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1.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 8: 100731, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623273

RESUMO

Nitrates and nitrites, which are synthetic additives, are traditionally used as curing agents in meat-based products. These synthetic additives are employed in the preparation of fermented meat foods to improve quality characteristics and microbiological safety, develop distinct flavours and red-colour stability, and counteract lipid oxidation. Nitrites also display significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal action against spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens (such as Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes). However, meat curing is currently under scrutiny because of its links to cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer. Based on the current literature, this review provides recent scientific evidence on the potential utilisation of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as nitrate and nitrite substitutes in meat-based foods. Indeed, CNS are reported to reproduce the characteristic red pigmentation and maintain the typical high-quality traits of cured-meats, thanks to their arginine degradation pathway, thus providing the nitrite-related desirable attributes in cured meat. The alternative strategy, still based on the NOS pathway, consisting of supplementing meat with arginine to release nitric oxide (NO) and obtain a meat characterised by the desired pinkish-red colour, is also reviewed. Exploiting NOS-positive CNS strains seems particularly challenging because of CNS technological adaptation and the oxygen dependency of the NOS reaction; however, this exploitation could represent a turning point in replacing nitrates and nitrites in meat foods.

2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 188: 114649, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599275

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have reported a positive association between the consumption of processed meats containing N-nitrosamines (NAs) and the incidence of hepatocellular and colon cancer. The health risk assessment in this investigation was based on the concentration of six volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs) (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, and N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine) found in processed meat products (sausage and kielbasa) in the Iranian market. Direct supported liquid membrane two-phase hollow fiber electromembrane extraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyse six VNAs. The mean concentration of the six VNAs in sausages and kielbasa was 38.677 ± 27.56 and 48.383 ± 35.76 µg/kg, respectively. The 95th percentile for the chronic daily intake of total VNAs for children (3-14 years) and adults (15-70 years) were calculated to be 5.06 × 10-4 and 1.09 × 10-4 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The cancer risk assessment showed that the risk associated with NDEA was the highest among the other VNAs studied in Iranian processed meat, with a 95th percentile for the child and adult groups. Based on an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) value of ≤10-4 for the carcinogenic effects of exposure to a total of six VNAs, it indicates low concern for all age groups.

3.
Food Chem ; 449: 139155, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608601

RESUMO

Forty different sample preparation methods were tested to obtain the most informative MALDI-TOF MS protein profiles of pork meat. Extraction by 25% formic acid with the assistance of zirconia-silica beads followed by defatting by methanol:chloroform mixture (1:1, v/v) and deposition by using the layer-by-layer method was determined as the optimum sample preparation protocol. The discriminatory power of the method was then examined on samples of pork meat and meat products. The method was able to discriminate between selected salami based on the production method and brand and was able to monitor the ripening process in salami. However, it was not able to differentiate between different brands of pork ham or closely located parts of pork meat. In the latter case, a more comprehensive analysis using LC-MS/MS was used to assess the differences in protein abundance and their relation to the outputs of MALDI - TOF MS profiling.

4.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28662, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596116

RESUMO

Listeriosis is a disease caused by L. monocytogenes, a relevant microorganism as a causative agent of foodborne diseases - FBD. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of Listeria spp., and L. monocytogenes in different production areas in two small plants (A and B) and two micro-food processing plants (C and D) producing meat derivatives, located in different cities of Colombia. The methodology implemented was i. The analysis of sampling points is based on a harmonised tool. ii. Four samplings in each production plant between 2019 and 2020. iii. Isolation and identification of microorganisms through conventional microbiology, a semi-automated system, molecular serotyping and clonal characterisation by ERIC-PCR. L. monocytogenes frequency in the production plants belonging to the study ranged between 5.9 and 28.6 %; for Listeria spp., plants A and D had isolated, plant A had the highest proportion, while for L. monocytogenes geno-serotypes found were: 1/2a, 1/2c, 4a-4c, 4b, 4d - 4e, with geno-serotype 4b as the most frequent. Furthermore, possible persistent isolates were detected in plant C as the feasible sources of contamination, based on failures in flow management, raw material contaminated with L. monocytogenes, lack of standardised cooking processes and transfer of the microorganism through equipment and surfaces. Finally, in three of the four production plants assayed, L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. were present in the packaging area in some of the samples taken during the study, which calls for increased and frequent monitoring, as well as constant technical support for the control of L. monocytogenes in micro and small-scale production plants.

5.
Prev Nutr Food Sci ; 29(1): 18-30, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576885

RESUMO

Functional food products remain the focus of current market trends toward healthier nutrition. The consumption of meat-based functional foods has been a topic of interest in food innovation since some of these products generate controversy due to their possible adverse effects on health. However, studies have demonstrated that meat-based functional products are considered an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of meat products through the addition of biologically valuable components and to meet the specific needs of consumers. In this sense, some strategies and techniques are applied for processing and developing functional meat products, such as modifying carcass composition through feeding, reformulating meat products, and processing conditions. This review focuses on presenting developed and evaluated strategies that allow the production of healthy and functional meat foods, which application has successfully achieved the sensory, nutritional, and technological parameters mainly affected by such application.

6.
J Food Sci Technol ; 61(5): 1003-1012, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487293

RESUMO

Traditional meat products like Haleem play a pivotal role in the culinary landscapes of Indian consumers, along with high economic value and business potential. Due to anticipated gains associated with adulterating 'Haleem' and constant evasion from regulatory oversight, the susceptibility to adulteration has substantially increased. Furthermore, no reports/surveillance regarding their labelling compliance has been reported. Hence, we conducted a 2-year surveillance using 100 samples collected from Hyderabad, India, using the Chipron™ DNA macroarray analysis technique. The method was validated for sensitivity (1%), specificity, and with proficiency test samples. Following this, the surveillance samples (beef, chicken, and mutton Haleem) were tested. The surveillance revealed an alarming adulteration of 46% of the samples, with different proportions of adulterant species. Adulteration of unconventional meat like camel meat was also found. These concerning results necessitate the requirement of stricter and constant regulatory surveillance to safeguard consumer trust and preserve the authenticity of traditional meat products. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-024-05947-9.

7.
Int Microbiol ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521888

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in meat processing lines for their pathogenic potential associated with biofilm formation, staphylococcal toxin genes, and antibiotic resistance in obtained isolates. Out of 270 samples, 56 isolates were identified as staphylococcal with their species level, and their antimicrobial resistance profiles were also determined with the BD Phoenix™ system. Among these, CoNS were found in 32 isolates, including S. epidermidis (22%), S. warneri (22%), S. cohnii (9%), S. schleiferi (9%), S. capitis (6%), S. haemolyticus (6%), S. lugdunensis (6%), S. chromogenes (6%), S. kloosii (3%), S. sciuri (3%), S. lentus (3%), and S. caprae (3%). Biofilm formation was observed in 78.1% of CoNS isolates, with 56% being strong biofilm producers; and the frequency of the icaA, fnbA, and fnbB genes were 43.7% and 34.3%, and 9.3% in isolates, respectively. Twenty-five (78.1%) of these strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, 20 (80%) of which exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR). Regarding genotypic analyses, 15.6%, 22.2%, 87.5%, and 9% of isolates, were positive for blaZ, ermC, tetK, and aacA-aphD, respectively. In 8 (25%) of all isolates had one or more staphylococcal toxin genes: the sed gene was the most frequent (12.5%), followed by eta (9.3%), tst-1 (6.25%), and sea (3.1%). In conclusion, this study highlights meat; and meat products might be reservoirs for the biofilm-producing MDR-CoNS, which harbored several toxin genes. Hence, it should not be ignored that CoNS may be related to foodborne outbreaks.

8.
Foods ; 13(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472858

RESUMO

Cured meat products constitute one of the meat categories commonly consumed in Ireland and has been part of the Irish cuisine and diet for many years. Ham, gammon, and bacon are some of the products that involve curing as part of the traditional processing methods. Common among these products are high levels of salt and the addition of nitrites. These products undergo processing treatments to create variety, preserve shelf-life, and develop their unique quality and safety characteristics. However, consumers are becoming more conscious of the level of processing involved in these products, and the effects of some components and ingredients might be perceived as unhealthy. Meat product developers have been exploring ways to reduce the amount of ingredients such as salt, saturated fat, and chemical preservatives (e.g., nitrites), which are linked to health concerns. This is a challenging task as these ingredients play an important techno-functional role in the products' quality, safety, and identity. While innovative processing techniques are being introduced and progress has been made in reformulation and packaging technologies, much is still unknown, especially regarding the applicability of many of the proposed interventions to a wide range of meat products and their sustainability at the industrial scale.

9.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474707

RESUMO

Processed meat products are one of the most consumed pre-packaged foods in China. They are also group-1 carcinogens, whose consumption has proved to be positively associated with the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The purpose of this study is to analyze the nutrient content on the food label of processed meat products based on the China Standardized Database for the Composition of Pre-packaged Food and the National Open Database of the UK and France. The Chilean front-of-pack warning label (FOPWL) and the Chinese Healthier Choice Logo were used to compare the nutrient content of processed meat products from the three countries. It was found that cured meat products have the highest median energy (483 kcal/100 g), total fat content (38.7 g/100 g), and sodium content (2076 mg/100 g) and dried meat products have the highest median protein content (30.2 g/100 g) and carbohydrate content (38.2 g/100 g). In addition, there were significant differences in energy content and contents of total fat, protein, and carbohydrate across different products of the three countries (p < 0.001). A large number of processed meat products currently collected did not meet the criteria of the Chilean FOPWL and the Chinese Healthier Choice Logo. This study provided information on the healthiness of Chinese processed meat products and provided data for improving food formulations for different categories of processed meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nutrientes , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Carboidratos
10.
Front Nutr ; 11: 1352550, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425479

RESUMO

The salt (NaCl) content in processed meats must be reduced because of its adverse effects on cardiovascular health. However, reducing salt in meat products typically leads to a lower taste intensity and, thus, consumer acceptability. Industry interventions must reduce salt content while maintaining taste, quality, and consumer acceptability. In this context, high-pressure processing (HPP) has been proposed to enhance saltiness perception, though there are contradictory reports to date. The present work aimed to conduct a targeted experiment to ascertain the influence of HPP (300/600 MPa) and cooking (71°C) on saltiness perception and sensory acceptability of meat products. HPP treatment (300/600 MPa) did enhance those two sensory attributes (approx. +1 on a 9-point hedonic scale) in raw (uncooked) cured pork loins but did not in their cooked counterparts. Further, the partition coefficient of sodium (PNa+), as an estimate of Na+ binding strength to the meat matrix, and the content of umami-taste nucleotides were investigated as potential causes. No effect of cooking (71°C) and HPP (300/600 MPa) could be observed on the PNa+ at equilibrium. However, HPP treatment at 300 MPa increased the inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content in raw cured pork loins. Finally, hypothetical HPP effects on taste-mediating molecular mechanisms are outlined and discussed in light of boosting the sensory perception of raw meat products as a strategy to achieve effective salt reductions while keeping consumer acceptability.

11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-22, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494899

RESUMO

Species adulteration or mislabeling with meat and seafood products could negatively affect the fair trade, wildlife conservation, food safety, religion aspect, and even the public health. While PCR-based methods remain the gold standard for assessment of the species authenticity, there is an urgent need for alternative testing platforms that are rapid, accurate, simple, and portable. Owing to its ease of use, low cost, and rapidity, LAMP is becoming increasingly used method in food analysis for detecting species adulteration or mislabeling. In this review, we outline how the features of LAMP have been leveraged for species authentication test with meat and seafood products. Meanwhile, as the trend of LAMP detection is simple, rapid and instrument-free, it is of great necessity to carry out end-point visual detection, and the principles of various end-point colorimetry methods are also reviewed. Moreover, with the aim to enhance the LAMP reaction, different strategies are summarized to either suppress the nonspecific amplification, or to avoid the results of nonspecific amplification. Finally, microfluidic chip is a promising point-of-care method, which has been the subject of a great deal of research directed toward the development of microfluidic platforms-based LAMP systems for the species authenticity with meat and seafood products.

12.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542738

RESUMO

Although meat and meat products are important sources of protein in the human diet, consumption appears to be a predisposing factor in the onset of several civilisation diseases, particularly red meat and its products. One way to reduce diet-related diseases is to guide consumers towards consciously purchasing healthier foods by including a nutrition declaration on product labels, such as by using a "front-of-pack" (FOP) labelling system. This study aimed to determine the Nutri-Score classes for processed meat products, distinguish products that are potentially better for consumers, and determine whether the refined algorithm significantly contributed to a change in product classification. An analysis of the labels of 1700 products available on the Polish market indicated that most processed meat products qualified as class D and E. Comparing the refined Nutri-Score calculation algorithm with the original algorithm resulted in a slight change in product allocation. Poultry products were ranked more favourably than red meat products. The most significant change in product allocation (by 35.2%) was achieved by reducing salt content by 30% and fat content by 10%. Among the processed meat products, some are more highly ranked and are hence considered better from a nutritional perspective than others in that group.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Humanos , Polônia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Dieta , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares
13.
Gels ; 10(2)2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391422

RESUMO

The surge in chronic diseases is closely linked to heightened levels of saturated and trans fatty acids in processed foods, particularly meat products. Addressing this concern, various strategies have been employed to alleviate the impact of these detrimental fats. Among these, oleogels have emerged as a novel and promising approach in the food industry. As restructured fat systems, oleogels offer a unique opportunity to enhance the nutritional profile of meat products while providing distinct health and environmental advantages. This comprehensive review explores the transformative role of oleogels as innovative substitutes for traditional animal fats in a variety of meat products. Utilizing materials such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sterols, beeswax, γ-oryzanol, ß-sitosterol, and others, oleogels have been investigated in diverse studies. The examination encompasses their impact on the textural, nutritional, and oxidative dimensions of meat patties, pork patties, pork liver pâtés, beef heart patties, and meat batters. An in-depth exploration is undertaken into the influence of various elements, including the type of oil, gelling agents, and processing methods, on the stability and physicochemical attributes of oleogels. Additionally, the paper scrutinizes the potential effects of oleogels on sensory attributes, texture, and the shelf life of meat products. In conclusion, this collective body of research emphasizes the versatility and efficacy of oleogels as viable replacements for traditional animal fats across a spectrum of meat products. The documented improvements in nutritional quality, oxidative stability, and sensory attributes pave the way for the development of healthier and more sustainable formulations in the meat industry.

14.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113901, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309860

RESUMO

The Maillard reaction occurs during the frying of batter-coated meat products, resulting in the production of advanced glycosylation products that are harmful to human health. This study investigated the effects of frying temperature (140, 150, 160, 170 and 180 ℃) and time (80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 s) on the quality, advanced glycation end product (AGE) level and the relationship between these parameters in batter-coated meat products were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in frying temperature and time, the moisture content of the batter-coated meat products gradually decreased, the thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) values and oil content increased to 0.37 and 21.7 %, respectively, and then decreased, and CML and CEL content increased to 7.30 and 4.86 mg/g, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the moisture content and absorbance at 420 nm, as well as TBARS values, were highly correlated with the oil content in batter-coated meat products. Additionally, the absorbance at 420 nm and TBARS levels were significantly correlated with AGE levels. Moreover, the AGE content in batter-coated meat products was less variable at lower frying temperatures or shorter frying times, and the influence of temperature on AGE formation was greater than that of time. Overall, these findings may help to better control the cooking conditions of batter-coated meat products based on AGE profiles.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Produtos da Carne , Humanos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico , Lipídeos
15.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422213

RESUMO

Clostridium botulinum is a foodborne pathogen responsible for severe neuroparalytic disease associated with the ingestion of pre-formed toxin in food, with processed meats and canned foods being the most affected. Control of this pathogen in meat products is carried out using the preservative sodium nitrite (NaNO2), which in food, under certain conditions, such as thermal processing and storage, can form carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, the objective was to use nanoemulsified essential oils (EOs) as natural antimicrobial agents, with the aim of reducing the dose of NaNO2 applied in mortadella. The antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions prepared with mixtures of EOs of garlic, clove, pink pepper, and black pepper was evaluated on endospores and vegetative cells of C. botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes (surrogate model) inoculated in mortadella prepared with 50 parts per million NaNO2. The effects on the technological (pH, water activity, and color) and sensory characteristics of the product were also evaluated. The combinations of EOs and their nanoemulsions showed sporicidal effects on the endospores of both tested microorganisms, with no counts observed from the 10th day of analysis. Furthermore, bacteriostatic effects on the studied microorganisms were observed. Regarding the technological and sensorial characteristics of the product, the addition of the combined EOs had a negative impact on the color of the mortadella and on the flavor/aroma. Despite the strong commercial appeal of adding natural preservatives to foods, the effects on flavor and color must be considered. Given the importance of controlling C. botulinum in this type of product, as well as the reduction in the amount of NaNO2 used, this combination of EOs represents a promising antimicrobial alternative to this preservative, encouraging further research in this direction.

16.
Food Chem ; 445: 138718, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364501

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are stable carcinogens that are widely distributed in the environment and food, and humans are exposed to PAHs primarily through the respiratory tracts, dermal contact, and dietary intake. Meat products are an essential part of the human diet, and the formation of PAHs during meat processing is unavoidable. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PAHs in meat products can be a contribution to the minimization of human exposure dose. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive description of the toxicological analysis of PAHs intake and the various production pathways. The distribution of different PAHs in various meat products, including poultry and aquatic products, is analyzed. The discussion focuses on controlling PAHs through the use of endogenous marinades and antioxidants as well as reducing exogenous particulate matter-PAHs attachment. In addition, potential strategies for PAHs reduction and possible directions for future research are proposed.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Dieta , Carne/análise
17.
Foods ; 13(4)2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397585

RESUMO

Guizhou sour meat and sour fish, Chaoshan fish sauce, Sichuan sausage and bacon, Cantonese sausage, Jinhua ham, and Xinjiang air-dried beef are eight representatives of Chinese traditional fermented meat and fish products (FMFPs), which are favored by Chinese consumers due to their high nutritional value and quality. The quality of the spontaneously fermented Chinese traditional FMFP is closely correlated with microorganisms. Moreover, the dominant microorganisms are significantly different due to regional differences. The effects of microorganisms on the texture, color, flavor, nutrition, functional properties, and safety of Chinese traditional FMFPs have not been not fully described. Additionally, metabolic pathways for flavor formation of Chinese traditional FMFPs have not well been summarized. This article describes the seven characteristic Chinese traditional FMFPs and correlated dominant microorganisms in different regions of China. The effects of microorganisms on the texture, color, and flavor of Chinese traditional FMFPs are discussed. Furthermore, the metabolic pathways of microbial regulation of flavor formation in Chinese traditional FMFPs are proposed. This work provides a theoretical basis for improvement of Chinese traditional FMFPs by inoculating functional microorganisms isolated from Chinese traditional fermented foods.

18.
Foods ; 13(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338524

RESUMO

This research aimed to assess the influence of red dragon fruit peels ratio (RDF-PR) from two species, Hylocereus hybridum (HH) and Hylocereus undatus (HU), and particle size (PS) on quality parameters of red dragon fruit peel powder (RDF-PP) and its further application in emulsified alpaca-based sausages as partial substitutes of pork-back fat. A three-level full factorial design (nine treatments) was employed to evaluate the effect of RDF-PR (HH(0%):HU(100%), HH(50%):HU(50%), and HH(100%):HU(0%)) and PS (499-297, 296-177, and <177 µm) on the dependent variables: L*, a*, b*, C, h°, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, pectin yield, degree of esterification (analysed through FT-IR), and crude fibre content. The data analysed through a response surface methodology showed that treatment one (T1) is the best with the optimised conditions at 100% HU RDF-PR and PS of <177 µm. The statistical validation of T1 exhibited the highest water-holding capacity (32.1 g/g peel), oil-holding capacity (2.20 g oil/g peel), and pectin yield (27.1%). A completely randomised design (four formulations) was then used to assess the effect of partial replacement of pork-back fat by T1 in emulsified alpaca-based sausages on the colourimetric, physicochemical, and texture properties (hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, springiness, adhesiveness, and adhesive force). Likewise, a sensory hedonic scale was employed to evaluate the appearance, colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptability of sausages. The results revealed that 65.7% of pork-back fat content was successfully replaced compared with a control formulation. Additionally, F3 showed significantly (p < 0.05) better colourimetric, physicochemical, and textural characteristics, such as lower hardness (34.8 N) and chewiness (21.7 N) and higher redness (a* = 19.3) and C (22.9), compared to a control formulation. This research presents RDF-PP as a promising fat substitute for developing healthier, reduced-fat meat products using fibre-rich agroindustry by-products.

19.
Foods ; 13(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338594

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the incorporation of micronized salt (MS) to reduce sodium content in fresh sausages while preserving technological, chemical, textural, and sensory characteristics. Four treatments were prepared: control (C) with 2.0% regular salt; M2.0% with 2.0% micronized salt; M1.5% with 1.5% micronized salt; and M1.0% with 1.0% micronized salt, containing 1004, 1133, 860, and 525 mg of sodium/100 g of product, respectively. To characterize the samples, analyses of sodium content, cooking loss, relative myoglobin content, and instrumental color were carried out. The sensory analysis was performed using the Temporal-Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) method. Half of the micronized salt treatment was mixed with the fat during the processing of the fresh sausages. It was possible to achieve a 50% reduction in sodium (M1.0%) in the fresh sausages without negative effects on most technological, chemical, and textural parameters, which did not differ from the control treatment (C). Conversely, "chewiness" decreased in M2.0% compared to the control (C) due to mixing micronized salt with the fat. The sodium reduction did not impact the temporal sensory profile and overall liking. Therefore, using micronized salt in fresh sausages reduces sodium content without affecting sensory traits and product stability.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409706

RESUMO

High pressure processing (HPP) has become a practical food processing technique that meets the preferences of consumers seeking lightly processed, convenient, and fresh-tasting food options. This paper reviewed the latest research on the impact HPP on the safety and quality of food products. The use of HPP has been showing favorable growth in the food industry primarily due to its potential to not only enhance the nutritional content and sensory attributes of food products but also to substantially extend their shelf-life and bolster safety standards. HPP is the most used among non-thermal food processing technologies. While its direct application to milk for consumption falls short of delivering consistent quality, it proves effective as a pretreatment step and in products using milk as a primary ingredient. In the context of meat production, HPP reduces microbial loads and extends shelf-life, yet concerns persist regarding its impact on product quality. The absence of in-depth studies regarding the attributes of carrots that support pathogen regeneration emphasizes the need for comprehensive research in this area, which could have far-reaching implications for similar fruit and vegetable products. This review underscores the need for a balanced assessment of HPP's effects on food safety and quality, offering insights that can guide the food industry in adopting this technology while ensuring consumer satisfaction and safety.

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