Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.708
Filtrar
2.
Malar J ; 23(1): 179, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In non-endemic countries, malaria can be transmitted through blood donations from imported cases. To ensure standards of quality and safety of human blood, the European Union and Spanish national law, requires a deferral period, or a screening by immunological or genomic test among those donors with potential risk of malaria. Scientific societies, European Committee on Blood Transfusion, and Spanish Society of Haematology and Haemotherapy, refer only to the result of the immunological test. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was performed in potential donors with a positive immunological test for malaria done in the Regional Transfusion Center in Madrid and referred to the National Reference Unit for Tropical Diseases in Madrid between 2015-2020. At consultation a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for malaria was performed. RESULTS: During the study period, 121 possible donors attended for consultation at NRU-Trop. Median age: 38.5 (IQR:33-48); median time to consultation was 32 months (IQR:12.5-110). Eighty-two (67.8%) donors were migrants and thirty-nine were travellers (32.2%). ELISA values were available for 109 subjects (90.1%), 56 individual left malaria endemic area > 3 years before. All donors tested negative for Plasmodium spp PCR test (n = 121, 100%). CONCLUSIONS: None of the subjects with a positive immunologic test deferred as blood donors had a positive genomic test. The presence of Plasmodium spp in collected blood was not detected by molecular techniques. To avoid the loss of potential blood donors, especially those with low incidence red blood cell antigens, as more precise microbiology techniques become available, updating the existing legislation becomes necessary to increase the availability of donated blood.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Malária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Humanos , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Seleção do Doador , Espanha , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
3.
Malar J ; 23(1): 180, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptions in malaria control due to COVID-19 mitigation measures were predicted to increase malaria morbidity and mortality in Africa substantially. In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are distributed nationwide every 3-4 years, but the 2020-2021 campaign was altered because of COVID-19 restrictions so that the timing of delivery of new nets was different from the original plans made by the National Malaria Control Programme. METHODS: A transmission dynamics modelling exercise was conducted to explore how the altered delivery of LLINs in 2020-2021 impacted malaria burden in Uganda. Data were available on the planned LLIN distribution schedule for 2020-2021, and the actual delivery. The transmission model was used to simulate 100 health sub-districts, and parameterized to match understanding of local mosquito bionomics, net use estimates, and seasonal patterns based on data collected in 2017-2019 during a cluster-randomized trial (LLINEUP). Two scenarios were compared; simulated LLIN distributions matching the actual delivery schedule, and a comparable scenario simulating LLIN distributions as originally planned. Model parameters were otherwise matched between simulations. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of the study population received LLINs later than scheduled in 2020-2021, although some areas received LLINs earlier than planned. The model indicates that malaria incidence in 2020 was substantially higher in areas that received LLINs late. In some areas, early distribution of LLINs appeared less effective than the original distribution schedule, possibly due to attrition of LLINs prior to transmission peaks, and waning LLIN efficacy after distribution. On average, the model simulations predicted broadly similar overall mean malaria incidence in 2021 and 2022. After accounting for differences in cluster population size and LLIN distribution dates, no substantial increase in malaria burden was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The model results suggest that the disruptions in the 2020-2021 LLIN distribution campaign in Uganda did not substantially increase malaria burden in the study areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia
4.
Malar J ; 23(1): 174, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a life-threatening infection, particularly affecting children under the age of 5 years in Africa. Current treatment with parenteral artemisinin derivatives is highly efficacious. However, artemisinin partial resistance is widespread in Southeast Asia, resulting in delayed parasite clearance after therapy, and has emerged independently in South America, Oceania, and Africa. Hence, new treatments for severe malaria are needed, and it is prudent to define their characteristics now. This manuscript focuses on the target product profile (TPP) for new treatments for severe malaria. It also highlights preparedness when considering ways of protecting the utility of artemisinin-based therapies. TARGET PRODUCT PROFILE: Severe malaria treatments must be highly potent, with rapid onset of antiparasitic activity to clear the infection as quickly as possible to prevent complications. They should also have a low potential for drug resistance selection, given the high parasite burden in patients with severe malaria. Combination therapies are needed to deter resistance selection and dissemination. Partner drugs which are approved for uncomplicated malaria treatment would provide the most rapid development pathway for combinations, though new candidate molecules should be considered. Artemisinin combination approaches to severe malaria would extend the lifespan of current therapy, but ideally, completely novel, non-artemisinin-based combination therapies for severe malaria should be developed. These should be advanced to at least phase 2 clinical trials, enabling rapid progression to patient use should current treatment fail clinically. New drug combinations for severe malaria should be available as injectable formulations for rapid and effective treatment, or as rectal formulations for pre-referral intervention in resource-limited settings. CONCLUSION: Defining the TPP is a key step to align responses across the community to proactively address the potential for clinical failure of artesunate in severe malaria. In the shorter term, artemisinin-based combination therapies should be developed using approved or novel drugs. In the longer term, novel combination treatments should be pursued. Thus, this TPP aims to direct efforts to preserve the efficacy of existing treatments while improving care and outcomes for individuals affected by this life-threatening disease.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos
5.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(2): 193-204, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835260

RESUMO

Malaria is a global disease affecting a large portion of the world's population. Although vaccines have recently become available, their efficacies are suboptimal. We generated virus-like particles (VLPs) that expressed either apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) or microneme-associated antigen (MIC) of Plasmodium berghei and compared their efficacy in BALB/c mice. We found that immune sera acquired from AMA1 VLP- or MIC VLP-immunized mice specifically interacted with the antigen of choice and the whole P. berghei lysate antigen, indicating that the antibodies were highly parasite-specific. Both VLP vaccines significantly enhanced germinal center B cell frequencies in the inguinal lymph nodes of mice compared with the control, but only the mice that received MIC VLPs showed significantly enhanced CD4+ T cell responses in the blood following P. berghei challenge infection. AMA1 and MIC VLPs significantly suppressed TNF-α and interleukin-10 production but had a negligible effect on interferon-γ. Both VLPs prevented excessive parasitemia buildup in immunized mice, although parasite burden reduction induced by MIC VLPs was slightly more effective than that induced by AMA1. Both VLPs were equally effective at preventing body weight loss. Our findings demonstrated that the MIC VLP was an effective inducer of protection against murine experimental malaria and should be the focus of further development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmodium berghei , Proteínas de Protozoários , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Animais , Plasmodium berghei/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Parasitemia/imunologia , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo
6.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1358853, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835780

RESUMO

Introduction: Innate immunity is crucial to reducing parasite burden and contributing to survival in severe malaria. Monocytes are key actors in the innate response and, like macrophages, are plastic cells whose function and phenotype are regulated by the signals from the microenvironment. In the context of cerebral malaria (CM), monocyte response constitutes an important issue to understand. We previously demonstrated that decreased percentages of nonclassical monocytes were associated with death outcomes in CM children. In the current study, we postulated that monocyte phagocytosis function is impacted by the severity of malaria infection. Methods: To study this hypothesis, we compared the opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis capacity of circulant monocytes from Beninese children with uncomplicated malaria (UM) and CM. For the CM group, samples were obtained at inclusion (D0) and 3 and 30 days after treatment (D3, D30). The phagocytosis capacity of monocytes and their subsets was characterized by flow cytometry and transcriptional profiling by studying genes known for their functional implication in infected-red blood cell (iRBC) elimination or immune escape. Results: Our results confirm our hypothesis and highlight the higher capacity of nonclassical monocytes to phagocyte iRBC. We also confirm that a low number of nonclassical monocytes is associated with CM outcome when compared to UM, suggesting a mobilization of this subpopulation to the cerebral inflammatory site. Finally, our results suggest the implication of the inhibitory receptors LILRB1, LILRB2, and Tim3 in phagocytosis control. Discussion: Taken together, these data provide a better understanding of the interplay between monocytes and malaria infection in the pathogenicity of CM.


Assuntos
Malária Cerebral , Monócitos , Fagocitose , Humanos , Malária Cerebral/imunologia , Malária Cerebral/parasitologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Criança , Lactente , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas Opsonizantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Opsonizantes/imunologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata
7.
J Parasit Dis ; 48(2): 308-319, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840879

RESUMO

Malaria and schistosomiasis are infectious diseases that cause hematological profiles abnormalities. Malaria and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection causes exacerbation of health consequences and co-morbidities. The aim of this study was to assess the selected hematological profiles among malaria and S. mansoni co-infected patients at Dembiya Selected Health Institutions. An institutional-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March 30 to August 10, 2022. A total of 140 individuals were enrolled in the study using a convenient sampling technique. Wet mount and Kato Katz technique were conducted to detect S. mansoni in Stool sample. Blood films were prepared for the detection of plasmodium. The data was coded and entered into EpiData version 3.1 before being analyzed with SPSS version 25. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean of WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit [4.IU/L,2.2 IU/L, 1.4 IU/L, 0.1 IU/L, 3.13 IU/L, 9.5 g/dL, and 28.7%, resepectively] in co-infected were significantly lower than [7.5 IU/L, 4.6 IU/L, 2.1 IU/L, 0.38 IU/L, 4.8 IU/L, 14.6 g/dL, and 43.7%, resepectively] in the healthy control participants. Mean of RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit [3.13 IU/L, 9.5 g/dL, 28.7%, resepectively] in co-infected were significantly lower compared to [3.8 IU/L, 11.5 g/dL, 33.9%, resepectively] in the malaria monoinfected participants and [3.7 IU/L,11.5 g/dL, 33.6%, resepectively] in the S. mansoni monoinfected participants. The result of hematological profiles in healthy participants had no significant difference compared to light,moderate and heavy S. mansoni infection intensity in coinfection. The number of S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool had been negatively correlated with hematological profiles of co-infected participants except lymphocyte and monocyte which correlated positively. Hematological profiles status in coinfection were significantly altered compared to malaria monoinfection, S. mansoni monoinfection, and healthy participants.Therefore, hematological tests should be used to monitor and manage coinfection related complications, and to reduce coinfection associated morbidity and mortality.

8.
Malar J ; 23(1): 177, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840162

RESUMO

Nigeria accounts for 39% of global malaria deaths in children under 5 years of age and the effective management of severe malaria is a health priority. The Annual Nigeria Severe Malaria Stakeholders Workshop, held on the 5-6th of July 2023 in Abuja, Nigeria brought together representatives from 36 States, the Federal Capital Territory, and other key stakeholders to address the management of severe malaria across all levels of the health service. Aims were to provide updates and review progress on severe malaria activities, the burden of disease, commodity logistics management, and pre-referral national policy implementation as well as to disseminate research findings. Two roundtable discussions were conducted to identify the challenges, barriers, and facilitators to the effective management of severe malaria in Nigeria. A key challenge was the limited awareness of updated guidelines and strategic documents among frontline health workers, leading to the misuse of non-recommended medications, like α-ß-arteether. Further to this, the need to ensure appropriate treatments during pregnancy and the adoption of the WHO directive on the use of rectal artesunate were highlighted. To address these issues, innovative dissemination channels for guideline awareness were recommended and collaboration with professional organizations to enrich training materials emphasized. Other areas for improvement considered the processes involved in severe malaria management, with insufficient coordination among government agencies, inadequate referral linkages, and inadequate human resources identified as barriers. Recommendations focused on practical measures to minimize wastage of injectable artesunate, enhance data management through scaling up electronic medical records, and strengthen referral systems. The extension of severe malaria surveillance to patients older than 5 years was also proposed. To deliver these changes, actionable plans for sustained recruitment and training are needed, as well as committed advocacy at all levels to ensure timely fund disbursement and institutional support. A key overarching theme from the workshop was that a multifaceted approach was needed to address severe malaria in Nigeria, emphasizing collaborative efforts, evidence-based practices, and strategic resource allocation. With the largest malaria burden globally, the potential impact of addressing the challenges of severe malaria management in Nigeria cannot be understated and must be urgently addressed.


Assuntos
Malária , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico
9.
Malar J ; 23(1): 175, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are the backbone of anti-malarial vector control in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Over recent years the quality and performance of ITNs delivered to PNG decreased, which has likely contributed to the stagnation in the malaria control effort in the country. The present study reports results from the first 24 months of a durability study with the ITN product Yahe LN® in PNG. METHODS: The durability study was conducted in four villages on the northern coast of PNG, in an area with high malaria parasite transmission, following WHO-recommended methodology adapted to the local scenario. A cohort of n = 500 individually identifiable Yahe® ITNs was distributed by the PNG National Malaria Control Programme from October to December 2021. Insecticidal efficacy of the ITNs was tested using cone bioassays with fully pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles farauti colony mosquitoes at baseline and at 6 months intervals, alongside evaluation of physical integrity and the proportion of ITNs lost to follow-up. A questionnaire was used to collect information on ITN end user behaviour, such as the frequency of use and washing. The observations from the durability study were augmented with simulated laboratory wash assays. RESULTS: Gradual uptake and replacement of previous campaign nets by the communities was observed, such that at 6 months 45% of all newly distributed nets were in use in their designated households. Insecticidal efficacy of the Yahe® nets, expressed as the percent 24 h mortality in cone bioassays decreased from 91 to 45% within the first 6 months of distribution, even though > 90% of study nets had never been washed. Insecticidal efficacy decreased further to < 20% after 24 months. ITNs accumulated physical damage (holes) at a rate similar to previous studies, and 35% were classified as 'too torn' by proportional hole index after 24 months. ITNs were lost to follow-up such that 61% of cohort nets were still present after 24 months. Laboratory wash assays indicated a rapid reduction in insecticidal performance with each consecutive wash such that average 24 h mortality was below 20% after 10 washes. CONCLUSION: Yahe® ITNs are not performing as per label claim in an area with fully pyrethroid susceptible vectors, and should be investigated more comprehensively and in other settings for compliance with currently recommended durability and efficacy thresholds. The mass distribution of low quality ITN products with variable performance is one of the major ongoing challenges for global malaria control in the last decade.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Papua Nova Guiné , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
10.
Malar J ; 23(1): 178, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal malaria is defined as the detection of asexual stages of Plasmodium species in the cord blood within the first 28 days of life. It can be congenital or acquired through mosquito bites or blood transfusions. Neonates are generally considered to be relatively protected due to the multiple innate and acquired physiological protective effects present in neonates. However, in areas where malaria is endemic, the prevalence of malaria in neonates is high. The predominant clinical feature of malaria in neonates is fever. Other clinical manifestations of neonatal malaria include respiratory distress, pallor and anaemia, hepatomegaly, refusal to feed, jaundice and diarrhoea. Atypical presentations without fever can lead to inaccurate diagnosis and contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Neonates from endemic areas with any of the above symptoms should be screened for malaria. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a series of three cases of neonatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria that presented atypically without febrile episodes and were diagnosed and managed at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital between July and September 2023. The first patient presented with vomiting, refusal to feed, pallor, severe anaemia, and splenomegaly. The second patient presented with an inconsolable cry, failure to pass feces, abdominal distention, and anaemia. The third patient presented with vomiting and anaemia. All patients received a 7-day course of intravenous artesunate; the first patient also received a blood transfusion. All patients recovered and were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: Partial immunity resulting from repeated malaria infections in endemic regions may result in the transfer of high levels of maternal Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies through the placenta and can produce different atypical clinical presentations. In malaria-endemic areas, neonates presenting with any of the presenting signs and symptoms of malaria, including afebrile presentation, require malaria screening to avoid delays in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Etiópia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/uso terapêutico
11.
Heliyon ; 10(11): e31666, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845931

RESUMO

Eradicating malaria remains a big challenge for computer scientists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, entomologists, physicians and many others. Their approaches range from recovering patients to eradicating the disease. However, collaboration, not always efficient between all these scientists, leads to the implementation of incomplete prototypes or to an under-exploitation of their results. Environmental and climatic factors are part of these elements that are usually omitted by computer scientists and mathematicians in the modelling of the malaria spread dynamic. Tropical countries, most affected by the disease are also mostly underdeveloped or developing countries, and therefore, statistical data are often lacking or difficult to access. Populations are constantly in motion over ecosystems with different environmental and climatic conditions, from a region to another. In this paper, we analyse the global asymptotic stability at the disease-free equilibrium of a metapopulation model including climatic factors.

12.
J Exp Pharmacol ; 16: 221-229, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826847

RESUMO

Background: Malaria is causing high mortality and morbidity due to Plasmodium's resistance to currently available anti-malarial drugs and mosquito's resistance to insecticides. Thus, there is a critical need to search for novel anti-malarial drugs from natural sources. Therefore, this study investigated in vivo antimalarial activities of two Ethiopian medicinal plants, Croton dichogamus Pax and Ehretia cymosa Thonn, in Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice. Methods: Soxhlet extraction method using 80% methanol as a solvent was used to prepare crude extracts of the two plants. Acute oral toxicity and 4-day suppressive in vivo antimalarial activity tests were performed on healthy female mice and P. berghei infected male mice, respectively. Antimalarial activity of the crude extracts at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug, chloroquine were used to assesse in Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice. Parasitemia level, packed cell volume, body weight, and rectal temperature of the mice were determined before infection (day 0) and after treatment (day 4). Survival time was determined by recording the date on which the mice died, considering the date of infection as day 0. The recorded data were analyzed using ANOVA and SPSS version 24. Results: The result of the acute toxicity study revealed that the crude extracts were non-toxic at doses up to 2 g/kg. The extract of E. cymosa suppressed parasitemia level by 66.28, 63.44 and 63.14% at 400, 200, and 100mg/kg, levels while C. dichogamus extract suppressed parasitemia level by 45.29% at a dose of 400mg/kg. The remaining two dose levels of C.dichogamus extract suppressed parasitemia level by < 30%. Conclusion: C. dichogamus and E. cymosa showed anti-plasmodial activities. E. cymosa exhibited a more pronounced anti-plasmodial effect than C. dichogamus. The activities of both plants observed in this study support their traditional use as antimalarial drugs. Further studies on these plants using solvent fractions are required to identify their active ingredients.

13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1385380, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827744

RESUMO

Introduction: Depending on the microenvironment, γδ T cells may assume characteristics similar to those of Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T cells or antigen presenting cells. Despite the wide documentation of the effect of Th1/Th2 balance on pregnancy associated malaria and outcomes, there are no reports on the relationship between γδ T cell phenotype change and Placental Malaria (PM) with pregnancy outcomes. This study sought to investigate the involvement of γδ T cells and its subsets in placental Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods: In a case-control study conducted in Yaoundé, Cameroon from March 2022 to May 2023, peripheral, placental and cord blood samples were collected from 50 women at delivery (29 PM negative: PM- and 21 PM positive: PM+; as diagnosed by light microscopy). Hemoglobin levels were measured using hemoglobinometer. PBMCs, IVBMCs and CBMCs were isolated using histopaque-1077 and used to characterize total γδ T cell populations and subsets (Vδ1+, Vδ2+, Vδ1-Vδ2-) by flow cytometry. Results: Placental Plasmodium falciparum infection was associated with significant increase in the frequency of total γδ T cells in IVBMC and of the Vδ1+ subset in PBMC and IVBMC, but decreased frequency of the Vδ2+ subset in PBMC and IVBMC. The expression of the activation marker: HLA-DR, and the exhaustion markers (PD1 and TIM3) within total γδ T cells and subsets were significantly up-regulated in PM+ compared to PM- group. The frequency of total γδ T cells in IVBMC, TIM-3 expression within total γδ T cells and subsets in IVBMC, as well as HLA-DR expression within total γδ T cells and Vδ2+ subset in IVBMC were negatively associated with maternal hemoglobin levels. Furthermore, the frequency of total γδ T cells in PBMC and PD1 expression within the Vδ2+ subset in CBMC were negatively associated with birth weight contrary to the frequency of Vδ1-Vδ2- subset in PBMC and HLA-DR expression within the Vδ2+ subset in IVBMC which positively associated with maternal hemoglobin level and birth weight, respectively. Conclusion: The data indicate up-regulation of activated and exhausted γδ T cells in Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria, with effects on pregnancy outcomes including maternal hemoglobin level and birth weight.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Placenta , Plasmodium falciparum , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Camarões , Adulto , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adulto Jovem , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fenótipo
14.
Malar J ; 23(1): 172, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825698

RESUMO

Malaria has inflicted serious morbidity and mortality across the globe. The major brunt of the disease has been on African, South-East Asian and South American countries. Proportionally, malaria has attracted global research priorities and this is evident from the number of publications related to malaria from across the globe, irrespective of its endemicity. However, formal and exhaustive analyses of these 'malaria publications' are rarely reported. The systematic review and secondary data analyses were done to retrieve information on what has been published on malaria, where is it published, and which countries are major contributors to malaria research.The study presents malaria publications from 1945 to 2020 retrieved using three databases: Web of Science™, Embase® and Scopus®. Exported data were examined to determine the number of publications over time, their subject areas, contributions from various countries/organizations, and top publishing journals.The total number of published records on malaria ranged from 90,282 to 112,698 (due to three different databases). Based on the number of publications, USA, UK, France, and India were identified as the top four countries. Malaria Journal, American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, and PLoS One were the most preferred journals, whereas the University of London (Institutions other than LSHTM), the National Institute of Health, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the University of Oxford appeared to be the top contributing organization.A disproportional contribution to malaria research was observed with non-malaria endemic countries making the largest contribution. Databases differed in their output format and needed standardization to make the outputs comparable across databases.


Assuntos
Malária , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XX , Bibliometria , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XXI
15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-3, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824677

RESUMO

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have transformed malaria treatment, boasting high efficacy and tolerability. However, emerging resistance jeopardises their long-term effectiveness. ACTs' ability to target multiple parasite stages mitigates resistance risks, but severe malaria cases may require additional interventions. Research on combining ACTs with adjunctive therapies shows promise, but optimal regimens remain unclear. Vigilant resistance monitoring and innovative approaches are crucial to sustaining ACT efficacy. We highlight the ACTs' benefits, limitations, and potential synergies, emphasising the urgent need for comprehensive strategies to combat malaria's evolving challenges.

16.
Front Genet ; 15: 1390786, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854427

RESUMO

Background: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still a leading cause of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical manifestations of malaria range from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. The variation in clinical presentation is partly attributed to host genetic factors with estimated narrow-sense heritability of 23%. Here, we investigate the associations between candidate gene polymorphisms and the likelihood of severe malaria (SM) in a cohort of Malian children. Methods: Based on our previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis, candidate genes were selected for in-depth analysis using several criteria including gene-level GWAS scores, functional overlap with malaria pathogenesis, and evidence of association with protection or susceptibility to other infectious or inflammatory diseases. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) residing within these genes were selected mainly based on p-values from previous severe malaria susceptibility GWAS studies and minor allele frequency (MAF) in West African populations. Results: Of 182 candidate genes reported in our previous study, 11 genes and 22 SNPs residing in these genes were selected. The selected SNPs were genotyped using KASP technology in 477 DNA samples (87 SM and 390 controls). Logistic regression analysis revealed that a common intron variant, rs13340578 in CUB and Sushi Multi Domain (CSMD1) gene, is associated with increased odds of SM in recessive mode of inheritance (MAF = 0.42, OR = 1.8, 95% CI = [1.78, 1.84], p = 0.029). The SNP is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with multiple variants with regulatory features. Conclusion: Taken together, the current study showed that an intron variant rs13340578, residing in CSMD1 gene, is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. This finding suggests that modified regulation of complement may contribute to malaria disease severity. Further studies are needed to identify the causal variants and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

17.
Res Sq ; 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826416

RESUMO

Background: Disordered amino acid metabolism is observed in cerebral malaria (CM). We sought to determine whether abnormal amino acid concentrations were associated with level of consciousness in children recovering from coma. We quantified 21 amino acids and coma scores longitudinally and analyzed data for associations. Methods: In a prospective observational study, we enrolled 42 children with CM. We measured amino acid levels at entry and at frequent intervals thereafter and assessed consciousness by Blantyre Coma Scores (BCS). Thirty-six healthy children served as controls for in-country normal amino acid ranges. We employed logistic regression using a generalized linear mixed-effects model to assess associations between out-of-range amino acid levels and BCS. Results: At entry 16/21 amino acid levels were out-of-range. Longitudinal analysis revealed 10/21 out-of-range amino acids were significantly associated with BCS. Elevated phenylalanine levels showed the highest association with low BCS. This finding held when out-of-normal-range data were analyzed at each sampling time. Discussion: We provide longitudinal data for associations between abnormal amino acid levels and recovery from CM. Of 10 amino acids significantly associated with BCS, we propose that elevated phenylalanine may be a surrogate for impaired clearance of ether lipid mediators of inflammation contributing to CM pathogenesis.

18.
Clin Case Rep ; 12(6): e9079, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868112

RESUMO

Key Clinical Message: In countries like Sudan, where several infectious diseases are prevalent, health care providers should not be satisfied with initial detection of a single pathogen and whenever it is feasible, they should investigate coinfections. Infections with high mortality or severe morbidity should be prioritized during the differential diagnosis particularly for diseases with similar clinical manifestations to reduce the death and disability rates. However, this requires substantial improvement in the diagnostic capacity. Abstract: Here we report a case of dengue and malaria coinfection from the southeast region of Sudan, bordering Ethiopia and Eritrea. A 25-year-old male from Sudan presented with symptoms of fever, chills, vomiting, and muscle and joint pain. Laboratory investigations confirmed a coinfection of dengue and malaria, which is assumingly not uncommon in areas heavily syndemic with several diseases but it is severely under-detected, underreported, and underestimated. The case has fully recovered after the supportive care for dengue and chemotherapy treatment for malaria. In such a case, it was important to monitor the patient's recovery and the treatment outcome through clinical indicators and laboratory parameters to update the treatment course whenever needed, according to response. The increasing burden and outbreaks of vector-borne diseases including dengue and malaria in Sudan, indicates the need for improving the implementation of the global vector control response that established by the World Health Organization. Additionally, the increasing prevalent of coinfections is urging substantial improvement in the diagnostic capacity in endemic countries.

19.
Cureus ; 16(5): e60224, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868293

RESUMO

Introduction Malaria is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries. Malaria often presents with recurrent fever, malaise, and other nonspecific symptoms mistaken for influenza. Light microscopy of peripheral blood smears is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for malaria. Delays in malaria diagnosis can increase morbidity and mortality. Microscopy can be time-consuming and limited by skilled labor, infrastructure, and interobserver variability. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based tools for diagnostic screening can automate blood smear analysis without relying on a trained technician. Convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep learning neural networks that can identify visual patterns, are being explored for use in abnormality detection in medical images. A parameter that can be optimized in CNN models is the batch size or the number of images used during model training at once in one forward and backward pass. The choice of batch size in developing CNN-based malaria screening tools can affect model accuracy, training speed, and, ultimately, clinical usability. This study explores the impact of batch size on CNN model accuracy for malaria detection from thin blood smear images. Methods We used the publicly available "NIH-NLM-ThinBloodSmearsPf" dataset from the United States National Library of Medicine, consisting of blood smear images for Plasmodium falciparum. The collection consists of 13,779 "parasitized" and 13,779 "uninfected" single-cell images. We created four datasets containing all images, each with unique randomized subsets of images for model testing. Using Python, four identical 10-layer CNN models were developed and trained with varying batch sizes for 10 epochs against all datasets, resulting in 16 sets of outputs. Model prediction accuracy, training time, and F1-score, an accuracy metric used to quantify model performance, were collected. Results All models produced F1-scores of 94%-96%, with 10 of 16 instances producing F1-scores of 95%. After averaging all four dataset outputs by batch size, we observed that, as batch size increased from 16 to 128, the average combined false positives plus false negatives increased by 15.4% (130-150), and the average model F1-score accuracy decreased by 1% (95.3%-94.3%). The average training time also decreased by 28.11% (1,556-1,119 seconds). Conclusion In each dataset, we observe an approximately 1% decrease in F1-score as the batch size was increased. Clinically, a 1% deviation at the population level can create a relatively significant impact on outcomes. Results from this study suggest that smaller batch sizes could improve accuracy in models with similar layer complexity and datasets, potentially resulting in better clinical outcomes. Reduced memory requirement for training also means that model training can be achieved with more economical hardware. Our findings suggest that smaller batch sizes could be evaluated for improvements in accuracy to help develop an AI model that could screen thin blood smears for malaria.

20.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(7): 102459, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870682

RESUMO

The objective of this were conducted to elucidate spatiotemporal variations in malaria epidemiology in Gabon since 1980. For that, five databases, were used to collect and identify all studies published between 1980 and 2023 on malaria prevalence, antimalarial drug resistance, markers of antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance marker. The findings suggest that Gabon continues to face malaria as an urgent public health problem, with persistently high prevalence rates. Markers of resistance to CQ persist despite its withdrawal, and markers of resistance to SP have emerged with a high frequency, reaching 100 %, while ACTs remain effective. Also, recent studies have identified markers of resistance to the insecticides Kdr-w and Kdr-e at frequencies ranging from 25 % to 100 %. Ace1R mutation was reported with a frequency of 0.4 %. In conclusion, the efficacy of ACTs remains above the threshold recommended by the WHO. Organo-phosphates and carbamates could provide an alternative for vector control.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...