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1.
Mol Pharm ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755753

RESUMO

This study presents a novel approach by utilizing poly(vinylpyrrolidone)s (PVPs) with various topologies as potential matrices for the liquid crystalline (LC) active pharmaceutical ingredient itraconazole (ITZ). We examined amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) composed of ITZ and (i) self-synthesized linear PVP, (ii) self-synthesized star-shaped PVP, and (iii) commercial linear PVP K30. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and broad-band dielectric spectroscopy were employed to get a comprehensive insight into the thermal and structural properties, as well as global and local molecular dynamics of ITZ-PVP systems. The primary objective was to assess the influence of PVPs' topology and the composition of ASD on the LC ordering, changes in the temperature of transitions between mesophases, the rate of their restoration, and finally the solubility of ITZ in the prepared ASDs. Our research clearly showed that regardless of the PVP type, both LC transitions, from smectic (Sm) to nematic (N) and from N to isotropic (I) phases, are effectively suppressed. Moreover, a significant difference in the miscibility of different PVPs with the investigated API was found. This phenomenon also affected the solubility of API, which was the greatest, up to 100 µg/mL in the case of starPVP 85:15 w/w mixture in comparison to neat crystalline API (5 µg/mL). Obtained data emphasize the crucial role of the polymer's topology in designing new pharmaceutical formulations.

2.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; : e0165023, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757982

RESUMO

Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to fungal infections, and drug-drug interactions with antifungals may occur due to concomitant medications. Fosmanogepix [FMGX; active moiety manogepix (MGX)] targets glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mannoprotein synthesis and maturation, essential for fungal virulence. This phase 1, fixed-sequence study in healthy participants evaluated the effect of strong CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole [Cohort 1 (n = 18); FMGX 500 mg intravenous (IV) twice a day (BID )+ itraconazole 200 mg oral once a day (QD)] and pan-CYP inducer rifampin [Cohort 2 (n = 18); FMGX 1,000 mg IV BID + rifampin 600 mg oral QD] on the pharmacokinetics of FMGX and MGX. In cohort 1, geometric mean (GM) MGX Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUCinf were almost similar with and without itraconazole administration. In Cohort 2, GM MGX Cmax was slightly lower and AUC0-t and AUCinf were significantly lower after rifampin administration, with the least squares GM ratio associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) below 80 - 125% (no effect window). No deaths, serious adverse events (SAEs), or FMGX-related withdrawals were reported. In both cohorts, a total of 188 AEs (n = 30; 186 mild; two moderate) were reported. In all, 37 of 188 AEs (n = 12) were considered FMGX related (most frequent: headache, nausea, and hot flush). Administration of FMGX alone and with itraconazole or rifampin was safe and well tolerated. A strong CYP3A4 inhibitor had no effect on FMGX or MGX exposure. A strong pan-CYP inducer had no effect on FMGX exposure but demonstrated ~45% decrease in MGX exposure. CLINICAL TRIALS: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04166669 and with EudraCT as number 2019-003586-17.

3.
Pharmaceutics ; 16(5)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794238

RESUMO

Itraconazole is a drug used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of different varieties of dermatophytosis at doses between 3-5 mg/kg/day in cats. Nevertheless, in Spain, it is only available in the market as a 52 mL suspension at 10 mg/mL. The lack of alternative formulations, which provide sufficient formulation to cover the treatment of large animals or allow the treatment of a group of them, can be overcome with compounding. For this purpose, it has to be considered that itraconazole is a weak base, class II compound, according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, that can precipitate when reaching the duodenum. The aim of this work is to develop alternative oral formulations of itraconazole for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Several oral compounds of itraconazole were prepared and compared, in terms of dissolution rate, permeability, and stability, in order to provide alternatives to the medicine commercialized. The most promising formulation contained hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ß-cyclodextrin. This combination of excipients was capable of dissolving the same concentration as the reference product and delaying the precipitation of itraconazole upon leaving the stomach. Moreover, the intestinal permeability of itraconazole was increased more than two-fold.

4.
Cureus ; 16(4): e59076, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803747

RESUMO

A male patient in his 60s, with a history of tobacco use, presented with fever, weight loss, and cough, and was ultimately diagnosed with histoplasmosis. Initial treatment with itraconazole (ITZ) led to symptom improvement. However, two months later, he returned with lower extremity swelling and dyspnea. Imaging showed pleural effusions and reduced ejection fraction, suggesting itraconazole-induced cardiac toxicity. Transition to voriconazole and initiation of guideline-directed medical therapy improved symptoms. This case report delves into the cardiac side effects of itraconazole, notably heart failure, and elucidates the potential underlying mechanisms. Our goal is to emphasize the importance of monitoring patients on itraconazole for potential cardiac complications, necessitating timely intervention to mitigate adverse outcomes.

5.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 17: 1217-1226, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803817

RESUMO

An infantile hemangioma is a congenital benign tumor formed by the proliferation of vascular cells during the embryonic stage. It is more common in the skin but can also occur in the mucous membranes, liver, brain and muscle. Hepatic hemangioma appears to be a benign tumor; however, it may lead to poor outcomes because of severe complications, such as high-output cardiac failure. The main treatment of hepatic hemangioma in infants is oral drugs, such as propranolol and glucocorticoids, but the clinical response is not always satisfactory. We describe a rare case of a 2-month-old boy who presented with infantile cutaneous and hepatic hemangiomas. By using dermoscopy and observations of the abdominal color Doppler ultrasound, after 9 months of oral treatment with itraconazole solution, the infantile cutaneous hemangioma complicated with hepatic hemangioma was eventually cured. There was no liver or kidney function damage during the whole treatment period. Itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of infantile cutaneous hemangioma complicated with hepatic hemangioma showed good efficacy, compliance, and safety in this case.

6.
Mycopathologia ; 189(3): 45, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global spread of Trichophyton indotineae presents a pressing challenge in dermatophytosis management. This systematic review explores the current landscape of T. indotineae infections, emphasizing resistance patterns, susceptibility testing, mutational analysis, and management strategies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in November 2023 using Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria covered clinical trials, observational studies, case series, or case reports with T. indotineae diagnosis through molecular methods. Reports on resistance mechanisms, antifungal susceptibility testing, and management were used for data extraction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 1148 articles were identified through the systematic search process, with 45 meeting the inclusion criteria. The global spread of T. indotineae is evident, with cases reported in numerous new countries in 2023. Tentative epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) suggested by several groups provide insights into the likelihood of clinical resistance. The presence of specific mutations, particularly Phe397Leu, correlate with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), indicating potential clinical resistance. Azole resistance has also been reported and investigated in T. indotineae, and is a growing concern. Nevertheless, itraconazole continues to be an alternative therapy. Recommendations for management include oral or combination therapies and individualized approaches based on mutational analysis and susceptibility testing. CONCLUSION: Trichophyton indotineae poses a complex clinical scenario, necessitating enhanced surveillance, improved diagnostics, and cautious antifungal use. The absence of established clinical breakpoints for dermatophytes underscores the need for further research in this challenging field.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Tinha , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/genética , Saúde Global
7.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 17: 1033-1036, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737947

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infectious disease caused by sporothrix. It is mainly caused by Sporothrix inoculation after accidental skin injury during human labor. The clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis are variable, ranging from nodules, plaques, ulcers, verrucous lesions, and subcutaneous masses. Some reports indicate that sporotrichosis can mimic psoriasis-like lesions. We herein report a case of sporotrichosis mimicking rosacea lesions. In addition, the patient had a history of nasal trauma, and we believe that the patient was inoculated with Sporothrix after the nasal skin was damaged during labor activities. The patient was given itraconazole 200 mg orally daily for 3 months, which effectively resolved the rash.

8.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; : e0003423, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690871

RESUMO

SUMMARYIn 2023, the World Health Organization designated eumycetoma causative agents as high-priority pathogens on its list of fungal priority pathogens. Despite this recognition, a comprehensive understanding of these causative agents is lacking, and potential variations in clinical manifestations or therapeutic responses remain unclear. In this review, 12,379 eumycetoma cases were reviewed. In total, 69 different fungal species were identified as causative agents. However, some were only identified once, and there was no supporting evidence that they were indeed present in the grain. Madurella mycetomatis was by far the most commonly reported fungal causative agent. In most studies, identification of the fungus at the species level was based on culture or histology, which was prone to misidentifications. The newly used molecular identification tools identified new causative agents. Clinically, no differences were reported in the appearance of the lesion, but variations in mycetoma grain formation and antifungal susceptibility were observed. Although attempts were made to explore the differences in clinical outcomes based on antifungal susceptibility, the lack of large clinical trials and the inclusion of surgery as standard treatment posed challenges in drawing definitive conclusions. Limited case series suggested that eumycetoma cases caused by Fusarium species were less responsive to treatment than those caused by Madurella mycetomatis. However, further research is imperative for a comprehensive understanding.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696091

RESUMO

The current advent explores the potential of itraconazole (ITR) in prostate cancer (PCa), by its incorporation into albumin nanoparticles (NP). ITR as a repurposed moiety has displayed tremendous potential in various cancers. However, poor aqueous solubility poses hurdles towards its clinical translation. Amorphisation of ITR was observed post-incorporation within NP matrix which could prevent its precipitation in aqueous media. ITR NP was developed using quality by design and multivariate analysis and evaluated for cellular uptake, cell proliferation inhibition and the mechanism of PCa cell inhibition. Time and concentration-dependent serum stability and hemolytic potential revealed safety of ITR NP. Morphological changes and nuclear staining studies revealed the efficacy of ITR and ITR NP in promoting growth inhibition of PC-3 cells. Superior qualitative and quantitative uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial impairment for ITR NP in comparison with ITR and control group was observed. Cell cycle study revealed remarkable G2/M phase inhibition in PC-3 cells. ITR NP demonstrated superior anticancer potential in 3D tumoroids mimicking the micro-metastatic lesions compared to control and ITR. Hence, ITR NP can be a favorable alternative therapeutic alternative in PCa.

10.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57757, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716005

RESUMO

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a notorious disease as it can cause severe morbidity and mortality. In this case, we discuss a 75-year-old male tuberculosis patient from a rural area with no underlying comorbidities who failed to continue anti-tubercular medication after two months. The case discusses the diagnostic modalities confirming the diagnosis, sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, imaging studies, including X-ray and CT of the chest, and laboratory parameters for identifying pulmonary mycetoma. The patient is now on anti-tubercular therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol combination) and the anti-fungal drug itraconazole. Though pharmacotherapy for the treatment of mycetoma in patients with tuberculosis has a minimal role, the more appropriate treatment is surgical excision via lobectomy. As the occurrence of tuberculosis and mycetoma is a rare phenomenon, it is essential to rule out aspergillosis as both have similar presenting symptoms. Diagnosis of this co-infection can be the crucial difference between morbidity and mortality.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: in vitro susceptibility testing for the non-sporulating fungus Madurella mycetomatis is performed with a hyphal suspension as starting inoculum and a viability dye for endpoint reading. Here we compared the performance of four different viability dyes for their use in in vitro susceptibility testing of M. mycetomatis. METHODS: To compare the reproducibility and the agreement between the viability dyes 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfphenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt (XTT), resazurin, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt (MTS) and luciferin, the in vitro susceptibilities of 14 genetically diverse M. mycetomatis isolates were determined for itraconazole and amphotericin B. The reproducibility, agreement, price and ease of use were compared. RESULTS: Each of the four dyes gave highly reproducible results with >85.7% reproducibility. Percentage agreement ranged between 78.9% and 92.9%. Resazurin was the most economical to use (0.0009 €/minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC]) and could be followed in real time. Luciferin omitted the need to transfer the supernatant to a new 96-well plate, but cost 6.07 €/MIC. CONCLUSION: All four viability dyes were suitable to determine the in vitro susceptibility of M. mycetomatis against itraconazole and amphotericin B. Based on the high reproducibility, high percentage agreement, price and possibility to monitor in real time, resazurin was the most suited for routine in vitro susceptibility testing in the diagnostic laboratory in mycetoma-endemic countries. Because luminescence could be measured directly without the need to transfer the supernatant to a new 96-well plate, luciferin is suitable for drug-screening campaigns. LAY SUMMARY: To determine the in vitro susceptibility testing in the non-sporulating fungus Madurella mycetomatis, a viability dye is needed for endpoint reading. In this study we tested the viability dyes XTT, resazurin, MTS and luciferin for their use in in vitro susceptibility testing. It appeared that they all could be used but there were differences in time to result and costs associated with them.

13.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0396723, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647345

RESUMO

Acylhydrazone (AH) derivatives represent a novel category of anti-fungal medications that exhibit potent activity against Sporothrix sp., both in vitro and in a murine model of sporotrichosis. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-fungal efficacy of the AH derivative D13 [4-bromo-N'-(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-benzohydrazide] against both planktonic cells and biofilms formed by Sporothrix brasiliensis. In a clinical study, the effect of D13 was then tested in combination with itraconazole (ITC), with or without potassium iodide, in 10 cats with sporotrichosis refractory to the treatment of standard of care with ITC. Improvement or total clinical cure was achieved in five cases after 12 weeks of treatment. Minimal abnormal laboratory findings, e.g., elevation of alanine aminotransferase, were observed in four cats during the combination treatment and returned to normal level within a week after the treatment was ended. Although highly encouraging, a larger and randomized controlled study is required to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of this new and exciting drug combination using ITC and D13 for the treatment of feline sporotrichosis. IMPORTANCE: This paper reports the first veterinary clinical study of an acylhydrazone anti-fungal (D13) combined with itraconazole against a dimorphic fungal infection, sporotrichosis, which is highly endemic in South America in animals and humans. Overall, the results show that the combination treatment was efficacious in ~50% of the infected animals. In addition, D13 was well tolerated during the course of the study. Thus, these results warrant the continuation of the research and development of this new class of anti-fungals.

14.
ChemMedChem ; : e202400054, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669597

RESUMO

A series of new metal complexes, [Cu(ITZ)2Cl2]·5H2O (1), [Cu(NO3)2(ITZ)2] ·3H2O·C4H10O and [Cu(ITZ)2)(PPh3)2]NO3·5H2O (3) were synthesized by a reaction of itraconazole (ITZ) with the  respective copper salts under reflux. The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance, UV-Vis, infrared and EPR spectroscopies. The antifungal activity of these metal complexes was evaluated against the main sporotrichosis agents: Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenkii, and Sporothrix globosa. All three new compounds inhibited the growth of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii at lower concentrations than the free azole, with complex 2 able to kill all species at 4 µM and induce more pronounced alterations in fungal cells. Complexes 2 and 3 exhibited higher selectivity and no mutagenic effect at the concentration that inhibited fungal growth and affected fungal cells. The strategy of coordinating itraconazole (ITZ) to copper was successful, since the corresponding metal complexes were more effective than the parent drug. Particularly, the promising antifungal activity of the Cu-ITZ complexes makes them potential candidates for the development of an alternative drug to treat mycoses.

15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574764

RESUMO

Trichophyton indotineae has emerged as a novel dermatophyte species resulting in treatment recalcitrant skin infections. While the earliest reports came from India, T. indotineae has now spread to many parts of the world and is rapidly becoming a global health concern. Accurate identification of T. indotineae requires elaborate mycological investigations which is beyond the domain of routine microbiology testing. Extensive, non-inflammatory and atypical presentations are commonly seen with this novel species. T. indotineae shows an alarmingly high rate of mutations in the squalene epoxidase gene leading to lowered in vitro susceptibility to terbinafine. This has also translated into a lowered clinical response and requirement of a higher dose and much longer durations of treatment with the drug. Although the species remains largely susceptible to itraconazole, prolonged treatment durations are required to achieve cure with itraconazole. Fluconazole and griseofulvin do not have satisfactory in vitro or clinical activity. Apart from requirement of prolonged treatment durations, relapse postsuccessful treatment is a distressing and yet unexplained consequence of this "species-shift." Use of third generation azoles and combinations of systemic antifungals is unwarranted as both have not demonstrated clear superiority over itraconazole given alone, and the former is an important class of drugs for invasive mycoses.

16.
Pharmaceutics ; 16(4)2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675221

RESUMO

Itraconazole is an antifungal agent included in the triazole pharmacological classification that belongs to the BCS class II, characterized by a low solubility in an aqueous medium (of 1 ng/mL, at neutral pH), which is frequently translated in a low oral bioavailability but with a high permeability. In this sense, it is necessary to find solutions to increase/improve the solubility of itraconazole in the aqueous environment. The main purpose of this study is the preparation and analysis of five different guest-host inclusion complexes containing intraconazole. Initially, a blind docking process was carried out to determine the interactions between itraconazole and the selected cyclodextrins. The second step of the study was to find out if the active pharmaceutical ingredient was entrapped in the cavity of the cyclodextrin, by using spectroscopic and thermal techniques. Also, the antifungal activity of the inclusion complexes was studied to examine if the entrapment of itraconazole influences the therapeutic effect. The results showed that the active substance was entrapped in the cavity of the cyclodextrins, with a molar ratio of 1:3 (itraconazole-cyclodextrin), and that the therapeutic effect was not influenced by the entrapment.

17.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675589

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop cholic-acid-stabilized itraconazole nanosuspensions (ITZ-Nanos) with the objective of enhancing drug dissolution and oral absorption. A laboratory-scale microprecipitation-high-pressure homogenization method was employed for the preparation of the ITZ-Nanos, while dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscope analysis, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis were utilized to evaluate their physicochemical properties. The absorption and bioavailability of the ITZ-Nanos were assessed using Caco-2 cells and rats, with Sporanox® pellets as a comparison. Prior to lyophilization, the particle size of the ITZ-Nanos measured approximately 225.7 nm. Both X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that the ITZ remained crystalline within the nanocrystals. Compared to the pellets, the ITZ-Nanos exhibited significantly higher levels of supersaturation dissolution and demonstrated enhanced drug uptake by the Caco-2 cells. The AUC(0-t) value for the ITZ-Nanos in rats was 1.33-fold higher than that observed for the pellets. These findings suggest that cholic acid holds promise as a stabilizer for ITZ nanocrystals, as well as potentially other nanocrystals.


Assuntos
Itraconazol , Nanopartículas , Solubilidade , Tensoativos , Itraconazol/química , Itraconazol/farmacocinética , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Animais , Ratos , Administração Oral , Tensoativos/química , Masculino , Disponibilidade Biológica , Tamanho da Partícula , Difração de Raios X , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Ácido Cólico/química
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 2): 131404, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582466

RESUMO

Chitosan has received much more attention as a functional biopolymer with applications in pharmaceuticals, agricultural, drug delivery systems and cosmetics. The objectives of present investigation were to carry out modification of chitosan for enhancement of aqueous solubility, which will impart increased solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug itraconazole (ITZ) and also evaluate the modified chitosan for soyabean seed germination studies. The modification of chitosan was accomplished through the antisolvent precipitation method; employing five carboxylic acids. The resulting products were assessed for changes in molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, solubility and solid state characterization. Subsequently, the modified chitosan was complexed with itraconazole using the co-grinding technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for solubility, FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), PXRD (Powder X-ray diffraction), in-vitro dissolution studies. Furthermore the effect of modified chitosan has been evaluated on soybean seed germination. Results demonstrated that, modified chitosan improves self and solubility of itraconazole by six folds. As there was increased degree of deacetylation of chitosan leads to improvement in solubility. The results of FTIR showed the slight shifting of peaks in co-grind formulations of itraconazole. Formulations showed reduction in crystallinity of drug which leads to enhancement in dissolution rate as compared to pure itraconazole. Retention of property of seed germination was observed with modified chitosan at optimum concentration of 3 % w/v, with benefit of enhanced aqueous solubility of chitosan. This positive result paves the way for the advancement of pharmaceutical and agrochemical products employing derivatives of chitosan.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Quitosana , Itraconazol , Solubilidade , Quitosana/química , Agroquímicos/química , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Itraconazol/química , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Glycine max/química , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Peso Molecular , Difração de Raios X
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(4): 134, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433145

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii are opportunistic pathogens known to cause infection of the central nervous system termed: granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, that mostly effects immunocompromised individuals, and a sight threatening keratitis, known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, which mostly affects contact lens wearers. The current treatment available is problematic, and is toxic. Herein, an amphiphilic star polymer with AB2 miktoarms [A = hydrophobic poly(ℇ-Caprolacton) and B = hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol)] was synthesized by ring opening polymerization and CuI catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Characterization by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy was accomplished. The hydrophobic drug itraconazole (ITZ) was incorporated in self-assembled micellar structure of AB2 miktoarms through co-solvent evaporation. The properties of ITZ loaded (ITZ-PCL-PEG2) and blank micelles (PCL-PEG2) were investigated through zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Itraconazole alone (ITZ), polymer (DPB-PCL), empty polymeric micelles (PCL-PEG2) alone, and itraconazole loaded in polymeric micelles (ITZ-PCL-PEG2) were tested for anti-amoebic potential against Acanthamoeba, and the cytotoxicity on human cells were determined. The polymer was able to self-assemble in aqueous conditions and exhibited low value for critical micelle concentration (CMC) 0.05-0.06 µg/mL. The maximum entrapment efficiency of ITZ was 68%. Of note, ITZ, DPB, PCL-PEG2 and ITZ-PCL-PEG2 inhibited amoebae trophozoites by 37.34%, 36.30%, 35.77%, and 68.24%, respectively, as compared to controls. Moreover, ITZ-PCL-PEG2 revealed limited cytotoxicity against human keratinocyte cells. These results are indicative that ITZ-PCL-PEG2 micelle show significantly better anti-amoebic effects as compared to ITZ alone and thus should be investigated further in vivo to determine its clinical potential.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Micelas , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Alcinos , Polímeros
20.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 26(2): e14267, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiviral letermovir has been increasingly used as off-label cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. Observational studies have reported notable increases in tacrolimus (FK) exposure following letermovir; however, whether a significant interaction occurs in the setting of existing moderate-to-strong CYP3A4 inhibition is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate FK trough changes before and after letermovir among lung transplant recipients receiving azole antifungal prophylaxis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included lung transplant recipients newly initiated on letermovir between 2019-2022 following valganciclovir intolerance. Tacrolimus doses and concentrations were collected up to 30 days before and after the letermovir start date. No pre-emptive FK dose adjustments occurred prior to letermovir initiation. Patients admitted to the hospital or lacking an appropriately timed trough in the pre- or post-period were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 78 lung transplant recipients receiving FK (1.5 mg median total daily dose) and itraconazole (56.4%), isavuconazole (25.6%) or posaconazole (17.9%) prophylaxis were included. Letermovir was started at a median of 8.4 months post-transplant. The pre-/post-letermovir median FK trough was 9.6/9.0 ng/mL (p = .151), median dose-corrected trough was 4.2/4.7 ng/mL/mg (+11.9%, p = .032), and median weight-based dose-corrected trough was 362/326 [ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day] (-9.9%, p = .036). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients within their goal trough range before and after letermovir initiation (62% vs. 72%, p = .229). CONCLUSION: Empiric FK dose adjustments do not appear warranted before letermovir initiation in lung transplant recipients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with moderate-to-strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antifúngicos , Quinazolinas , Tacrolimo , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Azóis , Transplantados , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pulmão , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
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