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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1373255, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585266

RESUMO

Acting through a combination of direct and indirect pathogen clearance mechanisms, blood-derived antimicrobial compounds (AMCs) play a pivotal role in innate immunity, safeguarding the host against invading microorganisms. Besides their antimicrobial activity, some AMCs can neutralize endotoxins, preventing their interaction with immune cells and avoiding an excessive inflammatory response. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of unfractionated heparin, a polyanionic drug clinically used as anticoagulant, on the endotoxin-neutralizing and antibacterial activity of blood-derived AMCs. Serum samples from healthy donors were pre-incubated with increasing concentrations of heparin for different time periods and tested against pathogenic bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) and endotoxins from E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa. Heparin dose-dependently decreased the activity of blood-derived AMCs. Consequently, pre-incubation with heparin led to increased activity of LPS and higher values of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Accordingly, higher concentrations of A. baumannii, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were observed as well. These findings underscore the neutralizing effect of unfractionated heparin on blood-derived AMCs in vitro and may lead to alternative affinity techniques for isolating and characterizing novel AMCs with the potential for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Heparina , Heparina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae
2.
Life Sci ; 346: 122591, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548013

RESUMO

As a family of cationic host defense peptides, human ß-defensins (HBDs) are ubiquitous in the oral cavity and are mainly synthesized primarily by epithelial cells, serving as the primary barrier and aiming to prevent microbial invasion, inflammation, and disease while maintaining physiological homeostasis. In recent decades, there has been great interest in their biological functions, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential in oral diseases. Meanwhile, researchers are dedicated to improving the properties of HBDs for clinical application. In this review, we first describe the classification, structural characteristics, functions, and mechanisms of HBDs. Next, we cover the role of HBDs and their synthetic analogs in oral diseases, including dental caries and pulp infections, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, fungal/viral infections and oral mucosal diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we discuss the limitations and challenges of clinical translation of HBDs and their synthetic analogs, including, but not limited to, stability, bioavailability, antimicrobial activity, resistance, and toxicity. Above all, this review summarizes the biological functions, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential of both natural HBDs and their synthetic analogs in oral diseases, as well as the challenges associated with clinical translation, thus providing substantial insights into the laboratory development and clinical application of HBDs in oral diseases.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/farmacologia , beta-Defensinas/química , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 15(1): 29, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a major enteric disease in poultry, yet effective mitigation strategies remain elusive. Deoxycholic acid (DCA) and butyrate, two major metabolites derived from the intestinal microbiota, have independently been shown to induce host defense peptide (HDP) synthesis. However, the potential synergy between these two compounds remains unexplored. METHODS: To investigate the possible synergistic effect between DCA and butyrate in regulating HDP synthesis and barrier function, we treated chicken HD11 macrophage cells and jejunal explants with DCA and sodium butyrate (NaB), either individually or in combination, for 24 h. Subsequently, we performed RNA isolation and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR to analyze HDP genes as well as the major genes associated with barrier function. To further determine the synergy between DCA and NaB in enhancing NE resistance, we conducted two independent trials with Cobb broiler chicks. In each trial, the diet was supplemented with DCA or NaB on the day-of-hatch, followed by NE induction through sequential challenges with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens on d 10 and 14, respectively. We recorded animal mortality after infection and assessed intestinal lesions on d 17. The impact of DCA and NaB on the microbiota in the ileum and cecum was evaluated through bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: We found that the combination of DCA and NaB synergistically induced multiple HDP genes in both chicken HD11 cells and jejunal explants. Additionally, the gene for claudin-1, a major tight junction protein, also exhibited synergistic induction in response to DCA and NaB. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with a combination of 0.75 g/kg DCA and 1 g/kg NaB led to a significant improvement in animal survival and a reduction in intestinal lesions compared to either compound alone in a chicken model of NE. Notably, the cecal microbiota of NE-infected chickens showed a marked decrease in SCFA-producing bacteria such as Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, and Cuneatibacter, with lactobacilli becoming the most dominant species. However, supplementation with DCA and NaB largely restored the intestinal microbiota to healthy levels. CONCLUSIONS: DCA synergizes with NaB to induce HDP and claudin-1 expression and enhance NE resistance, with potential for further development as cost-effective antibiotic alternatives.

4.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540740

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as well as host defense peptides (HDPs), constitute the first line of defense as part of the innate immune system. Humans are known to express antimicrobial precursor proteins, which are further processed to generate AMPs, including several types of α/ß defensins, histatins, and cathelicidin-derived AMPs like LL37. The broad-spectrum activity of AMPs is crucial to defend against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria is of global concern for public health. The prospects of targeting antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria with AMPs are of high significance for developing new generations of antimicrobial agents. The 37-residue long LL37, the only cathelicidin family of AMP in humans, has been the major focus for the past few decades of research. The host defense activity of LL37 is likely underscored by its expression throughout the body, spanning from the epithelial cells of various organs-testis, skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract-to immune cells. Remarkably, apart from canonical direct killing of pathogenic organisms, LL37 exerts several other host defense activities, including inflammatory response modulation, chemo-attraction, and wound healing and closure at the infected sites. In addition, LL37 and its derived peptides are bestowed with anti-cancer and anti-amyloidogenic properties. In this review article, we aim to develop integrative, mechanistic insight into LL37 and its derived peptides, based on the known biophysical, structural, and functional studies in recent years. We believe that this review will pave the way for future research on the structures, biochemical and biophysical properties, and design of novel LL37-based molecules.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Catelicidinas , Humanos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Pele/metabolismo
5.
J Innate Immun ; 16(1): 203-215, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: TNFα-inducible matrix metalloproteinases play a critical role in the process of airway remodeling in respiratory inflammatory disease including asthma. The cationic host defense peptide LL-37 is elevated in the lungs during airway inflammation. However, the impact of LL-37 on TNFα-driven processes is not well understood. Here, we examined the effect of LL-37 on TNFα-mediated responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). METHODS: We used a slow off-rate modified aptamer-based proteomics approach to define the HBEC proteome altered in response to TNFα. Abundance of selected protein candidates and signaling intermediates was examined using immunoassays, ELISA and Western blots, and mRNA abundance was examined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Proteomics analysis revealed that 124 proteins were significantly altered, 12 proteins were enhanced by ≥2-fold compared to unstimulated cells, in response to TNFα. MMP9 was the topmost increased protein in response to TNFα, enhanced by ∼10-fold, and MMP13 was increased by ∼3-fold, compared to unstimulated cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LL-37 significantly suppressed TNFα-mediated MMP9 and MMP13 in HBEC. Mechanistic data revealed that TNFα-mediated MMP9 and MMP13 production is controlled by SRC kinase and that LL-37 enhances related upstream negative regulators, namely, phospho-AKT (T308) and TNFα-mediated TNFAIP3 or A20. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that LL-37 may play a role in intervening in the process of airway remodeling in chronic inflammatory respiratory disease such as asthma.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Asma , Brônquios , Catelicidinas , Células Epiteliais , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteômica , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 68(4): e0126123, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415983

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance represents a significant challenge to public health and human safety. The primary driver behind the dissemination of antibiotic resistance is the horizontal transfer of plasmids. Current conjugative transfer assay is generally performed in a standardized manner, ignoring the effect of the host environment. Host defense peptides (HDPs) possess a wide range of biological targets and play an essential role in the innate immune system. Herein, we reveal that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of HDPs facilitate the conjugative transfer of RP4-7 plasmid in the Luria Broth medium, and this observation is reversed in the RPMI medium, designed to simulate the host environment. Out of these HDPs, indolicidin (Ind), a cationic tridecapeptide from bovine neutrophils, significantly inhibits the conjugation of multidrug resistance plasmids in a dose-dependent manner, including blaNDM- and tet(X4)-bearing plasmids. We demonstrate that the addition of Ind to RPMI medium as the incubation substrate downregulates the expression of conjugation-related genes. In addition, Ind weakens the tricarboxylic acid cycle, impedes the electron transport chain, and disrupts the proton motive force, consequently diminishing the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate and limiting the energy supply. Our findings highlight the importance of the host-like environments for the development of horizontal transfer inhibitors and demonstrate the potential of HDPs in preventing the spread of resistance plasmids.


Assuntos
Conjugação Genética , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
7.
Arch Med Res ; 55(2): 102966, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The increasing dilemma of multidrug-resistant cancer cells in response to currently available chemotherapeutic drugs and their associated side effect(s), calls for the investigation of alternative anticancer advances and molecules. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the combinatorial potential against colon cancer of human defensin 5 in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and against 5-FU resistant colon tumor cells. METHODS: The in vivo combinatorial potential of HD-5 with 5-FU was elucidated in terms of tumor morphometrics, apoptosis assay, surface morphology histology of the colon(s), and transcriptional alterations. Changes in membrane dynamics with mucin expression were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and histochemistry. The in vitro activity of the peptide/drug conjunction was explored by phase contrast microscopy, MTT, LDH assay, and AO/EtBr staining. Chemoresistance to 5-FU was determined by phase contrast microscopy, MTT assay, annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry, and MDR-1, Bak, and Bax expression. RESULTS: In vivo decreases in tumor parameters, with a marked increase in apoptosis and neutrophil infiltrations indicated restoration of normal architecture with improved mucin content in the treated colons. This happened with substantial changes in key molecular markers of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Membrane dynamics revealed that peptides and chemotherapeutic drugs could bind to cancerous cells by taking advantage of altered levels of membrane fluidity. CONCLUSION: Peptide treatment of drug-resistant Caco-2 cells promotes enhanced 5-FU uptake, in contrast to when cells were treated with 5-FU alone. Hence, HD-5 as an adjunct to 5-FU, exhibited strong cancer cell killing even against 5-FU-resistant tumorigenic cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Fluoruracila , Precursores de Proteínas , Humanos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Apoptose , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Mucinas/uso terapêutico
8.
Peptides ; 175: 171180, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401671

RESUMO

Investigations conducted since 2018 have identified several host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions whose properties suggest the possibility of their development into a new class of agent for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) therapy. Studies in vitro have described peptides that (a) stimulate insulin release from BRIN-BD11 clonal ß-cells and isolated mouse islets, (b) display ß-cell proliferative activity and protect against cytokine-mediated apoptosis and (c) stimulate production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and inhibit production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß. Rhinophrynin-27, phylloseptin-3.2TR and temporin F are peptides with therapeutic potential. Studies in vivo carried out in db/db and high fat-fed mice have shown that twice-daily administration of [S4K]CPF-AM1 and [A14K]PGLa-AM1, analogs of peptides first isolated from the octoploid frog Xenopus amieti, over 28 days lowers circulating glucose and HbA1c concentrations, increases insulin sensitivity and improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Peptide treatment produced potentially beneficial changes in the expression of skeletal muscle genes involved in insulin signaling and islet genes involved in insulin secretion in these murine models of T2D. Lead compounds uncovered by the study of frog HDPs may provide a basis for the design of new types of agents that can be used, alone or in combination with existing therapies, for the treatment of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Camundongos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/metabolismo , Anuros/metabolismo , Glucose , Citocinas
9.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2303295, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321619

RESUMO

The emerging antibiotic resistance has been named by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the top 10 threats to public health. Notably, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF) are designated as serious threats, whereas Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as one of the most urgent threats to human health and unmet medical need. Herein, they report the design and application of novel biodegradable polymers - the lipidated antimicrobial guanidinylate polycarbonates. These polymers showed potent antimicrobial activity against a panel of bacteria with fast-killing kinetics and low resistance development tendency, mainly due to their bacterial membrane disruption mechanism. More importantly, the optimal polymer showed excellent antibacterial activity against C. difficile infection (CDI) in vivo via oral administration. In addition, compared with vancomycin, the polymer demonstrated a much-prolonged therapeutic effect and virtually diminished recurrence rate of CDI. The convenient synthesis, easy scale-up, low cost, as well as biodegradability of this class of polycarbonates, together with their in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and orally in vivo efficacy against CDI, suggest the great potential of lipidated guandinylate polycarbonates as a new class of antibacterial biomaterials to treat CDI and combat emerging antibiotic resistance.

10.
Methods ; 224: 10-20, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295893

RESUMO

AMPs are short, mainly cationic membrane-active peptides found in all living organism. They perform diverse roles including signaling and acting as a line of defense against bacterial infections. AMPs have been extensively investigated as templates to facilitate the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutics. Understanding the interplay between these membrane-active peptides and the lipid membranes is considered to be a significant step in elucidating the specific mechanism of action of AMPs against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to aid the development of new therapeutics. In this review, we have provided a brief overview of various NMR techniques commonly used for studying AMP structure and AMP-membrane interactions in model membranes and whole cells.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/análise , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Membrana Celular/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1866(3): 184269, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176532

RESUMO

To address the global problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered promising therapeutic candidates due to their broad-spectrum and membrane-lytic activity. As preferential interactions with bacteria are crucial, it is equally important to investigate and understand their impact on eukaryotic cells. In this study, we employed 19F solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) as a novel approach to examine the interaction of AMPs with whole red blood cells (RBCs). We used RBC ghosts (devoid of hemoglobin) and developed a protocol to label their lipid membranes with palmitic acid (PA) monofluorinated at carbon positions 4, 8, or 14 on the acyl chain, allowing us to probe different locations in model and intact RBC ghost membranes. Our work revealed that changes in the 19F chemical shift anisotropy, monitored through a CF bond order parameter (SCF), can provide insights into lipid bilayer dynamics. This information was also obtained using magic-angle spinning 19F ssNMR spectra with and without 1H decoupling, by studying alterations in the second spectral moment (M2) as well as the 19F isotropic chemical shift, linewidth, T1, and T2 relaxation times. The appearance of an additional isotropic peak with a smaller chemical shift anisotropy, a narrower linewidth, and a shorter T1, induced by the AMP caerin 1.1, supports the presence of high-curvature regions in RBCs indicative of pore formation, analogous to its antimicrobial mechanism. In summary, the straightforward incorporation of monofluorinated FAs and rapid signal acquisition offer promising avenues for the study of whole cells using 19F ssNMR.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1866(3): 184260, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113954

RESUMO

With the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, there is a need to design synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are effective and selective for bacteria, i.e. non-toxic to mammalian cells. One design strategy, namely the use of tryptophan- and arginine-rich AMPs, is rooted in the study of natural AMPs that are composed mainly of these amino acids, such as lactoferricin, tritrpticin, and puroindoline. A number of important studies on these AMPs by the Vogel group are reviewed here. More recent work on W-/R-rich peptides is also presented. The examples show that these peptides represent anti-infectives with great potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Triptofano , Animais , Triptofano/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Peptídeos/química , Mamíferos
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37906428

RESUMO

In the protracted "arms race" between host and plant pathogenic bacteria, host organisms have evolved powerful weapons known as host defense peptides (HDPs). However, natural HDPs are not suitable for large-scale applications; therefore, researchers have chosen to develop bespoke small-molecule functional mimics. Phenothiazine derivatives were developed as functional HDPs mimics, owing to their broad biological activity and high lipophilicity. The phenothiazine analogues designed in this study exhibited excellent in vitro bioactivity against the three Gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, and Pseudomonas syringae pv actinidiae, with optimal EC50 values of 0.80, 0.31, and 1.91 µg/mL, respectively. Preliminary evidence suggests that compound C2 may act on bacterial cell membranes and interact with bacterial Deoxyribonucleic acid in the groove binding mode. In vivo trials showed that compound C2 was highly effective against rice leaf blight (51.97-56.69%), with activity superior to those of bismerthiazol (40.7-43.4%) and thiodiazole copper (30.2-37.1%). Our study provides strong evidence to support the development of phenothiazine derivatives into pesticide candidates.

14.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(10)2023 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37895956

RESUMO

The binding of Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) to the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria has important unsolved aspects. For most HDPs, it is unclear if binding is part of the antibacterial mechanism or whether LPS actually provides a protective layer against HDP killing. In addition, HDP binding to LPS can block the subsequent TLR4-mediated activation of the immune system. This dual activity is important, considering that HDPs are thought of as an alternative to conventional antibiotics, which do not provide this dual activity. In this study, we systematically determine, for the first time, the influence of the O-antigen and Lipid A composition on both the antibacterial and anti-endotoxin activity of four HDPs (CATH-2, PR-39, PMAP-23, and PMAP36). The presence of the O-antigen did not affect the antibacterial activity of any of the tested HDPs. Similarly, modification of the lipid A phosphate (MCR-1 phenotype) also did not affect the activity of the HDPs. Furthermore, assessment of inner and outer membrane damage revealed that CATH-2 and PMAP-36 are profoundly membrane-active and disrupt the inner and outer membrane of Escherichia coli simultaneously, suggesting that crossing the outer membrane is the rate-limiting step in the bactericidal activity of these HDPs but is independent of the presence of an O-antigen. In contrast to killing, larger differences were observed for the anti-endotoxin properties of HDPs. CATH-2 and PMAP-36 were much stronger at suppressing LPS-induced activation of macrophages compared to PR-39 and PMAP-23. In addition, the presence of only one phosphate group in the lipid A moiety reduced the immunomodulating activity of these HDPs. Overall, the data strongly suggest that LPS composition has little effect on bacterial killing but that Lipid A modification can affect the immunomodulatory role of HDPs. This dual activity should be considered when HDPs are considered for application purposes in the treatment of infectious diseases.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 21(10)2023 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37888438

RESUMO

Marine invertebrates constantly interact with a wide range of microorganisms in their aquatic environment and possess an effective defense system that has enabled their existence for millions of years. Their lack of acquired immunity sets marine invertebrates apart from other marine animals. Invertebrates could rely on their innate immunity, providing the first line of defense, survival, and thriving. The innate immune system of marine invertebrates includes various biologically active compounds, and specifically, antimicrobial peptides. Nowadays, there is a revive of interest in these peptides due to the urgent need to discover novel drugs against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, a pressing global concern in modern healthcare. Modern technologies offer extensive possibilities for the development of innovative drugs based on these compounds, which can act against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. This review focuses on structural peculiarities, biological functions, gene expression, biosynthesis, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, regulatory activities, and prospects for the therapeutic use of antimicrobial peptides derived from marine invertebrates.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Invertebrados , Animais , Invertebrados/química , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bactérias
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(18)2023 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37762180

RESUMO

Obesity and metabolic comorbidities are associated with gut permeability. While high-fructose and Western-style diet (WSD) disrupt intestinal barrier function, oral administration of human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and ß-defensin 2 (hBD2) is believed to improve intestinal integrity and metabolic disorders. Eighty-four male C57BL/6J mice were fed a WSD or a control diet (CD) ± fructose (F) for 18 weeks. In week 13, mice were randomly divided into three intervention groups, receiving defensin fragment HD51-9, full-length hBD2, or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-control for six weeks. Subsequently, parameters of hepatic steatosis, glucose metabolism, and gut barrier function were assessed. WSDF increased body weight and hepatic steatosis (p < 0.01) compared to CD-fed mice, whereas peptide intervention decreased liver fat (p < 0.05) and number of hepatic lipid droplets (p < 0.01) compared to BSA-control. In addition, both peptides attenuated glucose intolerance by reducing blood glucose curves in WSDF-fed mice. Evaluation of gut barrier function revealed that HD51-9 and hBD2 improve intestinal integrity by upregulating tight junction and mucin expression. Moreover, peptide treatment restored ileal host defense peptides (HDP) expression, likely by modulating the Wnt, Myd88, p38, and Jak/STAT pathways. These findings strongly suggest that α- and ß-defensin treatment improve hepatic steatosis, glucose metabolism, and gut barrier function.

17.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 12(31): e2300987, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689972

RESUMO

Surgical site infections (SSI) are a clinical and economic burden. Suture-associated SSI may develop when bacteria colonize the suture surface and form biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics. Thrombin-derived C-terminal peptide (TCP)-25 is a host defense peptide with a unique dual mode of action that can target both bacteria and the excessive inflammation induced by bacterial products. The peptide demonstrates therapeutic potential in preclinical in vivo wound infection models. In this study, the authors set out to explore whether TCP-25 can provide a new bioactive innate immune feature to hydrophilic polyglactin sutures (Vicryl). Using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, antibacterial, biofilm, and anti-inflammatory assays in vitro, in silico molecular modeling studies, along with experimental infection and inflammation models in mice, a proof-of-concept that TCP-25 can provide Vicryl sutures with a previously undisclosed host defense capacity, that enables targeting of bacteria, biofilms, and the accompanying inflammatory response, is shown.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Poliglactina 910 , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Poliglactina 910/uso terapêutico , Suturas , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos
18.
Protein Pept Lett ; 30(7): 562-573, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231717

RESUMO

Due to the rapid evolution of bacterial drug resistance, anti-infective treatment has become a global problem. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important components of the natural immune system and are widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms. Amphibians, especially their skin, provide a rich source of natural HDPs encoded by genes. These HDPs exhibit not only broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but also a wide range of immunoregulatory characteristics, including modulation of antiinflammatory and proinflammatory reactions, regulation of specific cellular functions, enhancement of immune chemotaxis, regulation of adaptive immunity, and promotion of wound healing. They also show potent therapeutic effects on infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, in the current review, we summarize the extensive immunomodulatory functions of natural amphibian HDPs, as well as the challenges of clinical development and potential solutions, which have important implications for the development of new anti-infective drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Imunidade Inata , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico
19.
Cytokine ; 168: 156229, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37244247

RESUMO

AIM: ß-defensins 2 and -3 (HBD-2 and HBD-3) and cathelicidin LL-37 are host defense peptides (HDPs) that play a crucial role in the immune response against mycobacteria. Given our former studies in tuberculosis patients wherein their plasma levels of such peptides correlated with steroid hormone concentrations, we now studied the reciprocal influence of cortisol and/or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on HDPs biosynthesis and LL-37 on adrenal steroidogenesis. MAIN METHODS: Cultures of macrophages derived from the THP-1 line were treated with cortisol (10-6M) and/or DHEA (10-6M and 10-7M) and stimulated with irradiated M. tuberculosis (Mi) or infected M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv to assess cytokine production, HDPs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and colony forming units. Cultures of NCI-H295-R adrenal line were treated with LL37 (5, 10, and 15 µg/ml) for 24 h to further measure cortisol and DHEA levels together with steroidogenic enzyme transcripts. KEY FINDINGS: In macrophages, M. tuberculosis produced an increase of IL-1ß, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, LL-37, HBD-2, and HBD-3 levels, irrespective of DHEA treatment. Adding cortisol to M. tuberculosis-stimulated cultures (with or without DHEA) decreased the amounts of these mediators, compared to only stimulated cultures. Although M. tuberculosis reduced ROS levels, DHEA increased these values in addition to diminishing intracellular mycobacterial growth (no matter cortisol treatment). In turn, studies on adrenal cells showed that LL-37 reduced the production of cortisol and DHEA besides modifying transcripts for some steroidogenic enzymes. SIGNIFICANCE: while adrenal steroids seem to influence the production of HDPs, the former compounds are also likely to modulate adrenal biogenesis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Desidroepiandrosterona , Hidrocortisona , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Esteroides
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1119574, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37056758

RESUMO

Intracellular bacteria cause a wide range of diseases, and their intracellular lifestyle makes infections difficult to resolve. Furthermore, standard therapy antibiotics are often unable to eliminate the infection because they have poor cellular uptake and do not reach the concentrations needed to kill bacteria. In this context, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising therapeutic approach. AMPs are short cationic peptides. They are essential components of the innate immune response and important candidates for therapy due to their bactericidal properties and ability to modulate host immune responses. AMPs control infections through their diverse immunomodulatory effects stimulating and/or boosting immune responses. This review focuses on AMPs described to treat intracellular bacterial infections and the known immune mechanisms they influence.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Humanos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Inata
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