poland. A non-probability quota sampling method was used. A study tool was a self-prepared questionnaire. Results: Most respondents (77.3%) declared willingness to participate in preventive activities. Consultation with a diabetologist (75.1%) or family doctor consultation (74.9%) were the most often selected. Lifestyle interventions in the form of dietary and culinary workshops (58.1%) were the least chosen. Having higher education (OR = 3.83, 1.64-8.94, p = 0.002), chronic diseases (OR = 1.36, 1.01-1.85, p = 0.04), and a history of diabetes in the family (OR = 1.67, 1.21-2.30, p = 0.002) were significantly associated with a higher interest in type 2 diabetes prevention. Conclusion: The adults in Poland are keen on participating in diabetes prevention programs, mostly those based on medical counselling rather than lifestyle-oriented interventions. Educational level was the most important factor associated with willingness to participate in type 2 diabetes prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Motivação , Polônia , Estilo de Vida
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(2)2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Local coalitions can advance public health initiatives such as smoke-free air but have not been widely used or well-studied in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We conducted a matched-pairs community-randomised controlled trial in 28 communities in Armenia and Georgia (N=14/country) in which we helped establish local coalitions in 2019 and provided training and technical assistance for coalition activity promoting smoke-free policy development and enforcement (2019-2021). Surveys of ~1450 households (Fall 2018, May-June 2022) were conducted to evaluate coalition impact on smoke-free policy support, smoke-free home adoption, secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), and coalition awareness and activity exposure, using multivariable mixed modelling. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses indicated that, at follow-up versus baseline, both conditions reported greater smoke-free home rates (53.6% vs 38.5%) and fewer days of SHSe on average (~11 vs ~12 days), and that intervention versus control condition communities reported greater coalition awareness (24.3% vs 12.2%) and activity exposure (71.2% vs 64.5%). Multivariable modelling indicated that intervention (vs control) communities reported greater rates of complete smoke-free homes (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 1.55, 95% confiedence interval [CI] 1.11 to 2.18, p=0.011) and coalition awareness (aOR 2.89, 95% CI 1.44 to 8.05, p=0.043) at follow-up. However, there were no intervention effects on policy support, SHSe or community-based activity exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Findings must be considered alongside several sociopolitical factors during the study, including national smoke-free policies implementation (Georgia, 2018; Armenia, 2022), these countries' participation in an international tobacco legislation initiative, the COVID-19 pandemic and regional/local war). The intervention effect on smoke-free homes is critical, as smoke-free policy implementation provides opportunities to accelerate smoke-free home adoption via local coalitions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03447912.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Armênia , Georgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
13.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-15, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365220

RESUMO

Adolescents' sexual and reproductive health challenges are of global public health concern and good quality sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education has an important role to play in addressing these negative sexual health outcomes. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries including Ghana, there is limited implementation of SRH education. Several environmental factors hinder the implementation of SRH education with the attitudes expressed by religious leaders having a major impact. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 Christian leaders in Bolgatanga, Ghana, to explore the factors influencing their decision to adopt and implement SRH education. Findings show that although Christian leaders were aware of (unsafe) sexual practices among adolescents, they held a conservative position on SRH education. While leaders were open to educating adolescents about sexual health, most held the opinion that SRH education for adolescents should be limited to abstinence-only and not acknowledge sexual activity or promote contraceptive use. Beliefs related to sexual morality, the perceived cause(s) of teenage pregnancy, and perceived responsibility for SRH education influenced Christian leaders' thinking about SRH education. Implementing SRH education programmes to address young people's sexual behaviour will require intervention programmes to change Christian leaders' beliefs and attitudes towards SRH education.

14.
Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res ; 29(1): 16-22, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333330

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is a significant health problem worldwide and an alarming problem in the developed world including the United States of America and European populations. Subsequently, obesity can lead to different health problems, such as non-communicable diseases. However, it can be prevented through a healthy diet, exercise, and lifestyle modification. The study's purpose was to analyze the published literature on community-based obesity interventions and to present a comprehensive summary of how to reduce the body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Circumference (WC) among overweight and obese individuals in the community through health education and behavior interventions. Material and Methods: The meta-analysis was conducted in February-July 2021, searching CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct databases. Studies published during the prior 12 years on community-based obesity intervention for weight, BMI, and WC were included in this review. Cochrane Revman software was used for meta-analysis. Results: Seventeen studies met the selection criteria for the review. A meta-analysis of the studies on health education and behavioral intervention studies resulted in a statistically significant reduction at 95% confidence intervals in the mean differences of BMI -1.19 (-1.77, -0.62) and WC -1.11 (-1.54, -0.68). Conclusions: Community-based obesity interventions through health education and behavior interventions effectively reduce the body weight, BMI, and WC. Implementing community-based health education and behavioral interventions effectively prevents and treats obesity in communities.

15.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52134, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344565

RESUMO

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease characterized by chronic degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone and inflammation of the synovium, leading to pain and joint disability. The best-known risk factors for OA are increasing age and obesity. Public knowledge of this disease should be assessed as OA, given its high prevalence, which places a significant burden on patients' daily activities and their overall quality of life. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2023 among the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population using an online survey form. The survey responses were then analyzed using the SPSS Statistics system (IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results A total of 363 people participated in this study. The sample showed a high level of knowledge of the underlying mechanism of OA, with 233 (64.2%) correctly identifying the cause. In addition, most of the participants, 244 (67.2%), were aware that OA is a chronic disease, and 243 (66.9%) knew that it is not a rare disease. Moreover, 288 (79.6%) could identify that a high BMI is a major risk factor for OA. Total and partial joint replacement for advanced disease remain the mainstay of treatment. In this study, 241 (66.4%) participants knew that joint replacement surgery was the final option to relieve the symptoms of OA. The total knowledge level of the participants showed that only 74 (20.4%) had good knowledge, 91 (25.1%) had average knowledge, and a majority of 198 (54.5%) had poor knowledge. Our study showed that a higher level of education leads to a better understanding and awareness of OA, which is generally expected (p=0.019). In addition, trust in healthcare and study material as a source of information on the topic significantly impacts knowledge, in contrast to trust in relying on family, media, and personal history (p<0.001). Conclusion OA severely limits daily activities, and the prevalence of OA is anticipated to double in the next decade. In this study, we aimed to determine the level of public knowledge about knee OA. The results indicate that the level of knowledge among individuals aged 18 to 65 in the UAE is low. Accordingly, raising awareness among the public will result in early detection of the disease, clearing misconceptions, and controlling dangerous and unproven procedures for the treatment of OA.

16.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; 27(1): 2310639, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346450

RESUMO

There is a need to understand teenagers' views towards having children to better tailor sexuality and reproductive health education. We conducted a survey of parenthood intentions for 16-18-year-old students. The survey was anonymous, contained open-ended and multiple-choice questions and was live from 10 May 2021 to 18 July 2022. The sample size was n = 931. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and using chi-squared tests; qualitative data were analysed thematically. The majority of students (64%) indicated they wanted to have children in the future, with 49% desiring to have two children. Students who opted against having children cited the turbulent state of the world, concerns about parenthood, and, for many females, negative associations to pregnancy and childbirth. Many students felt concern about the possibility of having children in the future (45%), expressing concerns about their ability to have healthy children and worries about the lives their children might lead. Six themes were identified in their responses to the question 'What are your concerns about the possibility of having children in the future?': Fears; Self-doubt; Health and wellbeing; Big investment; Hinderance to personal aspirations; and Non-inclusive LGBTQ+ education. We conclude by making recommendations as to how school reproductive health and sex education might be improved.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Intenção , Gravidez , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Estudantes
17.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1243432, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347831

RESUMO

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is one of the auxiliary diagnostic indicators of lung squamous cell carcinoma, and an increase in serum SCCA can predict the occurrence of lung squamous cell carcinoma. However, whether SCCA is also elevated in pneumonia patients without malignancy is still not clear. Therefore, we studied influencing factors of elevated serum SCCA in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 309 patients who were admitted to the Respiratory department with normal serum Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Neuron specific enolase (NSE), and Cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) level and were diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The patients' serum SCCA level, body temperature, age, sex, white blood cell (WBC) count, hypersensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) level, and serum amyloid A (SAA) were recorded. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors of SCCA elevation. The dose-response relationship between temperature and risk of SCCA increase was analyzed using Restricted cubic splines (RCS). Results: Of the 309 patients, 143(46.3%) showed elevated SCCA levels. The logistic regression analysis revealed a significant influence of age and body temperature on elevated SCCA (P<0.05) levels. For every one-year increase in age, the probability of elevated SCCA decreased by 3% [OR=0.97,95%CI:0.95,0.99].For every 1°C increase in body temperature, the risk of elevated SCCA increased by 2.75 times [OR=3.75,95%CI:2.55,5.49].The patients were sorted into quartiles based on body temperature. Compared with patients in the Q1 of body temperature group, patients in the Q3 group were at 7.92 times higher risk [OR=7.92, 95%CI:3.27,19.16].and the risk of elevated SCCA was increased by 22.85 times in the Q4 group [OR=23.85,95%CI:8.38,67.89] after adjusting for age, gender, Hs-CRP, SAA, and WBC. RCS analysis showed there was a linear relationship between temperature index and risk of elevated SCCA. Conclusion: In summary, for CAP patients with normal CEA,NSE and CYFRA21-1 level, age and body temperature are influencing factors of SCCA elevation. Higher body temperature has a strong association with the occurrence of SCCA elevation.

18.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52225, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the change in behaviour of individuals towards any health issues they faced after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to compare the health-seeking behaviour of people who were infected by the virus and those who were not infected. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 participants visiting Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data was collected through a pilot-tested questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0 (Released 2019; IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, United States). RESULTS: In 286 participants (71.6%), health-seeking behaviours were significantly altered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, this research showed that COVID-19 was linked to poor health-seeking behaviour. CONCLUSION: Most of the participants' health-seeking behaviours were significantly altered by the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant change in how people behaved towards any health problem was reported. As a result, public awareness campaigns should focus on delivering more information about COVID-19 to promote their health-seeking behaviour.

19.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Foodborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which infect the liver, lungs and intestines of humans, are an emerging public health concern in tropical countries including Vietnam. In northern Vietnam, Clonorchis sinensis is recognised as the most important species of the FZT. Up to now, small-scale studies conducted in the country have indicated that health education could improve participants' knowledge and practices related to clonorchiasis, however strong evidence is still lacking. We conducted an intervention trial between 2020 and 2021 in four communes in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa province, aiming to evaluate the impact of an extended educational package on knowledge, attitude and practices related to clonorchiasis, as well as on knowledge on the large liver fluke and minute intestinal flukes. METHODS: To this end, baseline and post-intervention questionnaires were conducted. Generalised estimating equations models were run to analyse the impact of the intervention on knowledge, attitudes and practices over time in the intervention versus control group. Finally, 172 people in the intervention group and 162 in the control group were included for analysis. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the intervention significantly improved clonorchiasis knowledge, attitudes and practices, with higher odds for a correct knowledge response (odds ratio (OR) = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.84-4.27, p-value < 0.001), increased average mean attitude score (mean = 0.363, 95%CI = 0.182-0.544, p-value < 0.001), and a reduced odds of consuming raw fish (OR = 0.15, 95%CI = 0.06-0.40, p = 0.002) in the intervention group compared to the control group post-intervention versus baseline. Additionally, participants in the intervention group exhibited enhanced basic knowledge of the large liver fluke and minute intestinal flukes post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the potential of health education programs in preventing clonorchiasis in endemic areas, emphasising the importance of continued health education as a critical component of integrated control programs for clonorchiasis.

20.
Ann Ig ; 36(2): 144-152, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303640

RESUMO

Background: The "Leo&Giulia standing for public health" project is an innovative digital health education model targeting primary school children. The project, developed during the COVID-19 pandemic, aims to educate primary school-aged children about public health issues through an animated cartoon series. It highlights the importance of early-life health promotion and the potential role of educational settings in shaping health behaviours. Study design: A 2-year school-based cluster-randomized controlled community trial will be conducted among 8-10-year-old pupils in the province of Pavia, Northern Italy. Methods: The intervention group will receive an educational programme via a new episode of "Leo&Giulia" animated series, focusing on smoking prevention. The study will assess changes in knowledge, attitudes towards smoking, and communication about smoking risks among peers and parents. The trial involves baseline and follow-up assessments through questionnaires targeting both children and parents. Results (expected): We assume that children in the intervention group will demonstrate increased knowledge and awareness of smoking-related health risks and develop negative attitudes towards tobacco use compared to the control group. Enhanced communication about tobacco harms among peers and between children and parents, as well as increased parental involvement in anti-smoking socialization practices, are expected secondary outcomes. Discussion and Conclusions: "Leo&Giulia" integrates health education into the school curriculum, leveraging the appeal of animated content to engage children in public health topics. The project is expected to contribute to the field of health education by demonstrating the effectiveness of digital health interventions in childhood, foreseeing potential long-term impacts on health behaviors and in shaping future public health strategies.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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