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1.
One Health Outlook ; 6(1): 11, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849946

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is one of the most neglected zoonotic infections of public health concern worldwide and a remerging infection in tropical countries such as India. The infection least explored disease and the epidemiological and other critical data are scarce for the disease rate reported and to control the infection. Leptospirosis as sapronosis is as underrated as the infection itself, and this article aims to explore the significance of this aspect of the disease. The research review aimed at the epidemiological understanding of the infection to control the negative impact of the disease. A mixed review and analysis were carried out to understand the knowledge published on the critical and understudied areas like epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and control of infection. A systematic analysis was carried out to extract information about the reported circulating strains, and research lacunae in India with the published data available in PubMed. The article elaborately discusses crucial inference areas of infection transmission and addresses lacunae in critically unacclaimed areas of infection to control the spread of infection using one health approach (OHA), and strategies to control leptospiral infection are proposed. The article also reviewed how and why Leptospirosis can be best studied and controlled by "One health approach" in India.

2.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 50: 100641, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Palghar district, located in the coastal region of the Konkan division of Maharashtra, has a predominantly tribal population. Leptospirosis is a major neglected public health problem and is highly underreported in Palghar district. The study aimed to evaluate the seropositivity of Leptospira infection and its associated epidemiological factors in tribal areas of the Palghar district of Maharashtra. METHODS: The present retrospective study included 94 samples of patients clinically suspected of leptospirosis during a period of one year (2021-2022) tested at Model Rural Health Research Unit (MRHRU) Dahanu. The serum sample testing was done for the presence of specific Leptospira IgM antibodies using the Panbio™ Leptospira IgM ELISA kit. Leptospirosis seropositivity was correlated with various epidemiological risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 12 samples of patients tested positive for specific IgM antibodies by ELISA method, indicating an overall positivity of 12.8%. Among those who tested positive, fever (83.3%), headache (58.3%), myalgia (50%), redness of the eyes (50%), and calf tenderness (16.7%) were the common symptoms observed. Subjects with redness of the eyes were significantly associated with leptospirosis (p = 0.018). The highest positivity (50%) was reported from the Ganjad area of Dahanu taluka. Farmers and animal handlers were most affected by leptospirosis. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of Leptospirosis cases reflects the endemic nature of the disease in the Palghar district. This study shows seasonal trends in leptospirosis incidence over the year. The clinical presentation of leptospirosis may vary from sub-clinical to mild illness to severe and potentially fatal. The findings of this study will be important for achieving the overarching goal of One Health.

3.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 923-938, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822470

RESUMO

The World Health Organization classifies leptospirosis as a significant public health concern, predominantly affecting impoverished and unsanitary regions. By using the Pensacola Bay System as a case study, this study examines the underappreciated susceptibility of developed subtropical coastal ecosystems such as the Pensacola Bay System to neglected zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira. We analyzed 132 water samples collected over 12 months from 44 distinct locations with high levels of Escherichia coli (>410 most probable number/100 mL). Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations were assessed using IDEXX Colilert-18 and Enterolert-18, and an analysis of water physiochemical characteristics and rainfall intensity was conducted. The LipL32 gene was used as a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicator to identify the distribution of Leptospira interrogans. The results revealed 12 instances of the presence of L. interrogans at sites with high FIB over various land cover and aquatic ecosystem types. Independent of specific rainfall events, a seasonal relationship between precipitation and elevated rates of fecal bacteria and leptospirosis was found. These findings highlight qPCR's utility in identifying pathogens in aquatic environments and the widespread conditions where it can be found in natural and developed areas.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Baías/microbiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
4.
Access Microbiol ; 6(5)2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868371

RESUMO

Introduction. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is prevalent worldwide. Leptospiral 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (3-HADH) is excreted in the urine of infected individuals. However, the potential use of 3-HADH as a biomarker for the diagnosis of leptospirosis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has not been investigated. A technique that identifies Leptospira in a patient in urine sample will be valuable in regular diagnostics and epidemic scenarios, as opposed to existing serological approaches. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an ELISA that can detect 3-HADH in the urine of patients with confirmed acute leptospirosis and to assess its potential as a screening test for leptospirosis. Methods. Laboratory confirmation of acute leptospirosis was done by flaB-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of plasma samples from suspected patients. ELISA-based determination of the presence of 3-HADH in the urine of PCR-positive patients versus PCR-negative patients matched for fever date was performed by coating ELISA plates with urine supernatants and using rabbit anti-3-HADH as the primary antibody. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the cutoff values for the ELISA. The diagnostic measures between the PCR-positive and PCR-negative patients were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results. In total, 158 febrile patients were assessed, of whom 121 (76.6 %) were male. Of the 15 flaB-nested PCR-positive patients, 12 were in the acute phase of the febrile illness. The best cutoff was an average optical density (ODav) value of 0.2200 for febrile patients. Sensitivity and specificity were 83.33% [95 % confidence interval (CI), 51.59-97.91 %) and 83.33 % (95 % CI, 76.05-89.13 %), respectively. The ODav values for PCR-positive patients in the acute phase of the disease (≤7 days of fever) were significantly higher than those for PCR-negative patients (P<0.001, U=114.0, z=-4.946). Conclusion. Detection of 3-HADH in urine by ELISA appears to be promising for the screening of acute leptospirosis in suspected patients.

5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 130-136, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis in China from 2010 to 2022, so as to provide insights into formulation of the leptospirosis control strategy. METHODS: All data pertaining to clinically diagnosed cases and confirmed cases of leptospirosis reported in China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2022 was collected from Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information Management System. The spatial, temporal and population distributions, and report and diagnosis institutions of leptospirosis cases were analyzed using a descriptive epidemiological method. RESULTS: A total of 4 559 leptospirosis cases were reported in China from 2010 to 2022, with an annual average number of 351 cases, and the number of reported leptospirosis cases reduced from 679 cases in 2010 to 158 cases in 2018. A total of 4 276 leptospirosis cases were reported in Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Guangdong Province, Hunan Province, Fujian Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Anhui Province, Jiangxi Province and Guizhou Province, accounting for 93.79% of the total number of leptospirosis cases in China. The number of leptospirosis cases had recently appeared a remarkable decline in Yunnan Province, while a significant rise was seen in the number of leptospirosis cases in two provinces of Zhejiang and Guangdong. No leptospirosis cases were reported in Henan Province from 2010 to 2020; however, there were 5 cases and 2 cases reported in 2021 and 2022, respectively. There was only one leptospirosis case reported in Shaanxi Province from 2010 to 2017; however, leptospirosis cases were reported in the province for 5 consecutive years since 2018. Leptospirosis cases were reported throughout the year in China from 2010 to 2022, with the peak of incidence found during the period between August and October, and the peak of leptospirosis incidence varied in provinces. A higher number of leptospirosis cases was seen among men than among women, with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1, and the median age of leptospirosis cases was 50 years (interquartile range, 23 years), with the highest proportion of leptospirosis cases reported at ages of 51 to 60 years (23.21%). Among all reported leptospirosis cases, 53.28% were confirmed cases, and the proportion of confirmed cases increased from 35.05% in 2010 to 61.66% in 2022. In addition, there were 67.22% of leptospirosis cases (2 937 cases) reported by comprehensive hospitals, 20.44% (893 cases) by disease control and prevention institutions, 7.23% (316 cases) by grassroots healthcare institutions and 5.10% (223 cases) by other healthcare and medical institutions, and the mortality of reported leptospirosis cases was 1.07% in China from 2010 to 2022, with a higher mortality seen among men than among women (1.39% vs. 0.36%; χ2 = 9.52, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of leptospirosis remained at a low level in China from 2010 to 2022, and southern China was still the main endemic area for leptospirosis. The epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases varied in endemic provinces, and leptospirosis cases had been continued to be reported in Shaanxi and Henan provinces, which should be paid much attention to. Intensified surveillance of leptospirosis, improved diagnosis and treatment capability of leptospirosis cases and leptospirosis control with adaptations to local circumstance are recommended.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente
6.
Braz J Microbiol ; 55(2): 1941-1948, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691328

RESUMO

Leptospira spp. are bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease with considerable impacts on the economy, animal health, and public health. This disease has a global distribution and is particularly prevalent in Brazil. Both rural and urban environments are habitats for Leptospira spp., which are primarily transmitted through contact with the urine of infected animals. Consequently, domestic and wild species can harbor these prokaryotes and serve as infection sources for other hosts. In the context of wild animals, there is a dearth of molecular studies elucidating the roles of various animal and bacterial species in the epidemiology of leptospirosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leptospira spp. DNA in different species of free-living and captive wild animals and to assess the phylogenetic relationships of the identified microorganisms in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were evaluated for the presence of the gene lipL32 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the amplified fragment after which phylogenetic analyzes were carried out. DNA from Leptospira spp. was extracted from kidney tissue from wild animals (Mammalia class). Pathogenic Leptospira spp. DNA was detected in 9.6% (11/114) of the samples, originating from nine species of wild animals, including the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), skunk (Conepatus chinga), geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi), margay (Leopardus wiedii), pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis), and european hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira interrogans in these animals. This research is the first study contributing to the epidemiology of leptospirosis by identifying L. borgpetersenii and L. interrogans in free-living and captive wild animals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, potentially acting as bacterial reservoirs. Additionally, our findings can inform sanitary measures for controlling and preventing the disease, thereby safeguarding public health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/classificação , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Mamíferos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 228: 106227, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772120

RESUMO

Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp., is a globally significant zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. In cattle, leptospirosis is associated not only with overt clinical manifestations but also with reproductive diseases, including infertility. This study assesses the potential correlation between leptospirosis and infertility in Uruguayan beef cattle. A case-control study involved 31 beef herds with no prior history of Leptospira vaccination. In each herd, veterinarians identified 10 non-pregnant (cases) and 25 pregnant cows (controls) using ultrasound, and blood and urine samples were collected from each cow. Serological diagnosis was performed using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to assess Leptospira excretion. Additionally, antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) were tested. The results demonstrated an association between seropositivity to the Sejroe serogroup (cut-off 1:200) and infertility in cattle (OR=1.31; p-value=0.06). Furthermore, the level of Leptospira excretion (qPCR) in urine was associated with increased infertility risk, with cows excreting over 100 copies per mL of urine having the highest odds of infertility (OR=2.34; p-value<0.01). This study suggests a potential association between leptospirosis and infertility in Uruguayan beef cattle, emphasizing the importance of both serological and molecular diagnostics for assessing reproductive health in cattle herds. Future research should explore the impact of Leptospira serogroups on other reproductive disorders in cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Infertilidade/veterinária , Infertilidade/etiologia
8.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 266: 107492, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749391

RESUMO

The relationship between Leptospira infection and reproductive failures, as well as the mechanisms that lead to it, has not yet been fully established. It has been hypothesized that the presence of Leptospira spp. in the follicular fluid (FF) could impair the oocyte developmental competence. Thus, the impact of the presence of Leptospira spp. in the FF on in vitro embryo production (IVEP) outcomes was assessed. Dairy cows (n=244) from different farms were subjected to ovum pick-up for cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) collection. After PCR analysis of the FF, cows were retrospectively allocated into either: positive (POS-FF) or negative (NEG-FF) group. Statistical modeling was conducted using the farm, PCR result, and laboratory in which the IVEP was performed as effects. Noteworthy, 26.6% of the animals were positive for Leptospira spp., and 70% of farms had at least one POS-FF cow in the herd. POS-FF cows had a lower number of COCs recovered (22.6 ± 1.2 vs 15.0 ± 2.8, P=0.036), rate of viable COCs (85.6 ± 0.9% vs 78.1 ± 2.8%, P=0.015), number of good-quality COCs (16.0 ± 0.9 vs 9.8 ± 2.1, P=0.026), cleaved embryos (11.9 ± 0.7 vs 7.5 ± 1.5, P=0.032), and blastocysts (7.3 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.7, P=0.044) yielded per cow. In conclusion, the presence of Leptospira spp. in the FF of naturally infected cows impaired the amount of COCs recovered, decreasing the overall IVEP efficiency.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fertilização in vitro , Líquido Folicular , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Bovinos , Líquido Folicular/microbiologia , Feminino , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Fertilização in vitro/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária
9.
J Microbiol Methods ; 222: 106955, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754481

RESUMO

We aim to objectify the evaluation criteria of agglutination rate estimation in the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). This study proposes a deep learning method that extracts free leptospires from dark-field microscopic images and calculates the agglutination rate. The experiments show the effect of objectification with real pictures.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação , Aprendizado Profundo , Microscopia , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Humanos
10.
Acta Trop ; 256: 107242, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782111

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease with a worldwide distribution, which represents a major challenge in animal production across developing countries, mainly in tropical areas. Horses are particularly susceptible to the disease, presenting manifestations ranging from subclinical to the development of uveitis that compromises the visual health of the animals. In recent years, serological studies have been carried out in equid populations from America, demonstrating high exposure. For this reason, the aim of this study was to demonstrate microbiologically and molecularly the presence of the members of the genus Leptospira in urine samples from equids in an endemic state of leptospirosis in Mexico, and to detect the serological presence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in the sampled animals. For this reason, blood and urine samples were collected from 28 horses and one mule from three localities in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Urine samples were inoculated in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) medium, and the recovered isolates were typed using a short Multi Locus Sequence Typing scheme. Amplifications of the expected size were subjected to sequencing, and the recovered sequences were compared with those of reference deposited in GenBank using the BLAST tool. To identify their phylogenetic position, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction using the maximum likelihood method. Additionally, Microscopic Agglutination test was performed on the serum samples to identify anti-Leptospira antibodies. We recovered 16 urine isolates which tested positive for the presence of Leptospira DNA. The phylogenetic reconstruction and the MLST analysis confirmed the presence of several genotypes of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira santarosai. An overall serological frequency of 97.1 % was detected. Our results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira through bacteriological isolates in equids from Mexico.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Filogenia , Animais , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/classificação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/classificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética
11.
Wiad Lek ; 77(3): 608-612, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691808

RESUMO

A case report of Jarisch-Herxheimer (JHR) reaction on a 10th day of Leptospirosis caused by Leptospira Pomona. JHR occurs as a complication of an antibiotic treatment of various spirochetes and may lead to respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, hepatic insufficiency, and multiple organ failure. This case represents a skin and cardio-vascular form of JHR with no lung involvement. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and low dexamethasone doses for 5th day of the disease with a shift to ceftriaxone and high doses of methylprednisolone. The fastest diagnosis of a sporadic zoonotic disease, early start of antibiotic therapy, and adequate doses of corticosteroids are key to the successful treatment of leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Leptospirose , Humanos , Masculino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Leptospirose/complicações , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Idoso
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; mayo, 14, 2024. 54 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1555828

RESUMO

En el país es necesario incrementar la conciencia y el conocimiento de la leptospirosis como un problema de salud pública(, por lo que es necesario continuar con la vigilancia epidemiológica y el abordaje integral a las personas que adolecen de leptospirosis, por tal razón se vuelve necesaria la actualización de los presentes Lineamientos Técnicos, los cuales definen la detección, manejo, investigación, notificación y análisis de datos que orientarán las medidas de prevención y control de la leptospirosis en El Salvador


In the country it is necessary to increase awareness and knowledge of leptospirosis as a public health problem, so it is necessary to continue with epidemiological surveillance and a comprehensive approach to people who suffer from leptospirosis, for this reason updating becomes necessary. of these Technical Guidelines, which define the detection, management, investigation, notification and analysis of data that will guide the prevention and control measures of leptospirosis in El Salvador


Assuntos
El Salvador , Prevenção de Doenças
13.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1403765, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725681

RESUMO

Leptospirosis, one of the most common global zoonotic infections, significantly impacts global human health, infecting more than a million people and causing approximately 60,000 deaths annually. This mini-review explores effective treatment strategies for leptospirosis, considering its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and current therapeutic approaches. Emphasis is placed on antibiotic therapy, including recommendations for mild and severe cases, as well as the role of probiotics in modulating the gut microbiota. Furthermore, novel treatment options, such as bacteriophages and newly synthesized/natural compounds, are discussed, and the findings are expected to provide insights into promising approaches for combating leptospirosis.

14.
Clin Case Rep ; 12(5): e8883, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725931

RESUMO

Key Clinical Message: Common cardiac arrhythmias seen in patients with leptospirosis are usually atrial fibrillation or first-degree atrioventricular block, with bradyarrhythmia being rare in this group. It is essential to prioritize the examination of the patient's medical background, clinical symptoms, and comprehensive physical evaluation in order to promptly identify and address the patient's condition. Abstract: Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is widespread worldwide, has a significant impact on tropical areas and can affect various organs throughout the infection. During the initial stage, symptoms are typically non-specific. Although cases of all three cardiac layers being affected have been reported, issues with the conduction system are especially significant in the early phase of the disease. The most frequent discoveries in these patients are atrial fibrillation or first-degree atrioventricular block, with bradyarrhythmia being rare. We describe a 37-year-old male farmer who initially sought medical attention for general symptoms that had been deteriorating despite receiving outpatient treatment for 3 days for a presumed diagnosis of influenza. During his initial assessment, he exhibited sinus bradycardia, anemia, leukocytosis, elevated levels of direct and total bilirubin, and abnormal liver function test results. Through thorough history-taking, physical examination, and laboratory analyses, a diagnosis of leptospirosis was conclusively established for him. Focusing on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, and thorough physical assessment is crucial for promptly diagnosing and treating patients. This becomes particularly significant for individuals who exhibit atypical symptoms, exemplified by our patient presenting with nonspecific indications and cardiac issues manifested as bradycardia.

15.
Int J Health Geogr ; 23(1): 11, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741103

RESUMO

A growing number of studies have linked the incidence of leptospirosis with the occurrence of flood events. Nevertheless, the interaction between flood and leptospirosis has not been extensively studied to understand the influence of flood attributes in inducing new cases. This study reviews leptospirosis cases in relation to multiple flood occurrences in Kerala, India. Leptospirosis data were obtained for three years: 2017 (non-flood year) and two years with flooding-2018 (heavy flooding) and 2019 (moderate flooding). We considered the severity of flood events using the discharge, duration and extent of each flooding event and compared them with the leptospirosis cases. The distribution of cases regarding flood discharge and duration was assessed through descriptive and spatiotemporal analyses, respectively. Furthermore, cluster analyses and spatial regression were completed to ascertain the relationship between flood extent and the postflood cases. This study found that postflood cases of leptospirosis can be associated with flood events in space and time. The total cases in both 2018 and 2019 increased in the post-flood phase, with the increase in 2018 being more evident. Unlike the 2019 flood, the flood of 2018 is a significant spatial indicator for postflood cases. Our study shows that flooding leads to an increase in leptospirosis cases, and there is stronger evidence for increased leptospirosis cases after a heavy flood event than after a moderate flooding event. Flood duration may be the most important factor in determining the increase in leptospirosis infections.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Inundações , Leptospirose , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
16.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1346713, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784659

RESUMO

Equine leptospirosis can result in abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, placentitis, and uveitis. Horses can also act as subclinical reservoir hosts of infection, which are characterized as asymptomatic carriers that persistently excrete leptospires and transmit disease. In this study, PCR and culture were used to assess urinary shedding of pathogenic Leptospira from 37 asymptomatic mares. Three asymptomatic mares, designated as H2, H8, and H9, were PCR-positive for lipL32, a gene specific for pathogenic species of Leptospira. One asymptomatic mare, H9, was culture-positive, and the recovered isolate was classified as L. kirschneri serogroup Australis serovar Rushan. DNA capture and enrichment of Leptospira genomic DNA from PCR-positive, culture-negative samples determined that asymptomatic mare H8 was also shedding L. kirschneri serogroup Australis, whereas asymptomatic mare H2 was shedding L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. Sera from all asymptomatic mares were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and 35 of 37 (94.6%) were seropositive with titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:3200. In contrast to asymptomatic mares, mare H44 presented with acute spontaneous abortion and a serum MAT titer of 1:102,400 to L. interrogans serogroup Pomona serovar Pomona. Comparison of L. kirschneri serogroup Australis strain H9 with that of L. interrogans serogroup Pomona strain H44 in the hamster model of leptospirosis corroborated differences in virulence of strains. Since lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a protective antigen in bacterin vaccines, the LPS of strain H9 (associated with subclinical carriage) was compared with strain H44 (associated with spontaneous abortion). This revealed different LPS profiles and immunoreactivity with reference antisera. It is essential to know what species and serovars of Leptospira are circulating in equine populations to design efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tests. Our results demonstrate that horses in the US can act as reservoir hosts of leptospirosis and shed diverse pathogenic Leptospira species via urine. This report also details the detection of L. kirschneri serogroup Australis serovar Rushan, a species and serotype of Leptospira, not previously reported in the US.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, India has a high zoonotic disease burden and lacks surveillance data in humans and animals. Rodents are known reservoirs for many zoonotic diseases and their synanthropic behavior poses a great public health threat. METHODS: In this study, trapped rodents/shrews from randomly selected villages within Puducherry, India, and their ectoparasites were screened for zoonotic pathogens, namely, Orientia tsutsugamushi, other pathogenic rickettsiae, Leptospira spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Coxiella burnetii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using conventional PCR. A total of 58 rodents/shrews were trapped from 11 villages. The species trapped were Suncus murinus (49/58, 84.48%), Rattus rattus (8/58, 13.79%) and Rattus norvegicus (1/58, 1.72%). All ectoparasites collected were identified as mites and its infestation rate was 46.55% (27/58). RESULTS: Real-time PCR targeting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi revealed positivity in one rodent and one shrew (3.45%) and two mite pools (7.41%). Conventional PCR targeting the 56 kDa gene revealed positivity in one shrew and two mite pools and the phylogenetic analysis of all three amplicons indicated the circulation of the Gilliam-related serotype. MRSA was detected in the alimentary tract of a shrew (1/32, 3.13%). Leptospira spp., Rickettsia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Co. burnetii tested negative. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of zoonotic pathogens within reservoir hosts and vectors poses a risk of transmission to humans. This study signifies the need for zoonotic pathogen surveillance in synanthropic rodents/shrews.

18.
One Health ; 18: 100753, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798736

RESUMO

A mouse plague occurred in Eastern Australia from spring 2020 to winter 2021, impacting an area of around 180,000 km2. It harmed human physical and psychological health, damaged the natural and built environment, and endangered farmed, domestic and native animals. However, the mouse plague was overshadowed by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially as the end of the plague coincided with the arrival and surge of the COVID-19 delta strain in rural New South Wales (NSW). In this article, we systematically overview the multiple impacts of the plague and highlight their complex interactions. Using a One Health framework, we comprehensively review the i) human, ii) animal and iii) environmental impacts including economic dimensions. Given the damage that the mouse plague caused to infrastructure, we consider the environment from two perspectives: the natural and the built environment. This One Health description of the 2020-2021 mouse plague identifies priorities for preparedness, response and recovery at local, regional land levels to inform response and management of future mouse plague events in Australia. It also highlights the need for ongoing collaboration between researchers and practitioners in the human, animal and environmental health sectors.

19.
Narra J ; 4(1): e587, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798843

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious illness - a spirochetal zoonosis - caused by Leptospira species and the primary cause of human leptospirosis is exposure to the urine of infected rodents. Clinical manifestations of human leptospirosis are diverse, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe life-threatening with multiorgan dysfunction. The severe condition is known as Weil's disease, which is characterized by feverish illness with jaundice, acute kidney damage, and bleeding. The aim of this case report was to present a Weil's disease which occurred simultaneously with a community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) resulting in serious complications. A 41-year-old man with Weil's disease, as well as CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and septic shock was presented. The patient was treated accordingly after establishing the diagnosis through history taking, physical examination, and laboratory tests. In this instance, the score for diagnosing leptospirosis based on Modified Faine's Criteria was calculated resulting possible diagnoses; and therefore, therapeutic management was initiated. Despite presenting with severe symptoms, the patient recovered completely after receiving antibiotics and supportive care. This study highlights that when a patient has Weil's disease and a CAP infection, which could cause unfavorable consequence, a prompt diagnosis and proper treatment could result satisfied patient recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Choque Séptico , Doença de Weil , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/diagnóstico , Doença de Weil/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/microbiologia
20.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805148

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a globally distributed infectious disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the Leptospira genus, often overlooked. It is estimated that the disease affects approximately one million people annually, resulting in more than 58,900 deaths. The gold standard for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis is the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). However, the limitations of this technique necessitate the exploration of alternative diagnostic methods. In this study, we evaluated the ErpY-like recombinant protein (rErpY-like) in the development of a serologic diagnostic assay for human leptospirosis. Eighty-six human sera samples, characterized by MAT, underwent evaluation through indirect IgM-ELISA and IgG-ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity values obtained from IgM-ELISA were 60% and 76%, respectively, while those from IgG-ELISA were 96.4% and 100%, respectively. The use of the rErpY-like protein in both IgM-ELISA and IgG-ELISA proves to be a sensitive and specific method for antibody detection. This could potentially serve as a valuable alternative tool in the diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

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