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1.
ABCS health sci ; 49: [1-10], 11 jun. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555509

RESUMO

Introduction: The growing older population increases proportionately the demand for hospital care due to the increase in health problems. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of hospitalizations, and to investigate associated factors in older adults from the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2016-2018. Secondly, to provide a more comprehensive epidemiological overview of hospitalizations, the following were estimated: monthly hospitalization rate; hospital mortality rate; frequency of hospitalizations according to diagnosis, hospitalizations for conditions sensitive to primary care and in-hospital death; and hospital costs. Methods: This is an ecological and descriptive-analytic study. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH/SUS). Results: The prevalence of hospitalizations was 35.1% (31.2% in women and 39.7% in men). The monthly rate of hospitalizations was higher in older men when compared with older women (Rate-Ratio=1.35 [95% CI=1.27-1.43]) and adult men between 40­59 years (Rate Ratio=2.42 [95% CI=2.26-2.58]). The cumulative incidence of hospitalization was 144/1,000 older persons (125/1,000 women and 169/1,000 men). Factors significantly associated with hospitalizations were: male sex (PR=1.52 [95% CI=1.11-2.08]); hospitalization in surgical bed (PR=1.93 [95% CI=1.05-3.56]); absence of death (PR=1.94 [95% CI=1.03-3.65]); and hospital stay ≥15 days (PR=0.71 [95% CI=0.54 0.95]). The cost of hospitalizations was R$ 220,8 million (mean of R$ 201,700/day). Conclusion: The findings strengthen the need for preventive healthcare for the older population living in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais and alert managers to the substantial socioeconomic impact of hospitalizations.

2.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 84 Suppl 2: 1-32, 2024 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823037

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism disease (VTE) prevention strategy has to be constantly updated based on new evidence that is generated every year. Each institution must have a formal and active prevention policy against VTE and must develop guidelines or standards for thromboprophylaxis (TP) according to the local reality. During this process of adapting a guideline to the region and the generation of hospital recommendations, we must always consider the available local resources, the thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risk of the patients, even after discharge, and also their considerations and preferences. Adherence to local TP recommendations is one of the most important items evaluated by organizations that measure institutional quality. Individualized prophylaxis should consider personal and family history of VTE, the use of validated risk assessment models or RAMs for thrombosis and bleeding events, as well as the special characteristics of each patient. Ideally, each center's own statistics should be available for decision-making. Extrapolating guidelines from developed countries could have a negative impact, if we ignore our hospital's reality. In this document we will find practical tools for health institutions that will allow them to prepare recommendations or guidelines for adequate VTE prophylaxis.


La prevención de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (ETV) es motivo de continua actualización en función de nueva evidencia que se genera permanentemente. Cada institución debe contar con una estrategia activa de prevención contra la ETV y debe generar normas de tromboprofilaxis (TP) de acuerdo con la realidad local. Durante este proceso de adaptación de una guía a la región debemos siempre tener en cuenta los recursos locales disponibles, el riesgo tromboembólico y hemorrágico propio del paciente, de la enfermedad por la que se encuentra internado (ya sea clínica o quirúrgica) y las consideraciones o preferencias del paciente. La tasa de adherencia a recomendaciones locales de TP es uno de los indicadores de excelencia más importantes evaluados en organismos que califican la calidad de una institución de salud. Las medidas de profilaxis que propongamos para los centros de salud, deben ser individualizadas para cada paciente, tienen que considerar antecedentes personales y familiares del enfermo y utilizar modelos de evaluación de riesgo validados de trombosis y de sangrado. También deben incluir a la población con riesgo de trombosis persistente luego del alta. Lo ideal es tener estadísticas propias de cada nosocomio para la toma de decisiones de cómo implementar una correcta TP. Extrapolar guías de los países desarrollados a nuestro ámbito podría tener un impacto negativo, si no se conoce la propia realidad. En este documento encontraremos herramientas prácticas para las instituciones de salud de la región, que les permita orientarse al momento de confeccionar recomendaciones para una adecuada TP.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco
3.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 102669, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823526

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common, but limited data to guide selection of rate control medication (RCM). Reasons for selection are multivariable, and the impact on outcomes is unknown. We investigated prescribing patterns of RCM among patients with AF. Using a nationwide database, we identified 135,927 patients with AF. We stratified by baseline presence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and examined prescription rates of RCM as a function of clinical variables. We also evaluated associations with clinical outcomes. Beta blockers (BB) were most commonly prescribed (44.6%), then calcium channel blockers (CCB) (14.0%) and digoxin (8.6%). Patients prescribed BB were more likely male (45.6% vs 43.4%, p < 0.0001), patients prescribed CCB were less likely male (12.0% vs 16.3%, p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of HF hospitalization (HFH) among females and those with Medicaid. Randomized trials are needed to define optimal choice of RCM.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844701

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability to mental health conditions, which may necessitate hospitalization. This study sought to identify and characterize patterns of adolescent (re-)hospitalizations. The one-year (re-)hospitalization patterns of 233 adolescents were analyzed. The sequences of hospitalization and discharge was examined using cluster analyses. Results revealed five distinct (re-)hospitalization patterns or clusters: Cluster A represented brief hospitalizations with 56 cases (24.03%) averaging 7.71 days; cluster B consisted of repetitive short hospitalizations involving 97 cases (41.63%) with an average of 19.90 days; cluster C encompassed repetitive medium hospitalizations included 66 cases (28.33%) averaging 41.33 days; cluster D included long hospitalizations with 11 cases (4.72%) and an average of 99.36 days; cluster E depicted chronic hospitalizations, accounting for 3 cases (1.29%) with an average stay of 138.67 days. Despite no age-based differences across clusters, distinctions were noted in terms of sex, diagnoses, and severity of clinical and psychosocial difficulties. The study identified characteristics of both regular and atypical adolescent hospitalization users, emphasizing the distribution of hospitalization days and their associated clinical attributes. Such insights are pivotal for enhancing the organization of child and adolescent mental health services to cater to the growing care requirements of this age group.

5.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e078842, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in the length of stay (LoS) at a level III/IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and level II neonatology departments until discharge home for very preterm infants and identified factors influencing these trends. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on data recorded in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry between 2008 and 2021. SETTING: A single level III/IV NICU and multiple level II neonatology departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: NICU-admitted infants (n=2646) with a gestational age (GA) <32 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LoS at the NICU and overall LoS until discharge home. RESULTS: The results showed an increase of 5.1 days (95% CI 2.2 to 8, p<0.001) in overall LoS in period 3 after accounting for confounding variables. This increase was primarily driven by extended LoS at level II hospitals, while LoS at the NICU remained stable. The study also indicated a strong association between severe complications of preterm birth and LoS. Treatment of infants with a lower GA and more (severe) complications (such as severe retinopathy of prematurity) during the more recent periods may have increased LoS. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the increasing overall LoS for very preterm infants. LoS of very preterm infants is presumably influenced by the occurrence of complications of preterm birth, which are more frequent in infants at a lower gestational age.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Tempo de Internação , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Morbidade/tendências , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
6.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Up to 60% of hospitalised neonates may develop incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). Our aim was to adapt the Clinical Evaluation Scale for Characterization of the Severity of Diaper Dermatitis to the Spanish population and to find out the nationwide frequency of IAD in hospitalized neonates. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation and assessment of content validity of the scale. We carried out a prospective, multicentre observational study of the incidence of nappy rash in postnatal wards and neonatal intensive care units in 6 Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: We obtained a content validity index of 0.869 for the total scale (95% CI, 0.742-0.939). The sample included 196 neonates. The cumulative incidence of IAD was 32.1% (9.1% mild-moderate, 8% moderate and 1.6% severe). The incidence rate was 2.2 IAD cases per 100 patient days. A stool pH of less than 5.5, a greater number of bowel movements a day, a greater daily urine output and the use of oral drugs were among the factors associated with the development of IAD. CONCLUSION: The Spanish version of the Clinical Evaluation Scale for Characterization of the Severity of Diaper Dermatitis had an adequate content validity for the assessment of DAI in the hospitalised neonatal population. Mixed feeding, treatment with oral drugs and the use of medical devices in the perianal area were associated with an increased risk of nappy dermatitis in infants.

7.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20230599, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835253

RESUMO

Research shows that guests experience peer-run respites as empowering and safe places where they feel more seen, heard, and respected than they do in conventional settings. This column describes the successful and unique processes of peer-run respites that support guests in emotional crisis and facilitate healing. In a discussion informed by their experiences and the literature, the authors examine how peer-run respites differ from conventional psychiatric crisis response services in their basic philosophy: how emotional crisis is understood, the goal of crisis response, how trauma is viewed, the importance of self-determination, power dynamics, and relationality.

8.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13676, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837325

RESUMO

Recommendations for the management of malnutrition among infants aged less than 6 months (<6 m) are based on limited evidence. This study aimed to describe the characteristics, treatment outcomes and outcome-associated factors among malnourished infants <6 m admitted at Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) inpatient and ambulatory therapeutic feeding centres (ITFC and ATFC) in North-East Nigeria, 2019-2022. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the cohorts and logistic regression to measure the association between two selected outcomes-inpatient mortality and defaulting from the ambulatory programme-and possible factors associated. In total, 940 infants <6 m were admitted at ITFC. Most of them presented severe acute malnutrition and comorbidities, with diarrhoea being the most frequent. On discharge, 13.3% (n = 125) of infants were cured, 72.9% (n = 684) stabilized (referred to ATFC), 6.5% (n = 61) left against medical advice and 4.2% (n = 39) died. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days [IQR 7-14]. A hospital stay shorter than 10 days was significantly associated with inpatient mortality (aOR = 12.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.72-42.11, p ≤ 0.01). Among 561 infants followed up at the ATFC, only 2.8% reported comorbidities. On discharge, 80.9% (n = 429) were cured, 16.2% (n = 86) defaulted and 1.1% (n = 6) died. Male sex (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.15-3.27, p = 0.01), internally displaced status (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.05-2.79, p = 0.03) and <-3 WLZ (aOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.05-3.63, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with programme defaulting. Stabilization and recovery rates among malnourished infants <6 m in the studied project align with acceptable standards in this humanitarian setting. Notable defaulting rates from outpatient care should be further explored.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consensus regarding the relationship between neonatal transfer and duration of hospitalization in cases of impaired mother-infant bonding (MIB). This study aimed to determine whether neonatal transfer and duration of hospitalization of newborns increase the risk for impaired MIB. METHODS: The MIB Scale was used to assess impaired MIB 1 year after delivery, using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. A score ≥ 5 points indicated impaired MIB. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the association between neonatal transfer and duration of hospitalization of newborns with the risk of impaired MIB. RESULTS: A total of 66,402 pregnant women were included in the study. The overall incidence rate of impaired MIB was 11.2 %. The mean duration of hospitalization of newborns was 7.1 ±â€¯6.4 days. After adjusting for potential confounders, neonatal transfer (adjusted odd ratio (OR): 1.13 [95 % confidence interval (CI)), 1.01-1.27]) and duration of hospitalization of newborns (adjusted OR 1.007; 95 % CI 1.003-1.010) were associated with impaired MIB. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the duration of hospitalization of newborns for impaired MIB was 0.53. LIMITATIONS: Maternal childhood abuse and neglect history were not evaluated, and information regarding whether the infants were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit was unavailable. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese women whose newborns underwent neonatal transfer should be followed up for at least 1 year after delivery, regardless of the duration of hospitalization of newborns.

10.
Toxicon ; : 107793, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838861

RESUMO

Bothrops atrox envenomations in the Brazilian Amazon are responsible for a number of local and systemic effects. Among these, stroke presents the worst prognosis for the patient since it may evolve into disabilities and/or premature death. This complication is caused by coagulation disorders and generates hemorrhagic and thrombotic conditions. This study presents a case report of a 54-year-old female patient who presented extensive cerebral ischemia after a B. atrox envenomation that occurred in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The patient was hospitalized for 102 days, which included a stay in the intensive care unit. Clinical and laboratory findings indicated a thrombogenic coagulopathy. On discharge, the patient had no verbal response, partial motor response, and right hemiplegia. The assessment carried out four years after discharge evidenced incapacitation (bedridden)global aphasia and bilateral lower and upper limbs showed hypotrophy with a global decrease in strength. Ischemic stroke is a possible complication of B. atrox snakebites even after antivenom treatment, with the potential to cause debilitating long-term consequences.

11.
J Patient Exp ; 11: 23743735241257810, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827226

RESUMO

Patient-centered care is a salient value expressed by stakeholders, but a commitment to implementing patient-centered care environments lags in the context of inpatient psychiatry. The current study aimed to describe patients' suggestions for improving the quality of inpatient psychiatry. We fielded a national survey online in 2021, in which we asked participants to report their recommendations for care improvement through a free-response box. We used an inductive qualitative approach to synthesize responses into themes. Most responses described negative experiences, with suggested improvements implied as the inverse or absence of the respondent's negative experience. Among 510 participants, we identified 10 themes: personalized care, empathetic connection, communication, whole health approach, humane care, physical safety, respecting patients' rights and autonomy, structural environment, equitable treatment, and continuity of care and systems. To implement the value of patient-centered care, we suggest that those in positions of power prioritize improvement initiatives around these aspects of care that patients find most in need of improvement.

12.
Pak J Med Sci ; 40(5): 800-810, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827854

RESUMO

Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of oral Hydroxychloroquine (HC), Azithromycin (AZ) and Oseltamivir (OS), alone or combined, among patients hospitalized with mildly symptomatic coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19). Methods: Following the approval of the National Bioethics Committee and prospective registration (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04338698), a multicenter randomized clinical trial of adaptive design was conducted at 10 multispecialty hospitals in Pakistan. Patients were randomized into seven treatment groups. Starting April 15, 2020, consenting, eligible, otherwise healthy adult patients or those with co-morbidities under control, were recruited if they presented with mildly symptomatic COVID-19 (scored 3 on a 7-point ordinal scale anchored between 1 = not hospitalized, able to undertake normal activities, to 7 = death) confirmed by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Two primary outcomes were assessed by day seven: Turning qRT-PCR negative; and clinical improvement of two points from the baseline. Outcome rates were compared using a chi-square test. Multiple imputations were applied to handle missing data. An interim data analysis was carried out on July 19, 2020, following which the study continued without treatment group changes. Data Safety and Monitoring Board advised to stop recruitment due to its futility on January 18, 2021. Results: Of 471 patients randomized, a total of 426 (90.4%) completed the follow-up for primary outcomes. Based on imputed data analyses at day seven: Total qRT-PCR negative cases were 137/471 (29%, 95% CI 25.0 - 33.4). By day seven, a total of 111/471 (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8 - 27.6) showed clinical improvement. No serious or non-serious adverse event was reported. Conclusions: Among patients with mild COVID-19, there was no statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of oral antimalarial, antiviral, or antibiotic treatments.Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04338698.

13.
Int J Integr Care ; 24(2): 20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828123

RESUMO

Introduction: Since 2019, the Korean government has implemented a pilot project for integrated care to encourage healthy aging of older adults. This study investigated the changes in hospitalization rates among older adults who participated in the integrated care pilot project. Methods: Administrative survey data collected from 13 local governments and the National Health Insurance Database were used in present study. The participants comprised 17,801 older adults who participated in the pilot project between August 01, 2019 and April 30, 2022 and 68,145 matched controls. A propensity score matching method was employed to select the control group, and this study employed difference-in-differences (DID) approach to examine variations in the hospitalization rate. Results: The DID analysis revealed that the odds ratio for rates of hospitalization among older adults who participated in the pilot project was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84, 0.91) in comparison to control group. In specifically, as compared to the control group, the odds ratio for hospitalization rates among the pilot project's discharged patients was 0.17 (95% CI 0.15, 0.20). Although not statistically significant, the odds ratio of older adults who utilized LTCI services was 0.93 (95% CI 0.83, 1.05), and the odds ratio of older adults who applied for LTCI but were rejected or were intensive social care was 1.09 (95% CI 0.95, 1.26) compared to the comparison group. Discussion: The findings imply that the discharged patient group had greater medical demands than the other types, and it can be claimed that this is the group that may anticipate greater efficacy while using health services. In addition, the integrated care services provided by the pilot project have the effect of reducing unnecessary hospitalization such as social hospitalization. Conclusion: Participants in the integrated care pilot project showed a lower hospitalization rate than the older adults who did not participate in the project but had similar characteristics. In particular, the admission rate of discharged patients showed a sharp decline.

14.
Health Serv Res ; 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance exchanges (Marketplace) on the rate of uninsured discharges in Texas. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY SETTING: Secondary discharge data from 2011 to 2019 from Texas. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study estimating the effects of the ACA Marketplace using difference-in-difference regressions, with the main outcome being the uninsured discharge rate. We stratified our sample by patient's race, age, gender, urbanicity, major diagnostic categories (MDC), and emergent type of admissions. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We used Texas hospital discharge records for non-elderly adults collected by the state of Texas and included acute care hospitals who reported data from 2011 to 2019. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expansion of insurance through ACA Marketplaces led to reductions in the uninsured discharge rate by 9.9% (95% CI, -17.5%, -2.3%) relative to the baseline mean. The effects of the ACA were felt strongest in counties with any share of Hispanic, in counties with a larger population of Black, and other racial groups, in counties with a significant share of female and older age individuals, in counties considered to be urban, in high-volume diagnoses, and emergent type of admissions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the ACA facilitated a shift in hospital payor mix from uninsured to insured.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1333523, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831988

RESUMO

Background: Nursing care residents have high hospitalization rates. To address this, we established a unique virtual geriatric unit that has developed a program aimed at providing support to nursing homes. Aims: We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of in-house intravenous antibiotic treatment in nursing hospitals after the implementation of the specially designed training program. Methods: A cohort study of nursing home residents to evaluate a training program for providers, designed to increase awareness and give practical tools for in-house treatment of acute infections. Data obtained included types of infections, antibiotics used, hospital transfer, and length of treatment. Primary outcomes were in-house recovery, hospitalization and mortality. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess association between different factors and recovery. Results: A total of 890 cases of acute infections were treated with intravenous antibiotics across 10 nursing homes over a total of 4,436 days. Of these cases, 34.8% were aged 90 years or older. Acute pneumonia was the most prevalent infection accounted for 354 cases (40.6%), followed by urinary tract infections (35.7%), and fever of presumed bacterial infection (17.1%). The mean duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment was 5.09 ± 3.86 days. Of the total cases, 800 (91.8%) recovered, 62 (7.1%) required hospitalization and nine (1.0%) resulted in mortality. There was no significant difference observed in recovery rates across different types of infections. Discussion: Appling a simple yet unique intervention program has led to more "in-house" residents receiving treatment, with positive clinical results. Conclusion: Treating in-house nursing home residents with acute infections resulted in high recovery rates. Special education programs and collaboration between healthcare organizations can improve treatment outcomes and decrease the burden on the healthcare system.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1383669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832317

RESUMO

Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Therefore, we aimed to assess the cardioprotective role of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors post-ACS in patients with acute HF (AHF) and diabetes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study employing propensity score matching. This study involved patients with diabetes admitted with ACS complicated by AHF, defined as either new clinical HF requiring diuretics during the index admission or having an ejection fraction (EF) of <40%. The study population was divided into two groups; (1) SGLT2 inhibitor users and (2) SGLT2 inhibitor non-users. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the outcomes. Results: A total of 465 patients (93% male; mean age, 55 ± 10 years) were included in this study. Using a 1 : 1 propensity score matching, 78 patients were included per arm with an absolute standardized difference of <0.1 for all baseline characteristics. The use of SGLT2 inhibitors resulted in lower composite outcomes of ACS, HF hospitalization, and all-cause mortality at 1 month and 12 months [1 month: 2.6% vs. 11.5%, HR = 0.20 (0.04-0.94), p = 0.041; 12 months: 14.1% vs. 23.1%, HR = 0.46 (0.22-0.99), p = 0.046]. Conclusion: The findings suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may confer cardioprotective effects in ACS-induced AHF, thereby widening the spectrum for indications of SGLT2 inhibitors.

17.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(6): 890-900, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Factors increasing the risk of maternal critical illness are rising in prevalence in maternity populations. Studies of general critical care populations highlight that severe illness is associated with longer-term physical and psychological morbidity. We aimed to compare short- and longer-term outcomes between women who required critical care admission during pregnancy/puerperium and those who did not. METHODS: This is a cohort study including all women delivering in Scottish hospitals between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2018, using national healthcare databases. The primary exposure was intensive care unit (ICU) admission, while secondary exposures included high dependency unit admission. Outcomes included hospital readmission (1-year post-hospital discharge, 1-year mortality, psychiatric hospital admission, stillbirth, and neonatal critical care admission). Multivariable Cox and logistic regression were used to report hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) of association between ICU admission and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 762,918 deliveries, 1449 (0.18%) women were admitted to ICU, most commonly due to post-partum hemorrhage (225, 15.5%) followed by eclampsia/pre-eclampsia (133, 9.2%). Over-half (53.8%) required mechanical ventilation. One-year hospital readmission was more frequent in women admitted to ICU compared with non-ICU populations [24.5% (n = 299) vs 8.9% (n = 68,029)]. This association persisted after confounder adjustment (HR 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33, 2.81, p < 0.001). Furthermore, maternal ICU admission was associated with increased 1-year mortality (HR 40.06, 95% CI 24.04, 66.76, p < 0.001), stillbirth (OR 12.31, 95% CI 7.95,19.08, p < 0.001) and neonatal critical care admission (OR 6.99, 95% CI 5.64,8.67, p < 0.001) after confounder adjustment. CONCLUSION: Critical care admission increases the risk of adverse short-term and long-term maternal, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Optimizing long-term post-partum care may benefit maternal critical illness survivors.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 572, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year in Italy, influenza affects about 4 million people. Almost 5% of them are hospitalised. During peak illness, enormous pressure is placed on healthcare and economic systems. This study aims to quantify the clinical and economic burden of severe influenza during 5 epidemic seasons (2014-2019) from administrative claims data. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of influenza between October 2014, and April 2019, were analyzed. Clinical characteristics and administrative information were retrieved from health-related Administrative Databases (ADs) of 4 Italian Local Health Units (LHUs). The date of first admission was set as the Index Date (ID). A follow-up period of six months after ID was considered to account for complications and re-hospitalizations, while a lookback period (2 years before ID) was set to assess the prevalence of underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: Out of 2,333 patients with severe influenza, 44.1% were adults ≥ 65, and 25.6% young individuals aged 0-17. 46.8% had comorbidities (i.e., were at risk), mainly cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (45.3%), and chronic conditions (24.7%). The highest hospitalization rates were among the elderly (≥ 75) and the young individuals (0-17), and were 37.6 and 19.5/100,000 inhabitants/year, respectively. The average hospital stay was 8 days (IQR: 14 - 4). It was higher for older individuals (≥ 65 years, 11 days, [17 - 6]) and for those with comorbidities (9 days, [16 - 6]), p-value < 0.001. Similarly, mortality was higher in elderly and those at risk (p-value < 0.001). Respiratory complications occurred in 12.7% of patients, and cardiovascular disorders in 5.9%. Total influenza-related costs were €9.7 million with hospitalization accounting for 95% of them. 47.3% of hospitalization costs were associated with individuals ≥ 65 and 52.9% with patients at risk. The average hospitalisation cost per patient was € 4,007. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study showed that during the 2014-2019 influenza seasons in Italy, individuals of extreme ages and those with pre-existing medical conditions, were more likely to be hospitalized with severe influenza. Together with complications and ageing, they worsen patient's outcome and may lead to a prolonged hospitalization, thus increasing healthcare utilization and costs. Our data generate real-world evidence on the burden of influenza, useful to inform public health decision-making.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Recém-Nascido , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estações do Ano , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Bases de Dados Factuais
19.
Juntendo Iji Zasshi ; 70(1): 2-8, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854815

RESUMO

Daily health management and exercise are important for staying healthy and avoiding the need for long-term care. However, it is not easy to maintain regular exercise. Therefore, exercise needs to be done efficiently. In recent years, due to the aging population and increasing severity of illness, older patients often experience a significant decline in physical function, even with minimal rest, which often interferes with their daily life after discharge from the hospital. Frailty not only affects ADLs, but also strongly influences prognosis, including the development of atherosclerotic disease and rehospitalization. This perspective is a summary of the 51st Metropolitan Public Lecture held on June 17, 2023, and discusses exercise-based rehabilitation programs that can be delivered at home to prevent physical frailty and avoid hospitalization-related disability.

20.
Korean Circ J ; 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may depend on renal function, and this raises theoretical concern over its effects on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: This systematic review and updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared cardiovascular outcomes of patients with T2DM and CKD treated with SGLT2i to placebo. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed in strata of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <45 mL/min/1.73 m² and 45 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m². RESULTS: Nine RCTs comprising 29,146 patients were selected. Average follow-up ranged from 0.75 to 4.2 years. SGLT2i were shown to reduce the risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.97; p=0.01), the composite of cardiovascular mortality or hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF: HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.65-0.78; p<0.001), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98; p=0.02), HHF (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55-0.71; p<0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.94; p=0.002), stroke (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.97; p=0.03), and myocardial infarction (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91; p=0.001). These findings were consistent over strata of eGFR, albeit with a lower incidence of stroke in patients treated with SGLT2i with eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m² (p-value for interaction=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a placebo, patients with T2DM and CKD treated with SGLT2i experience a reduction in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and HHF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42023401081.

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