Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.742
Filtrar
1.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1375898, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828221

RESUMO

Introduction: Water depth (WD) and snail abundance (SA) are two key factors affecting the growth of submersed aquatic plants in freshwater lake ecosystems. Changes in WD and SA drive changes in nutrients and other primary producers that may have direct or indirect effects on submersed plant growth, but which factor dominates the impact of both on aquatic plants has not been fully studied. Methods: To investigate the dominant factors that influence aquatic plant growth in plateau lakes, a one-year field study was conducted to study the growth of three dominant submersed macrophyte (i.e., Vallisneria natans, Potamogeton maackianus, and Potamogeton lucens) in Erhai Lake. Results: The results show that, the biomass of the three dominant plants, P.maackianus, is the highest, followed by P.lucens, and V.natans is the lowest. Meanwhile, periphyton and snails attached to P.maackianus are also the highest. Furthermore, WD had a positive effect on the biomass of two submersed macrophyte species of canopy-type P.maackianus and P.lucens, while it had a negative effect on rosette-type V.natans. Snail directly inhibited periphyton attached on V.natans and thereby increasing the biomass of aquatic plants, but the effect of snails on the biomass of the other two aquatic plants is not through inhibition of periphyton attached to their plants. Discussion: The dominant factors affecting the biomass of submersed macrophyte in Erhai Lake were determined, as well as the direct and indirect mechanisms of WD and snails on the biomass of dominant submersed macrophyte. Understanding the mechanisms that dominate aquatic plant change will have implications for lake management and restoration.

2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12649, 2024 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825611

RESUMO

Economic losses from insect herbivory in agroecosystems has driven the development of integrated pest management strategies that reduce pest incidence and damage; however, traditional chemicals-based control is either being complemented or substituted with sustainable and integrated methods. Major sustainable pest management strategies revolve around improving host plant resistance, and one of these traits of interest is Brown midrib (BMR). Originally developed to increase nutritional value and ease of digestion for animal agriculture, BMR is a recessive plant gene usually found in annual grasses, including sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. In sorghum-sudangrass, BMR expressed plants have lower amounts of lignin, which produces a less fibrous, more digestible crop, with possible implications for plant defense against herbivores- an area currently unexplored. Fall Armyworm (FAW; Spodoptera frugiperda) is a ruinous pest posing immense threat for sorghum producers by severely defoliating crops and being present in every plant stage. Using FAW, we tested the effect of seed treatment, BMR, and plant age on FAW growth, development, and plant defense responses in sorghum-sudangrass. Our results show that seed treatment did not affect growth or development, or herbivory. However, presence of BMR significantly reduced pupal mass relative to its non-BMR counterpart, alongside a significant reduction in adult mass. We also found that plant age was a major factor as FAW gained significantly less mass, had longer pupation times, and had lower pupal mass on the oldest plant stage explored, 60-days, compared to younger plants. These findings collectively show that pest management strategies should consider plant age, and that the effects of BMR on plant defenses should also be studied.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Sorghum , Spodoptera , Animais , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/parasitologia , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva
3.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121168, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823302

RESUMO

Targeted grazing to control undesirable plant species is increasingly of interest across a diversity of ecosystems, particularly as an alternative or complement to widely used herbicides. However, there are limited comprehensive evaluations of targeted grazing that evaluate both invasive species management effectiveness and potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Phragmites australis, a tall-statured, dense perennial invasive grass from Eurasia, is a pervasive problem in wetlands across the North American continent. As with many invasive species where management has historically relied on herbicides and resistance is a growing concern, land managers seek viable alternatives that have minimal negative ecosystem impacts. Grazing has been used for millennia to manage native Phragmites in Europe. Similarly, in its invasive range within North America, small-scale studies suggest Phragmites may be suppressed by grazers. Yet, the effectiveness of grazing at large scales and its effects on broader ecosystem properties remain largely unknown. We evaluated the influence of targeted grazing on vegetation, soil nutrients, and water nutrients over two years in large plots (∼300x the size of previous studies). We also tested the effects of mowing, a treatment that can be used to facilitate grazer access to large, dense Phragmites stands. In line with our predictions, we found that cattle grazing effectively suppressed invasive Phragmites over two years. Mowing reduced litter, and moderately reduced standing dead Phragmites, both of which suppress native plant germination in this system. However, these reductions in Phragmites were not accompanied by indications of native plant community recovery, as we had optimistically predicted. Despite the potential for grazing to reduce nutrient sequestration by plants and fertilize soils, we were surprised to find no clear negative effects of grazing on nutrient mobilization to groundwater or floodwater. Taken together, our findings indicate that targeted grazing, when implemented at broad scales over short time frames, is effective at achieving invasive plant management goals without sizable nutrient impacts. However, additional steps will be needed to achieve the restoration of diverse, robust native plant communities.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Poaceae , Ecossistema , Solo , Herbivoria , Nutrientes
4.
Ecol Lett ; 27(5): e14440, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778587

RESUMO

Variation in herbivore pressure has often been predicted from patterns in plant traits considered as antiherbivore defences. Here, we tested whether spatial variation in field insect herbivory is associated with the variation in plant quality by conducting a meta-analysis of 223 correlation coefficients between herbivory levels and the expression of selected plant traits. We found no overall correlation between herbivory and either concentrations of plant secondary metabolites or values of physical leaf traits. This result was due to both the large number of low correlations and the opposing directions of high correlations in individual studies. Field herbivory demonstrated a significant association only with nitrogen: herbivore pressure increased with an increase in nitrogen concentration in plant tissues. Thus, our meta-analysis does not support either theoretical prediction, i.e., that plants possess high antiherbivore defences in localities with high herbivore pressure or that herbivory is low in localities where plant defences are high. We conclude that information about putative plant defences is insufficient to predict plant losses to insects in field conditions and that the only bottom-up factor shaping spatial variation in insect herbivory is plant nutritive value. Our findings stress the need to improve a theory linking plant putative defences and herbivory.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Insetos , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas
5.
Ecol Evol ; 14(5): e11055, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746549

RESUMO

Understanding how primary productivity and diversity affect secondary productivity is an important debate in ecology with implications for biodiversity conservation. Particularly, how plant diversity influences arthropod diversity contributes to our understanding of trophic cascades and species coexistence. Previous studies show a positive correlation between plant and arthropod diversity. The theory of associational resistance suggests that plant herbivory rate will decrease with increasing plant diversity indicating feedbacks between primary diversity, productivity, and secondary productivity rates. However, our understanding of how these relations are mediated by anthropogenic disturbance is still limited. We surveyed 10 forest sites, half of which are disturbed by fire, logging, and tree pruning, distributed in two climatic zones in Benin, West Africa. We established 100 transects to record plant species and sampled arthropods using pitfall traps, ceramic plates with bait, and sweeping nets. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediating effect of chronic anthropogenic disturbance on plant diversity and how it influences arthropod diversity and abundance. Arthropod diversity increased but arthropod abundance decreased with increasing intensity of disturbance. We found no significant bottom-up influence of the plant diversity on arthropod diversity but a significant plant diversity-arthropod abundance relationship. Some arthropod guilds were significantly affected by plant diversity. Finally, herbivory rates were positively associated with arthropod diversity. Synthesis. Our results highlight how chronic anthropogenic disturbance can mediate the functional links between trophic levels in terms of diversity and productivity. Our study demonstrated a decoupled response of arthropod diversity and abundance to disturbance. The direct positive influence of plant diversity on herbivory rates we found in our study provides counter-support for the theory of associational resistance.

6.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2360298, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813798

RESUMO

This study investigated the accumulation of phenlyacetaldoxime (PAOx) and PAOx-Glc in Tococa quadrialata leaves in response to herbivore infestation and mechanical wounding. Results show that PAOx levels peaked at 24 h post-infestation, while PAOx-Glc remained present for several days. The accumulation of PAOx began as early as 3 h after herbivory, with PAOx-Glc significantly increased after 6 h. Mechanical wounding induced similar responses in PAOx and PAOx-Glc accumulation as herbivory, suggesting that continuous tissue damage triggers the production of these compounds. Interestingly, SpitWorm-treated leaves showed the highest levels of both PAOx and PAOx-Glc, indicating that herbivore-derived oral secretions (OS) play a role in the induction of these compounds. Additionally, JA-independent PAOx production was found to be associated with tissue damage rather than specific known signaling compounds. Emission of benzyl cyanide and 2-phenylethanol, PAOx-derived plant volatiles, was observed in response to herbivory and SpitWorm treatment providing plant-derived OS, further highlighting the role of herbivore cues in plant defense responses.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Animais
7.
Ecol Evol ; 14(5): e11350, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737568

RESUMO

Invasive grasses cause devastating losses to biodiversity and ecosystem function directly and indirectly by altering ecosystem processes. Escape from natural enemies, plant-plant competition, and variable resource availability provide frameworks for understanding invasion. However, we lack a clear understanding of how natural stressors interact in their native range to regulate invasiveness. In this study, we reduced diverse guilds of natural enemies and plant competitors of the highly invasive buffelgrass across a precipitation gradient throughout major climatic shifts in Laikipia, Kenya. To do this, we used a long-term ungulate exclosure experiment design across a precipitation gradient with nested treatments that (1) reduced plant competition through clipping, (2) reduced insects through systemic insecticide, and (3) reduced fungal associates through fungicide application. Additionally, we measured the interaction of ungulates on two stem-boring insect species feeding on buffelgrass. Finally, we measured a multiyear smut fungus outbreak. Our findings suggest that buffelgrass exhibits invasive qualities when released from a diverse group of natural stressors in its native range. We show natural enemies interact with precipitation to alter buffelgrass productivity patterns. In addition, interspecific plant competition decreased the basal area of buffelgrass, suggesting that biotic resistance mediates buffelgrass dominance in the home range. Surprisingly, systemic insecticides and fungicides did not impact buffelgrass production or reproduction, perhaps because other guilds filled the niche space in these highly diverse systems. For example, in the absence of ungulates, we showed an increase in host-specific stem-galling insects, where these insects compensated for reduced ungulate use. Finally, we documented a smut outbreak in 2020 and 2021, corresponding to highly variable precipitation patterns caused by a shifting Indian Ocean Dipole. In conclusion, we observed how reducing natural enemies and competitors and certain interactions increased properties related to buffelgrass invasiveness.

8.
Ecol Appl ; : e2975, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747033

RESUMO

Fire and herbivory have profound effects on vegetation in savanna ecosystems, but little is known about how different herbivore groups influence vegetation dynamics after fire. We assessed the separate and combined effects of herbivory by cattle and wild meso- and megaherbivores on postfire herbaceous vegetation cover, species richness, and species turnover in a savanna ecosystem in central Kenya. We measured these vegetation attributes for five sampling periods (from 2013 to 2017) in prescribed burns and unburned areas located within a series of replicated long-term herbivore exclosures that allow six different combinations of cattle and wild meso- and megaherbivores (elephants and giraffes). Vegetation cover (grasses, mainly) and species richness were initially reduced by burning but recovered by 15-27 months after fire, suggesting strong resilience to infrequent fire. However, the rates of recovery differed in plots accessible by different wild and domestic herbivore guilds. Wildlife (but not cattle) delayed postfire recovery of grasses, and the absence of wildlife (with or without cattle) delayed recovery of forbs. Herbivory by only cattle increased grass species richness in burned relative to unburned areas. Herbivory by cattle (with or without wildlife), however, reduced forb species richness in burned relative to unburned areas. Herbivory by wild ungulates (but not cattle) increased herbaceous species turnover in burned relative to unburned areas. Megaherbivores had negligible modifying effects on these results. This study demonstrates that savanna ecosystems are remarkably resilient to infrequent fires, but postfire grazing by cattle and wild mesoherbivores exerts different effects on recovery trajectories of herbaceous vegetation.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732443

RESUMO

Research on Satyrium nepalense var. ciliatum (Lindl.) Hook. f. has primarily focused on populations in Northwestern Yunnan, with limited studies on pollination syndromes and insect behavior. In addition, it is geographically limited in its breeding system studies. Here, pollination syndromes, florivory, and breeding systems of S. nepalense var. ciliatum from Liangwang Mountain (Central Yunnan, China) were investigated through field work, microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and parafin section. It was revealed that the pollination syndrome was possessing out-crossing, such as bright color, a developed rostellum, nectar glands in the spur, and food hairs at the lip base. The color and nectar attracted flower visitors, and florivory was observed. Some flower visitors pollinated their companion species. Ants were identified as floral visitors for the first time in Satyrium, although substantial pollination was not observed. Ants might be potential pollinators. S. nepalense var. ciliatum possessed a mixed breeding system, including selfing, out-crossing, and apomixis, with apomixis being predominant in nature. It is suggested that the pollination syndrome, florivory, and pollination competition would contribute to its mixed breeding systems, particularly leading to the occurrence of apomixis.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 937: 173532, 2024 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802014

RESUMO

In response to varying environments along urban and rural gradients, invasive plants may strategically allocate resources to enhance their invasiveness. However, how invasive plants balance their resources for growth, reproduction, and defense as responses to biotic and abiotic factors across these gradients remain unclear. We conducted field surveys on the growth, reproduction, and herbivory of the invasive species Phytolacca americana across diverse urban and rural habitats. Leaf samples were collected to analyze the nutritional content, primary and secondary metabolites. We found that plant growth rates, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content, and concentrations of flavonoids and saponins were higher in urban habitats, while reproduction, herbivory, and carbon-to­nitrogen ratios were lower than those in rural habitats. We also found a trade-off between growth rate and herbivory, as well as trade-offs among defense traits associated with herbivory (e.g., leaf mass per area, the inverse of leaf nitrogen content, and carbon­nitrogen ratio) and the production of metabolites associated with abiotic stress tolerance (e.g., soluble sugars, flavonoids, and saponins). As earlier studies showed low levels of genetic diversity within and between populations, our findings suggest that the urban-rural gradient patterns of resource allocation are primarily phenotypic plasticity in response to herbivory in rural areas and abiotic factors in urban areas. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms by which urbanization affects plant invasions and offers insights for the implementation of their management strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Phytolacca americana , Reprodução , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
11.
Mol Ecol ; 33(12): e17377, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713089

RESUMO

The acquisition of microbial symbionts enables animals to rapidly adapt to and exploit novel ecological niches, thus significantly enhancing the evolutionary fitness and success of their hosts. However, the dynamics of host-microbe interactions and their evolutionary implications remain largely underexplored in marine invertebrates. Crabs of the family Sesarmidae (Crustacea: Brachyura) are dominant inhabitants of mangrove forests and are considered keystone species there. Their rapid diversification, particularly after adopting a plant-feeding lifestyle, is believed to have been facilitated by symbiotic gut microbes, enabling successful colonization of intertidal and terrestrial environments. To investigate the patterns and mechanisms shaping the microbial communities and the role of microbes in the evolution of Sesarmidae, we characterized and compared the gut microbiome compositions across 43 crab species from Sesarmidae and other mangrove-associated families using 16S metabarcoding. We found that the gut microbiome assemblages in crabs are primarily determined by host identity, with a secondary influence from environmental factors such as microhabitat and sampling location, and to a lesser extent influenced by biological factors such as sex and gut region. While patterns of phylosymbiosis (i.e. when microbial community relationships recapitulate the phylogeny of their hosts) were consistently observed in all beta-diversity metrics analysed, the strength of phylosymbiosis varied across crab families. This suggests that the bacterial assemblages in each family were differentially shaped by different degrees of host filtering and/or other evolutionary processes. Notably, Sesarmidae displayed signals of cophylogeny with its core gut bacterial genera, which likely play crucial functional roles in their hosts by providing lignocellulolytic enzymes, essential amino acids, and fatty acids supplementation. Our results support the hypothesis of microbial contribution to herbivory and terrestrialization in mangrove crabs, highlighting the tight association and codiversification of the crab holobiont.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Simbiose , Animais , Braquiúros/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Curr Biol ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776900

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects consume a large proportion of the energy flow in terrestrial ecosystems and play a major role in the dynamics of plant populations and communities. However, high-resolution, quantitative predictions of the global patterns of insect herbivory and their potential underlying drivers remain elusive. Here, we compiled and analyzed a dataset consisting of 9,682 records of the severity of insect herbivory from across natural communities worldwide to quantify its global patterns and environmental determinants. Global mapping revealed strong spatial variation in insect herbivory at the global scale, showing that insect herbivory did not significantly vary with latitude for herbaceous plants but increased with latitude for woody plants. We found that the cation-exchange capacity in soil was a main predictor of levels of herbivory on herbaceous plants, while climate largely determined herbivory on woody plants. We next used well-established scenarios for future climate change to forecast how spatial patterns of insect herbivory may be expected to change with climate change across the world. We project that herbivore pressure will intensify on herbaceous plants worldwide but would likely only increase in certain biomes (e.g., northern coniferous forests) for woody plants. Our assessment provides quantitative evidence of how environmental conditions shape the spatial pattern of insect herbivory, which enables a more accurate prediction of the vulnerabilities of plant communities and ecosystem functions in the Anthropocene.

13.
R Soc Open Sci ; 11(5): 240086, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716328

RESUMO

Biological networks vary widely in their architecture and functional properties. Branching networks are good for transportation efficiency, while networks including loops offer good resistance to damage, and examples of these two topologies are found in leaf venation networks. The first plants with reticulate (loopy) leaf venation evolved in the Pennsylvanian of the Carboniferous, but the responses of different venation network architectures from this time period to damage are currently largely unknown. Here we address this issue with a computational analysis of venation network robustness that is focused on fossil leaves from the Pennsylvanian. We attacked fossil venation networks with simulated damage to individual vein segments and leaf blades. For both types of attack, branched venation networks are the least robust to damage, with greater robustness shown by the net-like reticulate networks found in the Pennsylvanian. A living angiosperm Betula alba was the most robust in our analysis. This may highlight a role for resistance to damage in the evolution of reticulate leaf venation in the Carboniferous, but further work is needed to answer the broader question of why reticulate leaf venation first evolved in the Pennsylvanian.

14.
Oecologia ; 205(1): 191-201, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782789

RESUMO

The transmission of resistance traits to herbivores across subsequent generations is an important strategy employed by plants to enhance their fitness in environments with high herbivore pressure. However, our understanding of the impact of maternal herbivory on direct and indirect induced chemical defenses of progeny, as well as the associated costs, is currently limited to herbivory by leaf-chewing insects. In this study, we investigated the transgenerational effects of a sap-feeding insect, the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, on direct and indirect chemical defenses of bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), and whether the effects entail costs to plant growth. Aphid herbivory on parental plants led to a reduced number of seeds per fruit, which exhibited lower germination rates and produced smaller seedlings compared to those from non-infested parental plants. In contrast, the progeny of aphid-infested plants were less preferred as hosts by aphids and less suitable than the progeny of non-infested plants. This enhanced resistance in the progeny of aphid-infested plants coincided with elevated levels of both constitutive and herbivore-induced total phenolic compounds, compared to the progeny of non-infested plants. Furthermore, the progeny of aphid-infested plants emitted herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that were more attractive to the aphid parasitoid Aphidius platensis than those emitted by the progeny of non-infested plants. Our results indicate that herbivory by sap-feeding insect induces transgenerational resistance on progeny bell pepper plants, albeit at the expense of vegetative growth.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Capsicum , Herbivoria , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria
15.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611463

RESUMO

Inoculation with rhizobacteria and feeding by herbivores, two types of abiotic stress, have been shown to increase the production of secondary metabolites in plants as part of the defense response. This study explored the simultaneous effects of inoculation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03 (a PGPR species) and herbivory by third-instar Spodoptera frugiperda larvae on essential oil (EO) yield and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Ocimum basilicum plants. The density of glandular trichomes was also examined, given that they are linked to EO production and VOC emission. Herbivory increased EO content, but inoculation on its own did not. When combined, however, the two treatments led to a 10-fold rise in EO content with respect to non-inoculated plants. VOC emissions did not significantly differ between inoculated and non-inoculated plants, but they doubled in plants chewed by the larvae with respect to their undamaged counterparts. Interestingly, no changes were observed in VOC emissions when the treatments were tested together. In short, the two biotic stressors elicited differing plant defense responses, mainly when EO was concerned. PGPR did not stimulate EO production, while herbivory significantly enhanced it and increased VOC emissions. The combined treatment acted synergistically, and in this case, PGPR inoculation may have had a priming effect that amplified plant response to herbivory. Peltate trichome density was higher in inoculated plants, those damaged by larvae, and those subjected to the combination of both treatments. The findings highlight the intricate nature of plant defense mechanisms against various stressors and hint at a potential strategy to produce essential oil through the combined application of the two stressors tested here.

16.
New Phytol ; 242(6): 2495-2509, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641748

RESUMO

Extreme droughts can have long-lasting effects on forest community dynamics and species interactions. Yet, our understanding of how drought legacy modulates ecological relationships is just unfolding. We tested the hypothesis that leaf chemistry and herbivory show long-term responses to premature defoliation caused by an extreme drought event in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). For two consecutive years after the extreme European summer drought in 2018, we collected leaves from the upper and lower canopy of adjacently growing drought-stressed and unstressed trees. Leaf chemistry was analyzed and leaf damage by different herbivore-feeding guilds was quantified. We found that drought had lasting impacts on leaf nutrients and on specialized metabolomic profiles. However, drought did not affect the primary metabolome. Drought-related phytochemical changes affected damage of leaf-chewing herbivores whereas damage caused by other herbivore-feeding guilds was largely unaffected. Drought legacy effects on phytochemistry and herbivory were often weaker than between-year or between-canopy strata variability. Our findings suggest that a single extreme drought event bears the potential to long-lastingly affect tree-herbivore interactions. Drought legacy effects likely become more important in modulating tree-herbivore interactions since drought frequency and severity are projected to globally increase in the coming decades.


Assuntos
Secas , Fagus , Herbivoria , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Folhas de Planta , Fagus/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Animais , Metaboloma
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2021): 20240415, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628122

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a growing threat to coastal habitats, and is likely to exacerbate the impacts of other stressors. Kelp forests are dominant habitats on temperate reefs but are declining due to ocean warming and overgrazing. We tested the independent and interactive effects of ALAN (dark versus ALAN) and warming (ambient versus warm) on grazing rates and gonad index of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. Within these treatments, urchins were fed either 'fresh' kelp or 'treated' kelp. Treated kelp (Ecklonia radiata) was exposed to the same light and temperature combinations as urchins. We assessed photosynthetic yield, carbon and nitrogen content and C : N ratio of treated kelp to help identify potential drivers behind any effects on urchins. Grazing increased with warming and ALAN for urchins fed fresh kelp, and increased with warming for urchins fed treated kelp. Gonad index was higher in ALAN/ambient and dark/warm treatments compared to dark/ambient treatments for urchins fed fresh kelp. Kelp carbon content was higher in ALAN/ambient treatments than ALAN/warm treatments at one time point. This indicates ocean warming and ALAN may increase urchin grazing pressure on rocky reefs, an important finding for management strategies.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Kelp , Animais , Poluição Luminosa , Ecossistema , Ouriços-do-Mar , Carbono
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172163, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569958

RESUMO

The early growth stage of plants is vital to community diversity and community regeneration. The Janzen-Connell hypothesis predicts that conspecific density dependence lowers the survival of conspecific seedlings by attracting specialist natural enemies, promoting the recruitment and performance of heterospecific neighbors. Recent work has underscored how this conspecific negative density dependence may be mediated by mutualists - such as how mycorrhizal fungi may mediate the accrual of host-specific pathogens beneath the crown of conspecific adult trees. Aboveground mutualist and enemy interactions exist as well, however, and may provide useful insight into density dependence that are as of yet unexplored. Using a long-term seedling demographic dataset in a subtropical forest plot in central China, we confirmed that conspecific neighborhoods had a significant negative effect on seedling survival in this subtropical forest. Furthermore, although we detected more leaf damage in species that were closely related to ants, we found that the presence of ants had significant positive effects on seedling survival. Beside this, we also found a negative effect of ant appearance on seedling growth which may reflect a trade-off between survival and growth. Overall, our findings suggested that ants and conspecific neighborhoods played important but inverse roles on seedling survival and growth. Our results suggest ants may mediate the influence of conspecific negative density dependence on seedling survival at community level.


Assuntos
Formigas , Florestas , Herbivoria , Plântula , China , Animais , Plântula/fisiologia , Formigas/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Simbiose
19.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 49, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preingestive behavioral modulations of herbivorous insects on the host plant are abundant over insect taxa. Those behaviors are suspected to have functions such as deactivation of host plant defenses, nutrient accumulation, or modulating plant-mediated herbivore interactions. To understand the functional consequence of behavioral modulation of insect herbivore, we studied the girdling behavior of Phytoecia rufiventris Gautier (Lamiinae; Cerambycidae) on its host plant Erigeron annuus L. (Asteraceae) that is performed before endophytic oviposition in the stem. RESULTS: The girdling behavior significantly increased the larval performance in both field monitoring and lab experiment. The upper part of the girdled stem exhibited lack of jasmonic acid induction upon larval attack, lowered protease inhibitor activity, and accumulated sugars and amino acids in compared to non-girdled stem. The girdling behavior had no effect on the larval performance of a non-girdling longhorn beetle Agapanthia amurensis, which also feeds on the stem of E. annuus during larval phase. However, the girdling behavior decreased the preference of A. amurensis females for oviposition, which enabled P. rufiventris larvae to avoid competition with A. amurensis larvae. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the girdling behavior modulates plant physiology and morphology to provide a modulated food source for larva and hide it from the competitor. Our study implies that the insect behavior modulations can have multiple functions, providing insights into adaptation of insect behavior in context of plant-herbivore interaction.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Larva/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas , Herbivoria/fisiologia
20.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(5): 583-598, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566364

RESUMO

Large mammalian herbivores substantially impact ecosystem functioning. As their populations are dramatically altered globally, disentangling their consumptive and non-consumptive effects is critical to advance mechanistic understanding and improve prediction of effects over ecosystem and Earth-system spatial extents. Mathematical models have played an important role in clarifying potential mechanisms of herbivore zoogeochemistry, based mostly on their consumptive effects as primary consumers and recyclers of organic and inorganic matter via defecation and urination. Trampling is a ubiquitous effect among walking vertebrates, but the consequences and potential mechanisms of trampling in diverse environments remain poorly understood. We derive a novel mathematical model of large mammalian herbivore effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling, focusing on how trampling and environmental context impact soil processes. We model herbivore trampling with a linear positive or negative additive effect on soil-mediated nitrogen cycling processes. Combining analytical and numerical analyses, we find trampling by large mammalian herbivores is likely to decrease nitrogen mineralisation rate across diverse environments, such as temperate grassland and boreal forest. These effects are mediated by multiple potential mechanisms, including trampling-induced changes to detritivore biomass and functioning (e.g. rate of organic matter consumption). We also uncover scenarios where trampling can increase nitrogen mineralisation rate, contingent on the environment-specific relative sensitivity of detritivore mineral-nitrogen release and detritivore mortality, to trampling. In contrast to some consumptive mechanisms, our results suggest the pace of soil nitrogen cycling prior to trampling has little influence over the direction of the trampling net effect on nitrogen mineralisation, but that net effects may be greater in slow-cycling systems (e.g. boreal forests) than in fast-cycling systems (e.g. grasslands). Our model clarifies the potential consequences of previously overlooked mechanisms of zoogeochemistry that are common to all terrestrial biomes. Our results provide empirically testable predictions to guide future progress in empirical and theoretical studies of herbivore effects in diverse environmental contexts. Resolving ecological contingencies around animal consumptive and non-consumptive effects will improve whole-ecosystem management efforts such as restoration and rewilding.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Mamíferos , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Solo , Animais , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Solo/química , Modelos Biológicos , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...