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2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 36, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI) measures adherence to the dietary pattern presented by the EAT-Lancet Commission, which aligns health and sustainability targets. There is a need to understand how PHDI scores correlate with dietary greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and how this differs from the carbon footprints of scores on established dietary recommendations. The objectives of this study were to compare how the PHDI, Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) relate to (a) dietary GHGE and (b) to examine the influence of PHDI food components on dietary GHGE. METHODS: We used life cycle assessment data from the Database of Food Recall Impacts on the Environment for Nutrition and Dietary Studies to calculate the mean dietary GHGE of 8,128 adult participants in the 2015-2016 and 2017-2018 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Poisson regression was used to estimate the association of (a) quintiles of diet score and (b) standardized dietary index Z-scores with dietary GHGE for PHDI, HEI-2015, and DASH scores. In secondary analyses, we used Poisson regression to assess the influence of individual PHDI component scores on dietary GHGE. RESULTS: We found that higher dietary quality on all three indices was correlated with lower dietary GHGE. The magnitude of the dietary quality-dietary GHGE relationship was larger for PHDI [-0.4, 95% CI (-0.5, -0.3) kg CO2 equivalents per one standard deviation change] and for DASH [-0.5, (-0.4, -0.6) kg CO2-equivalents] than for HEI-2015 [-0.2, (-0.2, -0.3) kg CO2-equivalents]. When examining PHDI component scores, we found that diet-related GHGE were driven largely by red and processed meat intake. CONCLUSIONS: Improved dietary quality has the potential to lower the emissions impacts of US diets. Future efforts to promote healthy, sustainable diets could apply the recommendations of the established DASH guidelines as well as the new guidance provided by the PHDI to increase their environmental benefits.


Assuntos
Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Adulto , Humanos , Dieta Saudável , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dieta
3.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 81, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and dyslipidemia are important risk factors for hypertension (HTN). When these two conditions coexist, they may interact in a synergistic manner and increase the risk of developing HTN and its associated complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of general and central obesity with dyslipidemia on the risk of HTN. METHOD: Data from 40,387 individuals aged 25 to 64 years were obtained from a repeated cross-sectional study examining risk factors for non-communicable diseases (STEPS) in 2007, 2011 and 2016. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as a measure of general obesity and waist circumference (WC) as a measure of central obesity. Dyslipidemia was defined as the presence of at least one of the lipid abnormalities. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. To analyze the synergistic effect between obesity and dyslipidemia and HTN, the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (SI) were calculated. A weighted logistic regression model was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of HTN. RESULTS: The results showed an association between obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The interaction between obesity and dyslipidemia significantly influences the risk of hypertension. In hypertensive patients, the presence of general obesity increased from 14.55% without dyslipidemia to 64.36% with dyslipidemia, while central obesity increased from 13.27 to 58.88%. This interaction is quantified by RERI and AP values of 0.15 and 0.06 for general obesity and 0.24 and 0.09 for central obesity, respectively. The corresponding SI of 1.11 and 1.16 indicate a synergistic effect. The OR also show that the risk of hypertension is increased in the presence of obesity and dyslipidemia. CONCLUSION: Obesity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for HTN. In addition, dyslipidemia with central obesity increases the risk of HTN and has a synergistic interaction effect on HTN. Therefore, the coexistence of obesity and lipid abnormalities has many clinical implications and should be appropriately monitored and evaluated in the management of HTN.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(8): e18270, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568081

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serum copper concentration and the prevalence of diabetes among US adults with hypertension using the data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The study population was selected from adults aged over 20 years old in the three survey cycles of NHANES from 2011 to 2016. Logistic regression model analyses were applied to determine the independent risky effect of copper to the prevalence of diabetes. Also, a restricted cubic spline (RCS) model was performed to explore the potential nonlinear association between serum copper concentration and the prevalence of diabetes. A total of 1786 subjects (742 cases and 1044 controls) were included, and 924 were men (51.7%), and 742 (41.5%) were diabetic. Compared with non-diabetic individuals, the concentration of serum copper in diabetic patients with hypertension was higher. After adjusting for age, sex, race, education, marital status, body mass index (BMI), family poverty income ratio (PIR), smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hyperlipidemia, the highest quartile of serum copper concentration significantly increased the risk of diabetes as compared with the lowest quartile (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.92, ptrend = 0.036). The results of RCS analysis showed significant non-linear relationship between serum copper concentration and prevalence of diabetes (p-non-linear = 0.010). This study finds that serum copper concentration are significantly associated with risk of diabetes in hypertensive patients, which suggests copper as an important risk factor of diabetes development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cobre , Prevalência , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
5.
Front Physiol ; 15: 1294369, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571722

RESUMO

The significant morbidity and premature mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is largely associated with its cardiovascular consequences. Focus has long been on the arterial atheromatosis of DM giving rise to early stroke and myocardial infarctions, whereas less attention has been given to its non-ischemic cardiovascular consequences. Irrespective of ischemic changes, T2DM is associated with heart failure (HF) most commonly with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Largely due to increasing population ages, hypertension, obesity and T2DM, HFpEF is becoming the most prevalent form of heart failure. Unfortunately, randomized controlled trials of HFpEF have largely been futile, and it now seems logical to address the important different phenotypes of HFpEF to understand their underlying pathophysiology. In the early phases, HFpEF is associated with a significantly impaired ability to increase cardiac output with exercise. The lowered cardiac output with exercise results from both cardiac and peripheral causes. T2DM is associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction based on LV hypertrophy with myocardial disperse fibrosis and significantly impaired ability for myocardial blood flow increments with exercise. T2DM is also associated with impaired ability for skeletal muscle vasodilation during exercise, and as is the case in the myocardium, such changes may be related to vascular rarefaction. The present review discusses the underlying phenotypical changes of the heart and peripheral vascular system and their importance for an adequate increase in cardiac output. Since many of the described cardiovascular changes with T2DM must be considered difficult to change if fully developed, it is suggested that patients with T2DM are early evaluated with respect to their cardiovascular compromise.

6.
Cureus ; 16(3): e55504, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571831

RESUMO

Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors that produce, store, and secrete catecholamines. They are found in the chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla and manifest clinical symptoms by producing an excessive amount of one or more catecholamines, such as dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, as well as their inactive metabolites, such as metanephrine, normetanephrine, and 3-methoxytyramine. This paper is the case report of a 53-year-old male patient with diabetes and hypertension who has been experiencing symptoms such as night sweats, frequent colds, weight loss, reduced appetite, and generalized anxiety. The patient presented with pelvic pain and sought medical attention, leading to an abdominal MRI scan that revealed a right adrenal mass. The patient's plasma metanephrine levels were found to be four-fold higher than the normal range. A contrast CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a right adrenal gland with increased dimensions and well-defined edges. A diagnosis of right adrenal pheochromocytoma was made. The patient underwent a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy, which resulted in a reduction in metanephrine levels and normal blood pressure readings. The patient presented a favorable clinical evolution in the post-surgical period, for which it was decided to be discharged home.

7.
Cureus ; 16(3): e55478, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications pose significant health risks and increase mortality. In DM patients, metabolic syndrome (MetSy) either precedes or coexists with the condition. Central obesity, poor glycemic control, hypertension, elevated triglycerides (TG), and low high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) are the components of MetSy. The purpose of this study is to investigate related diabetic microvascular complications in type 1 DM (T1DM) by comparing them with type 2 DM (T2DM), determine potential risk factors, and estimate prevalence based on the diagnosis of MetSy. METHODOLOGY: This study included 160 T1DM and 160 T2DM patients, totaling 320 DM patients. It was carried out from April 20, 2022, to September 31, 2023, at the Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, in the Outdoor Diabetic Clinic and Medicine Department. A unique questionnaire was utilized to gather socio-demographic, general, clinical, and laboratory data for the MetSy criteria set forth by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, while venous fasting blood was used to assess biochemical markers such as HDL-C, TG, and fasting blood sugar. The microvascular diabetes complications were identified using abdominal ultrasound, fundus ophthalmoscopy, and routine laboratory tests. We quantified and analyzed these variables individually for T1DM and T2DM patients with or without MetSy and compared them in the presence or absence of diabetes microvascular complications. RESULTS: MetSy prevalence was 25.62% (41, n=160) for T1DM and 60.62% (97, n=160) for T2DM, totaling 43.12%. Among T1DM patients with MetSy, the majority were married males, aged 36-49 years, with a BMI of 26.69±2.20 kg/m2 and a WC of 85.12±4.23, and 67.5% (108) patients had diabetes microvascular complications. Comparatively, in T2DM with MetSy, the majority were married females aged 50-59 years with a BMI of 29.79 ± 4.65 kg/m² and a large WC of 93.43±4.49, and 75% (123) patients had diabetes microvascular complications. Overall, this study noted significant p-values for hypertension, elevated TG, low HDL-c, high WC, obesity, female gender in T2DM, and above 36 years of age in both groups with MetSy. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) at 32.4% (p<0.001) was the most prevalent T1DM microvascular complication, followed by nephropathy (30.6%), neuropathy (DN) at 28.1%, and gastroparesis (DG) at 22.3%. Whereas in T2DM, the prevalence of DN was 36.3% (p<0.001), followed by DKD (29.3%), DG (28.9%), and DR (24.9%). CONCLUSION: Nearly a quarter of T1DM patients had MetSy, with increasing percentages of overweight and obese patients who are more likely to have DR, DKD, or DN. MetSy affects two-thirds of T2DM patients, with married obese females aged 50-59 being more susceptible than males, who are more likely to suffer DN, DKD, or DG. Risk factors that contribute to the MetSy burden in T1DM and T2DM include hypertension, poor glycemic management, low HDL-C, high TG, and a higher BMI or WC. Increasing age, female gender in T2DM, longer diabetes duration, and co-morbid hypertension were independent predictors of microvascular complications. DR, DN, DKD, and gastroparesis are the most prevalent diabetic microvascular sequelae. The clinical management of diabetic patients with healthy lifestyle adaptations, good glycemic control, antihypertensives, and statins will contribute greatly to MetSy prevention.

8.
Cureus ; 16(3): e55470, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571865

RESUMO

Introduction Comorbidities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) impact negatively on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life expectancy. We investigated the frequency and spectrum of comorbidities in privately insured South Africans with SLE. Methods The data of SLE patients based on International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes and insured with Discovery Health Medical Scheme (DHMS), South Africa, aged ≥16 years at diagnosis and with ≥6 months of follow-up were reviewed. Demographics, comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), other common comorbidities, intercurrent illnesses, and drug therapy were documented. Results Of the 520 patients coded as SLE, 207 met the inclusion criteria. Most were females (90.8%), with a median (interquartile range {IQR}) age and follow-up duration of 39 (30.3-53.0) and 6.1 (3.7-8.1) years, respectively. All patients had at least one comorbidity; the most frequent CCI comorbidities were pulmonary disease (30.9%), congestive heart failure (CHF, 15%), and renal disease (14.0%). Other common comorbidities were hypertension (53.1%) and mood and anxiety disorders (46.9%). Urinary tract infections (UTIs, 37.7%) and pneumonia (33.8%) were common intercurrent illnesses. The independent predictors of CHF were renal disease (odds ratio {OR}=855), dyslipidemia (OR=15.3), and male gender (OR=43.0); the independent predictors of hypertension were age at diagnosis (OR=1.03), type 2 diabetes (OR=4.45), and renal disease (OR=4.34); and the independent predictors of mood and anxiety disorders were female gender (OR=3.98), stroke (OR=3.18), UTI (OR=2.39), and chloroquine use (OR=1.94). Conclusion In this study of privately insured South Africans with SLE, comorbidities were common, and all patients had at least one comorbidity. Hypertension, infections, and mood and anxiety disorders were the leading comorbidities overall, and pulmonary disease was the most common CCI comorbidity. There is an obvious need to formally study the burden of mental health disorders in South African SLE patients.

9.
Front Dent ; 21: 7, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571901

RESUMO

Objectives: Sublingual varices are characterized by abnormally dilated veins. Some systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease have been suggested to be associated with sublingual varices. Due to the convenience in examining the sublingual area, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between sublingual varices and hypertension. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 500 patients were categorized into two groups: those with sublingual varices and those without. Two oral medicine specialists assessed the lesions, and the blood pressure of all patients was measured while they were in a relaxed sitting position. Age and gender data were recorded for all participants. Statistical analysis included t-test, chi-square, and logistic regression, with significance set at P<0.05. Results: The frequency of sublingual varices was 21.8%. Mean systolic blood pressure was 139.68±19.01mmHg in patients with sublingual varices and 118.09±13.78mmHg in patients without the lesions (P=0.561). Mean diastolic blood pressure was 100.45±17.81mmHg and 80.31±12.08mmHg in patients with and without sublingual varices, respectively (P<0.001). Smoking was significantly more prevalent among patients who had the lesions (P<0.05). Gender (P=0.686) and age (P=0.875) showed no significant relationship with sublingual varices, while smoking and blood pressure levels were significantly associated with these varices (P<0.001). Conclusion: It is advisable to monitor and manage blood pressure in patients with sublingual varices who may not be aware of their blood pressure status. Our results showed that smoking could be one of the predictive factors for sublingual varices.

10.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 14(4): 1726-1741, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572107

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disorder characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and obstruction. The phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) family hydrolyzes cyclic AMP (cAMP) and is comprised of four subtypes (PDE4A-D). Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of pan-PDE4 inhibitors in rodent PH; however, this class of drugs is associated with side effects owing to the broad inhibition of all four PDE4 isozymes. Here, we demonstrate that PDE4B is the predominant PDE isozyme in lungs and that it was upregulated in rodent and human PH lung tissues. We also confirmed that PDE4B is mainly expressed in the lung endothelial cells (ECs). Evaluation of PH in Pde4b wild type and knockout mice confirmed that Pde4b is important for the vascular remodeling associated with PH. In vivo EC lineage tracing demonstrated that Pde4b induces PH development by driving endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), and mechanistic studies showed that Pde4b regulates EndMT by antagonizing the cAMP-dependent PKA-CREB-BMPRII axis. Finally, treating PH rats with a PDE4B-specific inhibitor validated that PDE4B inhibition has a significant pharmacological effect in the alleviation of PH. Collectively, our findings indicate a critical role for PDE4B in EndMT and PH, prompting further studies of PDE4B-specific inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for PH.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 12: 1335061, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572485

RESUMO

Alveolarization ensures sufficient lung surface area for gas exchange, and during bulk alveolarization in mice (postnatal day [P] 4.5-14.5), alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)+ myofibroblasts accumulate, secrete elastin, and lay down alveolar septum. Herein, we delineate the dynamics of the lineage of early postnatal SMA+ myofibroblasts during and after bulk alveolarization and in response to lung injury. SMA+ lung myofibroblasts first appear at ∼ P2.5 and proliferate robustly. Lineage tracing shows that, at P14.5 and over the next few days, the vast majority of SMA+ myofibroblasts downregulate smooth muscle cell markers and undergo apoptosis. Of note, ∼8% of these dedifferentiated cells and another ∼1% of SMA+ myofibroblasts persist to adulthood. Single cell RNA sequencing analysis of the persistent SMA- cells and SMA+ myofibroblasts in the adult lung reveals distinct gene expression profiles. For instance, dedifferentiated SMA- cells exhibit higher levels of tissue remodeling genes. Most interestingly, these dedifferentiated early postnatal myofibroblasts re-express SMA upon exposure of the adult lung to hypoxia or the pro-fibrotic drug bleomycin. However, unlike during alveolarization, these cells that re-express SMA do not proliferate with hypoxia. In sum, dedifferentiated early postnatal myofibroblasts are a previously undescribed cell type in the adult lung and redifferentiate in response to injury.

12.
Clin Kidney J ; 17(4): sfae047, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572501

RESUMO

The occurrence of renal failure in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an ominous sign and implies excessive adverse hemodynamic factors. Pharmacologic agents to treat the PH are the mainstay of management, whereas diuretics assist in management of fluid overload. However, when such measures fail, dialysis and ultrafiltration (UF) become necessary to manage progressive azotemia and hypervolemia. Reversal of PH is essential to interrupt this vicious cycle of multisystem failure; otherwise, the need for renal replacement therapy would be permanent.

13.
JMIR Form Res ; 8: e51848, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An emerging focus on person-centered care has prompted the need to understand how shared decision-making (SDM) and health coaching could support self-management of diabetes and hypertension. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore preferences for the scope of involvement of health coaches and health care professionals (HCPs) in SDM and the factors that may influence optimal implementation of SDM from the perspectives of patients and HCPs. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions with 39 patients with diabetes and hypertension and 45 HCPs involved in their care. The main topics discussed included the roles of health coaches and HCPs in self-management, views toward health coaching and SDM, and factors that should be considered for optimal implementation of SDM that involves health coaches. All focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants agreed that the main responsibility of HCPs should be identifying the patient's stage of change and medication education, while health coaches should focus on lifestyle education, monitoring, and motivational conversation. The health coach was seen to be more effective in engaging patients in lifestyle education and designing goal management plans as health coaches have more time available to spend with patients. The importance of a health coach's personal attributes (eg, sufficient knowledge of both medical and psychosocial management of disease conditions) and credentials (eg, openness, patience, and empathy) was commonly emphasized. Participants viewed that addressing the following five elements would be necessary for the optimal implementation of SDM: (1) target population (newly diagnosed and less stable patients), (2) commitment of all stakeholders (discrepancy on targeted times and modality), (3) continuity of care (familiar faces), (4) philosophy of care (person-centered communication), and (5) faces of legitimacy (physician as the ultimate authority). CONCLUSIONS: The findings shed light on the appropriate roles of health coaches vis-à-vis HCPs in SDM as perceived by patients and HCPs. Findings from this study also contribute to the understanding of SDM on self-management strategies for patients with diabetes and hypertension and highlight potential opportunities for integrating health coaches into the routine care process.

14.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 314: 124231, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574610

RESUMO

Hypochlorous acid (HClO), as an essential reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems, plays a pivotal role in processes of physiology and pathology. Abnormal fluctuations in HClO concentration can lead to various diseases, such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, developing an approach to rapidly and sensitively quantify ClO- content is vital to biomedicine development and bioassays. Herein, we fabricated a novel "turn-on" label-free fluorescence DNA probe to specifically detect hypochlorite ion (ClO-) based on G-quadruplex formation. To this end, we designed a G-rich signal DNA sequence (S-DNA) and a block DNA sequence (B-DNA), followed by the introduction of ClO--responsive phosphorothioate (PS) into B-DNA. In the absence of ClO-, B-DNA hybridized with S-DNA, preventing G-quadruplex formation from S-DNA; this resulted in the relatively low fluorescence intensity of ThT. Once ClO- was added, the hydrolysis between PS and ClO- split the B-DNA into two fragments, resulting in B-DNA breaking away from S-DNA, allowing G-quadruplex formation from S-DNA and increasing the fluorescence intensity of ThT. Using this method, we can detect ClO- without the interference of additional reactive oxygen species. The detection limit of ClO- was as low as 10 nM. Furthermore, this method facilitates the detection of ClO- within the tissues of rats with stress-induced hypertension.

15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 174: 116505, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574614

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was a devastating disease characterized by artery remodeling, ultimately resulting in right heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of canagliflozin (CANA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) with mild SGLT1 inhibitory effects, on rats with PAH, as well as its direct impact on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). PAH rats were induced by injection of monocrotaline (MCT) (40 mg/kg), followed by four weeks of treatment with CANA (30 mg/kg/day) or saline alone. Pulmonary artery and right ventricular (RV) remodeling and dysfunction in PAH were alleviated with CANA, as assessed by echocardiography. Hemodynamic parameters and structural of pulmonary arteriole, including vascular wall thickness and wall area, were reduced by CANA. RV hypertrophy index, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and fibrosis were decreased with CANA treatment. PASMCs proliferation was inhibited by CANA under stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB or hypoxia. Activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) was induced by CANA treatment in cultured PASMCs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CANA were attenuated when treatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Abundant expression of SGLT1 was observed in PASMCs and pulmonary arteries, while SGLT2 expression was undetectable. SGLT1 increased in response to PDGF-BB or hypoxia stimulation, while PASMCs proliferation was inhibited and beneficial effects of CANA were counteracted by knockdown of SGLT1. Our research demonstrated for the first time that CANA inhibited the proliferation of PASMCs by regulating SGLT1/AMPK signaling and thus exerted an anti-proliferative effect on MCT-induced PAH.

16.
Am Heart J ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension management in China is suboptimal with high prevalence and low control rate due to various barriers, including lack of self-management awareness of patients and inadequate capacity of physicians. Digital therapeutic interventions including mobile health and computational device algorithms such as clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are scalable with the potential to improve blood pressure (BP) management and strengthen the healthcare system in resource-constrained areas, yet their effectiveness remains to be tested. The aim of this report is to describe the protocol of the Comprehensive intelligent Hypertension managEment SyStem (CHESS) evaluation study assessing the effect of a multi-faceted hypertension management system for supporting patients and physicians on BP lowering in primary care settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CHESS evaluation study is a parallel-group, cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in primary care settings in China. 41 primary care sites from 3 counties of China are randomly assigned to either the usual care or the intervention group with the implementation of the CHESS system, more than 1600 patients aged 35-80 years with uncontrolled hypertension and access to a smartphone by themselves or relatives are recruited into the study and followed up for 12 months. In the intervention group, participants receive patient-tailored reminders and alerts via messages or intelligent voice calls triggered by uploaded home blood pressure monitoring data and participants' characteristics, while physicians receive guideline-based prescription instructions according to updated individual data from each visit, and administrators receive auto-renewed feedback of hypertension management performance from the data analysis platform. The multiple components of the CHESS system can work synergistically and have undergone rigorous development and pilot evaluation using a theory-informed approach. The primary outcome is the mean change in 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP from baseline to 12-month. DISCUSSION: The CHESS trial will provide evidence and novel insight into the effectiveness and feasibility of an implementation strategy using a comprehensive digital BP management system for reducing hypertension burden in primary care settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov, NCT05605418.

17.
Am J Hypertens ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of many chronic conditions has increased over the past several decades among US adults. Many adults with hypertension have other chronic conditions. METHODS: We estimated changes in the age-adjusted prevalence of multiple (≥3) chronic conditions, not including hypertension, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 1999-2000 to 2017-2020, among US adults with and without hypertension (24,851 and 24,337 participants, respectively). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥130 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥80 mmHg, or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. We studied 14 chronic conditions: arthritis, asthma, cancer, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hepatitis-B, hepatitis-C, heart failure, lung disease, obesity, and stroke. RESULTS: From 1999-2000 to 2017-2020, the age-adjusted mean number of chronic conditions increased more among US adults with versus without hypertension (2.2 to 2.8 versus 1.7 to 2.0; p-interaction<0.001). Also, the age-adjusted prevalence of multiple chronic conditions increased from 39.0% to 52.0% among US adults with hypertension and from 26.0% to 30.0% among US adults without hypertension (p-interaction=0.022). In 2017-2020, after age, gender, and race/ethnicity adjustment, US adults with hypertension were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.72-2.18) times as likely to have multiple chronic conditions compared to those without hypertension. In 2017-2020, dyslipidemia, obesity, and arthritis were the most common 3 co-occurring chronic conditions among US adults with and without hypertension (age-adjusted prevalence 16.5% and 3.1%, respectively). CONCLUSION: In 2017-2020, more than half of US adults with hypertension had ≥3 additional chronic conditions, a substantial increase from 20 years ago.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577938

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the developments in the treatment and prevalence of hypertension by demographic subgroups in least developed area of China in 2012 and 2022. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 and 2022, we applied stratified multistage random sampling to investigate residents aged 18 years or older in Gansu, the least developed province in the northwest of China. Questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were given to all respondents. The standardized prevalence of hypertension in adults in Gansu increased from 26.1% in 2012 to 28.8% in 2022. Compared with 2012, the control rate remains decreased despite the significantly improved awareness and treatment rates of hypertension in 2022. Apart from the reversal of the control rate, the trend of higher prevalence in men and higher awareness and treatment rates in women has not changed. There was an obviously increase in the proportion of participants who had received health education and hypertension management services from medical workers. The treatment was still primarily monotherapy, and there was no significant improvement in the prescription of medication. The prevalence of hypertension has increased mildly in the least developed region of China over the past decade, and the challenge of hypertension management has shifted from increasing awareness and treatment rates to increasing control rates. The onset and control of hypertension are affected by education methods, BMI, local economic conditions and other factors, and targeted strategies can be adopted to strengthen the management of hypertension in economically underdeveloped areas of China.

20.
Hepatol Int ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578541

RESUMO

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome that is characterized by the rapid development of organ failures predisposing these patients to a high risk of short-term early death. The main causes of organ failure in these patients are bacterial infections and systemic inflammation, both of which can be severe. For the majority of these patients, a prompt liver transplant is still the only effective course of treatment. Kidneys are one of the most frequent extrahepatic organs that are affected in patients with ACLF, since acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported in 22.8-34% of patients with ACLF. Approach and management of kidney injury could improve overall outcomes in these patients. Importantly, patients with ACLF more frequently have stage 3 AKI with a low rate of response to the current treatment modalities. The objective of the present position paper is to critically review and analyze the published data on AKI in ACLF, evolve a consensus, and provide recommendations for early diagnosis, pathophysiology, prevention, and management of AKI in patients with ACLF. In the absence of direct evidence, we propose expert opinions for guidance in managing AKI in this very challenging group of patients and focus on areas of future research. This consensus will be of major importance to all hepatologists, liver transplant surgeons, and intensivists across the globe.

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