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BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 614, 2023 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044435


Citrus melanose, caused by Diaporthe citri, is one of the most important and widespread fungal diseases of citrus. Previous studies demonstrated that the citrus host was able to trigger the defense response to restrict the spread of D. citri. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this defense response has yet to be elucidated. Here, we used RNA-Seq to explore the gene expression pattern at the early (3 days post infection, dpi) and late (14 dpi) infection stages of citrus leaves in response to D. citri infection, and outlined the differences in transcriptional regulation associated with defense responses. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that the plant cell wall biogenesis was significantly induced at the early infection stage, while the callose deposition response was more active at the late infection stage. CYP83B1 genes of the cytochrome P450 family were extensively induced in the callus deposition-mediated defense response. Remarkably, the gene encoding pectin methylesterase showed the highest upregulation and was only found to be differentially expressed at the late infection stage. Genes involved in the synthesis and regulation of phytoalexin coumarin were effectively activated. F6'H1 and S8H, encoding key enzymes in the biosynthesis of coumarins and their derivatives, were more strongly expressed at the late infection stage than at the early infection stage. Collectively, our study profiled the response pattern of citrus leaves against D. citri infection and provided the transcriptional evidence to support the defense mechanism.

Ascomicetos , Citrus , Xanthomonas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/fisiologia
Plant Dis ; 107(4): 1172-1176, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222721


Citrus melanose, caused by the ascomycete fungus Diaporthe citri, is one of the most important diseases in China that affects not only the production but also the quality of citrus. In China, mancozeb is recommended to control melanose disease at the dose of 1.34 g/liter. However, it is widely applied in practice at the dose of 2.66 g/liter or even 4 g/liter, because reduced efficacy of the recommended dose was observed in regions severely damaged by melanose. In this study, some ecofriendly chemicals for melanose management were evaluated. First, the sensitivity to fungicides was screened in the laboratory based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination of D. citri. Results showed that both quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin inhibited conidial germination of D. citri up to 100% at 0.1 µg/ml. The in vivo control efficacy on detached fruit indicated that treatments with elastic nanocopolymer film at 2 g/liter, mancozeb at 1 g/liter, and kresoxim-methyl at 0.1 g/liter significantly inhibited the infection process compared with the control treatment of mineral oil alone. In field trials, the efficacy of kresoxim-methyl at 0.1 g/liter and elastic nanocopolymer film at 2 g/liter mixed with mancozeb at 1 g/liter was equal to that of mancozeb at 2.66 g/liter. The use of mancozeb could be reduced greatly, and the newly developed fungicide combinations are more environmentally friendly due to the low toxicity of both QoI fungicides and elastic nanocopolymer film. The newly developed method with ecofriendly chemicals should play an important role in the management of citrus melanose in the future.

Citrus , Fungicidas Industriais , Maneb , Doenças das Plantas , Citrus/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia
Plants (Basel) ; 11(12)2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736750


Citrus melanose is a fungal disease caused by Diaporthe citri F.A. Wolf. It is found in various citrus-growing locations across the world. The host range of D. citri is limited to plants of the Citrus genus. The most economically important hosts are Citrus reticulata (mandarin), C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. grandis or C. maxima (pumelo), and C. paradisi (grapefruit). In the life cycle of D. citri throughout the citrus growing season, pycnidia can be seen in abundance on dead branches, especially after rain, with conidia appearing as slimy masses discharged from the dead twigs. Raindrops can transmit conidia to leaves, twigs, and fruits, resulting in disease dispersion throughout small distances. Persistent rains and warm climatic conditions generally favor disease onset and development. The melanose disease causes a decline in fruit quality, which lowers the value of fruits during marketing and exportation. High rainfall areas should avoid planting susceptible varieties. In this article, information about the disease symptoms, history, geographic distribution, epidemiology, impact, and integrated management practices, as well as the pathogen morphology and identification, was reviewed and discussed.

Microbiome ; 10(1): 56, 2022 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366955


BACKGROUND: Plants can recruit beneficial microbes to enhance their ability to defend against pathogens. However, in contrast to the intensively studied roles of the rhizosphere microbiome in suppressing plant pathogens, the collective community-level change and effect of the phyllosphere microbiome in response to pathogen invasion remains largely elusive. RESULTS: Here, we integrated 16S metabarcoding, shotgun metagenomics and culture-dependent methods to systematically investigate the changes in phyllosphere microbiome between infected and uninfected citrus leaves by Diaporthe citri, a fungal pathogen causing melanose disease worldwide. Multiple microbiome features suggested a shift in phyllosphere microbiome upon D. citri infection, highlighted by the marked reduction of community evenness, the emergence of large numbers of new microbes, and the intense microbial network. We also identified the microbiome features from functional perspectives in infected leaves, such as enriched microbial functions for iron competition and potential antifungal traits, and enriched microbes with beneficial genomic characteristics. Glasshouse experiments demonstrated that several bacteria associated with the microbiome shift could positively affect plant performance under D. citri challenge, with reductions in disease index ranging from 65.7 to 88.4%. Among them, Pantoea asv90 and Methylobacterium asv41 identified as "recruited new microbes" in the infected leaves, exhibited antagonistic activities to D. citri both in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition of spore germination and/or mycelium growth. Sphingomonas spp. presented beneficial genomic characteristics and were found to be the main contributor for the functional enrichment of iron complex outer membrane receptor protein in the infected leaves. Moreover, Sphingomonas asv20 showed a stronger suppression ability against D. citri in iron-deficient conditions than iron-sufficient conditions, suggesting a role of iron competition during their antagonistic action. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study revealed how phyllosphere microbiomes differed between infected and uninfected citrus leaves by melanose pathogen, and identified potential mechanisms for how the observed microbiome shift might have helped plants cope with pathogen pressure. Our findings provide novel insights into understanding the roles of phyllosphere microbiome responses during pathogen challenge. Video abstract.

Melanose , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Rizosfera
Ann Pathol ; 42(1): 79-84, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568264


This article presents the different pigmented lesions of the vulva (PLV) that are systematically found in 8 to 12% of women and are most often ignored. The histological aspect of physiological pigmentation and its modifications due to hormonal impregnation should be known by pathologists in order to better understand the very large variety of lesions.

Melanoma , Melanose , Nevo Pigmentado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanose/diagnóstico , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Vulva
Plant Pathol J ; 37(6): 681-686, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897259


It is difficult to distinguish melanose and melanoses-like symptoms with the naked eye because they appear similar. To accurately detect melanose symptoms caused by Diaporthe citri from melanose-like symptoms, we developed PCR-based specific primers Dcitri by aligning the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of D. citri with the ITS of Diaporthe cytosporella, Diaporthe foeniculina, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria citri, and Fusarium oxysporum found on citrus peel. PCR results showed that the specific product was amplified in D. citri but not in other isolates including, C. gloeosporioides, B. cinerea, A. citri, F. oxysporum. In addition, specific products were observed in melanose symptoms caused by D. citri but not in melanose-like symptoms, such as copper-injury, sunscald, damages by yellow tea thrips, and pink citrus rust mite. Using the Dcitri primers developed in this study, it is expected that melanose caused by D. citri could be accurately distinguished from melanose-like symptoms.

J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575787


The fungal pathogen Diaporthe citri is a major cause of diseases in citrus. One common disease is melanose, responsible for large economic losses to the citrus fruit industry. However, very little is known about the epidemiology and genetic structure of D. citri. In this study, we analyzed 339 isolates from leaves and fruits with melanose symptoms from five provinces in southern China at 14 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and the mating type idiomorphs. The genetic variations were analyzed at three levels with separate samples: among provinces, among orchards within one county, and among trees within one orchard. The five provincial populations from Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Guizhou were significantly differentiated, while limited differences were found among orchards from the same county or among trees from the same orchard. STRUCTURE analysis detected two genetic clusters in the total sample, with different provincial subpopulations showing different frequencies of isolates in these two clusters. Mantel analysis showed significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances, consistent with geographic separation as a significant barrier to gene flow in D. citri in China. High levels of genetic diversity were found within individual subpopulations at all three spatial scales of analyses. Interestingly, most subpopulations at all three spatial scales had the two mating types in similar frequencies and with alleles at the 14 SSR loci not significantly different from linkage equilibrium. Indeed, strains with different mating types and different multilocus genotypes were frequently isolated from the same leaves and fruits. The results indicate that sexual reproduction plays an important role in natural populations of D. citri in southern China and that its ascospores likely represent an important contributor to citrus disease.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 34(7): 845-847, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761784


Diaporthe species are the causal agents of melanose, stem-end rot, and gummosis diseases of citrus. D. citri is the predominant species on different citrus varieties. These diseases exceedingly reduce quality and marketability of fresh fruits. Melanose on fruits especially causes massive economic losses. The infection mechanisms of D. citri are still unclear and the genome sequence of D. citri has not been released. In order to systemically explore the interaction between citrus and D. citri, we sequenced the whole-genome of D. citri NFHF-8-4, which was isolated from a sample with melanose in Jiangxi Province. The NFHF-8-4 genome sequence will provide valuable information for studying the development process, infection process, and resistance to fungicides mechanisms in D. citri.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

Citrus , Fungicidas Industriais , Melanose , Ascomicetos , Doenças das Plantas
Phytopathology ; 111(5): 779-783, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315476


Melanose disease is one the most widely distributed and economically important fungal diseases of citrus worldwide. The causative agent is the filamentous fungus Diaporthe citri (syn. Phomopsis citri). Here, we report the genome assemblies of three strains of D. citri, namely strains ZJUD2, ZJUD14, and Q7, which were generated using a combination of PacBio Sequel long-read and Illumina paired-end sequencing data. The assembled genomes of D. citri ranged from 52.06 to 63.61 Mb in genome size, containing 15,977 to 16,622 protein-coding genes. We also sequenced and annotated the genome sequences of two citrus-related Diaporthe species, D. citriasiana and D. citrichinensis. In addition, a database for citrus-related Diaporthe genomes was established to provide a public platform to access genome sequences, genome annotation and comparative genomics data of these Diaporthe species. The described genome sequences and the citrus-related Diaporthe genomes database provide a useful resource for the study of fungal biology, pathogen-host interaction, molecular diagnostic marker development, and population genomic analyses of Diaporthe species. The database will be updated regularly when the genomes of newly isolated Diaporthe species are sequenced. The citrus-related Diaporthe genomes database is freely available for nonprofit use at

Citrus , Melanose , Ascomicetos , Genoma Bacteriano , Doenças das Plantas
Surg. cosmet. dermatol. (Impr.) ; 12(4 S2): 249-252, fev.-nov. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368198


O lentigo solar está presente em 90% da população com mais de 50 anos de idade, apresentando-se como manchas hipercrômicas em regiões fotoexpostas, que aumentam com o envelhecimento e são mais frequentes em peles claras. Há diversas modalidades terapêuticas com melhores resultados quando associadas. Descrevemos o caso de um homem de 62 anos, fototipo II de Fitzpatrick, com queixa de máculas acastanhadas em dorso nasal há oito anos. Foi submetido à biópsia de pele, e o estudo histológico confirmou ser lentigo solar. O paciente foi tratado com seis sessões de luz intensa pulsada associada a laser de Erbium: YAG 2940nm, com bom resultado clínico

Solar lentigo is present in 90% of the population over 50 years of age andcharacterizes as hyperchromic spots in photoexposed regions. It increases with aging and is more frequent in light skin. There are several therapeutic modalities, which achieve better results whenassociated. We describe the case of a 62-year-old man with Fitzpatrick skinphototype II, complaining of brownish macules in nasal dorsum for eight years. The patient underwent a skin biopsy, and the histological study confirmed solar lentigo. The patient was treated with six sessions of Intense Pulsed Light associated with Erbium-Yag2940 nm Laser with a good clinical result

Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2020. 47 p. ilus.
Tese em Português | BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1338001


Este estudo multicêntrico investigou a frequência, as características clínicas e demográficas das lesões pigmentadas da mucosa oral, comparando lesões melanocíticas e não melanocíticas. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais sob o parecer nº 3.257.828 e CAAE 55119516.5.0000.5149 e replicado para os Comitês de Ética dos demais centros. Em uma análise retrospectiva de 1952 a 2018, realizada em sete serviços de Patologia Oral do Brasil, dados clínicos e demográficos foram coletados dos registros de biópsia. Modelos de regressão logística binária foram realizados para estimar a Odds Ratio - OR não ajustada e ajustada (IC95%), utilizando o programa SPSS versão 19.0. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 0,05. Foram revisados 177.356 laudos, desses 905 (0,51%) foram lesões pigmentadas orais, sendo 54,5% melanocíticas e 45,5% não melanocíticas. Pacientes menores de 19 anos, com cor de pele não branca (OR = 2,09 IC95% 1,26-3,47), lesão elevada (OR = 4,44 IC 95% 1,63- 12,96), de cor marrom (OR = 10,26 IC95% 4,84-21,76), localizada no lábio (OR = 43,62 IC95% 12,47-152,66), palato (OR = 7,24 IC95% 3,65-14,33) e mucosa bucal (OR = 1,98 IC95% 1,08-3,62) têm mais chances de serem melanocíticas do que não melanocíticas (p <0,05). Indivíduos com mais de 20 anos (OR = 0,13 e 0,14; IC95% 0,05-0,36 e 0,05-0,44) e lesões localizadas em soalho bucal (OR=0.17 IC95% 0,03- 0,80) têm menos chance de serem lesões melanocíticas do que não melanocíticas (p <0,05). Sexo, sintomas e tamanho não foram associados ao tipo de lesão (p> 0,05). Lesões pigmentadas são diagnósticos raros em amostras de biópsia oral. O presente estudo compreende a maior amostra até o momento. Localização da lesão, cor, lesão fundamental, cor da pele e idade são características que podem ajudar o clínico a diferenciar pigmentações orais melanocíticas e não melanocíticas. A diferenciação das pigmentações orais melanocíticas e não melanocíticas pode implicar no manejo dos pacientes, pois na maioria das lesões não melanocíticas é possível dispensar uma biópsia, enquanto as lesões melanocíticas geralmente precisam ser confirmadas pelo exame histopatológico.

This multicenter study evaluated the frequency, clinical and demographic characteristics of oral pigmented lesions, comparing melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions that have been submitted to histopathological analysis in the five regions of the Brazilian territory (North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast and South). The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Federal University of Minas Gerais under the protocol number 3.257.828 and CAAE 55119516.5.0000.5149 and replicated to the Ethics Committees of the other centers. A retrospective analysis from 1952 to 2018, was made on the biopsy files from seven Oral Pathology services in Brazil. Based on the histopathological diagnosis, clinical and demographic data were collected from biopsy charts of all pigmented lesions. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Out of the 177,356 files reviewed, 905 were pigmented lesions, representing 0.51%. Melanocytic lesions were more frequent (54.5%) than nonmelanocytic (45.5%). Melanotic macula (54.1%) and melanocytic nevi (34.1%) were the most frequent lesions among melanocytic lesions. Amalgam tattoo (91.3%) and exogenous pigmentation (7.3%) were the most entities found in nonmelanocytic lesions. Statistically significant association (p<0.05) was found between the type of lesion and age, skin color, fundamental lesion, color, and affected site. Individuals under 19 years, nonwhite (OR=2.09 95% CI 1.26-3.47), a raised lesion (OR=4.44 95% CI1.63-12.96), with brown color (OR=10.26 95% CI 4.84- 21.76) have more chance to represent a melanocytic lesion than a nonmelanocytic (p<0.05). Lesions in lip (OR=43.62 95% CI 12.47-152.66), palate (OR=7.24 95% CI 3.65-14.33) and buccal mucosa (OR=1.98 95% CI 1.08-3.62) had more chance to be melanocytic than nonmelanocytic (p<0.05), while those on the floor of the mouth (OR=0.17 95% CI 0.03-0.80) were more likely to be nonmelanocytic. Sex, symptoms, or size were not associated with type of lesion (p>0.05). Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa are rare among biopsied lesions. This is the first multicenter study with the largest sample to date. Knowledge about the aspects associated with melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions helps the clinician in the differential diagnosis and drives the correct management, since for most nonmelanocytic lesions a biopsy can be let off, whereas melanocytic lesions usually need to be confirmed by histopathological exam. Lesion location, color, fundamental lesion, skin-color and age are features that can help differentiate melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions.

Pigmentação , Melanose , Doenças da Boca , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Nevo Pigmentado
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 90(6): 321-327, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055032


Resumen: Los nevos melanocíticos congénitos son una proliferación melanocítica benigna presente al nacimiento o que surgen en los primeros 2 o 3 años de vida. Habitualmente se clasifican, según su tamaño, en pequeños, medianos y grandes. Su importancia radica en el potencial riesgo de desarrollar melanoma, en la repercusión que tienen en la calidad de vida de quien los padece y en la asociación con disrafismo y tumores del sistema nervioso central. A mayor tamaño, mayor riesgo de desarrollar melanoma en el nevo o fuera de él. Describiremos las características epidemiológicas, clínicas dermatoscópicas y revisaremos el manejo y seguimiento de los nevos congénitos.

Summary: Congenital melanocytic nevi are a benign melanocytic proliferation present either from birth or during the first 2 or 3 years of life. They are usually classified according to size as: small, medium and large. Their importance lies on the potential risk of developing melanoma, on the impact they have on the patient's quality of life and on its association with dysraphism and tumors of the central nervous system. The larger the size of the nevi, the higher the risk of developing melanoma inside or outside the nevus. We will describe the epidemiological and dermatoscopic clinical characteristics and review the management and follow-up of congenital nevi.

Resumo: Os nevos melanocíticos congênitos são uma proliferação melanocítica benigna presente desde o nascimento ou durante os primeiros 2 ou 3 anos de vida. Eles são geralmente classificados de acordo com o seu tamanho como: pequenos, médios ou grandes. Sua importância está no risco potencial de desenvolver melanoma, no impacto que eles têm na qualidade de vida do paciente e na sua associação com disrafismo e tumores do sistema nervoso central. Quanto maior o tamanho dos nevos, maior o risco de desenvolver melanoma dentro ou fora do nevo. Descreveremos as características clínicas epidemiológicas e dermatoscópicas dos nevos congênitos e revisaremos o seu gerenciamento e acompanhamento.

Surg. cosmet. dermatol. (Impr.) ; 11(1): 78-79, Jan.-Mar. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008384


Esta carta traz uma reflexão surgida a partir da palestra da professora Fatimata Ly, da University Cheikh Diop de Dakar (África), no último Congresso da Academia Europeia de Dermatologia, em Paris. A professora F. Ly proferiu a palestra Depigmentation: when, where and how. O tom de pele uniforme é um dos critérios de beleza. Esta carta não diz respeito aos pacientes que chegam ao consultório médico e que são cuidadosamente acompanhados e monitorados por dermatologistas criteriosos. Ela quer chamar a atenção para os indivíduos que não chegam aos consultórios, que repetem prescrições de conhecidos ou que mantêm por tempo indefinido uma prescrição realizada por dermatologista numa consulta pontual. Recentemente, participei, de forma anônima, de fóruns de "discussão" na internet de pessoas leigas sobre melasma. A intensidade e a velocidade do compartilhamento em relação àquilo que eles aconselham são expressivas. A criatividade é enorme ao sugerirem usar produtos que podem causar algum dano. Entre os clareadores mais utilizados estão esteroides, hidroquinona, mercúrio e ácidos. Há que se realizar uma campanha de conscientização da população em relação aos perigos de se utilizarem despigmentantes cutâneos sem indicação precisa do médico dermatologista.

This letter is a reflection that arose from the lecture given by Professor Fatimata Ly, from University Cheikh Diop in Dakar (Africa) in the latest Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology in Paris. Professor F. Ly gave the lecture "Depigmentation: when, where and how". An even skin tone is one of the criteria for beauty. This letter does not concern those patients that come to our practices and are carefully followed and monitored by discerning dermatologists. She wants to raise attention to those that do not come to our practices, that use prescriptions given to acquaintances, or that use a dermatologist prescription indefinitely, after a single consultation. I was recently part of "discussion" forums over the internet, anonymously, of lay people on melasma. The intensity and speed of sharing of what they recommend using are impressive. They are very creative suggesting the use of products that could cause harm. Among the most used lightening products are steroids, hydroquinone, mercury and acids. There must be an awareness campaign to warn the population regarding the dangers of using skin depigmenting agents without a specific indication by the dermatologist.

Pele , Clareadores
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 236-241, maio -jun. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224656


Introdução: o melasma é uma desordem hiperpigmentar adquirida, crônica, clinicamente caracterizada como máculas acastanhadas com contornos irregulares e limites claros. O tratamento apresenta diferentes modalidades que incluem a eliminação de possíveis fatores causais, como o uso de protetor solar, além de agentes despigmentantes. O ácido tranexâmico, fármaco tradicionalmente antifibrinolítico, tem sido utilizado nas lesões do melasma devido ao seu efeito hipopigmentador e também na prevenção da hiperpigmentação induzida por UV. Objetivo: realizar uma investigação qualitativa bibliográfica acerca do mecanismo de ação do ácido tranexâmico e sua eficácia no tratamento tópico do melasma, baseada em evidências clínicas. Metodologia: foi realizada uma busca nas bases Pubmed e Embase limitada aos últimos 10 anos, na língua inglesa, utilizando os termos 'melasma' e 'tranexamic acid'. Resultados: foram encontrados sete ensaios clínicos que avaliaram a eficácia do ácido tranexâmico em formulações tópicas com concentração variando de 2 a 5%. O AT exerce seu mecanismo de ação bloqueando reversivelmente a conversão de plasminogênio em plasmina. Como os ativadores de plasminogênio são gerados pelos queratinócitos, o ácido tranexâmico afeta a função dos queratinócitos. Conclusão: o ácido tranexamico mostrou-se seguro e promissor no tratamento de melasma, tanto em comparação ao placebo quanto em relação a outros despigmentantes, sendo bem tolerado e sem ocorrências de reações adversas severas. Contudo, ensaios clinicos controlados e randomizados com avaliação em larga escala e estudos observacionais de longo prazo são necessários para que a terapia a longo prazo e a ação em combinação a outras terapias e outros medicamentos fiquem bem esclarecidos.

Introduction: melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentation disorder, chronic, clinically characterized as brownish macules with irregular contours and clear boundaries. The treatment presents different modalities that include the elimination of possible causal factors, like the use of sunscreen, besides depigmenting agents. Tranexamic acid, a traditional antifibrinolytic drug, has been used in the lesions of melasma due to its hypopigmenting effect and also in the prevention of UV-induced hyperpigmentation. Objective: to conduct a qualitative bibliographic investigation about the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid and its efficacy in the topical treatment of melasma, based on clinical evidence. Methodology: a search was peformed in the Pubmed database limited to the last 10 years, in the English language, using the terms 'melasma' and 'tranexamic acid'. Results: we found seven clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of tranexamic acid in topical formulations with concentrations ranging from 2 to 5%. AT exerts its mechanism of action by reversibly blocking the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. As plasminogen activators are generated by keratinocytes, tranexamic acid affects the function of keratinocytes. Conclusion: tranexamic acid was safe and promising in the treatment of melasma, both compared to placebo as compared to other lighteners, being well tolerated and without incidents of severe adverse reactions. However, controlled and randomized clinical trials with large-scale evaluation and long-term observational studies are necessary for long-term therapy and action in combination with other therapies and other medications can be well understood.

Ann Pathol ; 38(3): 153-163, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803361


Conjunctival-pigmented tumors are rare, but they are one of the most commonly encountered by the pathologist working with the department of ophthalmology. Nevus and melanoma can be encountered and have some histological difference compared to their cutaneous counterpart. Primary acquired melanosis (PAM) is a conjunctival specific entity. This clinical term includes several histological lesions ranging from benignity to melanoma precursor lesion. Histologic examination determines the therapy and the risk of progression to melanoma. We present here a histopathological, clinical and therapeutic synthesis of conjunctival-pigmented lesions, emphasizing the importance of a good understanding between clinicians and pathologists.

Neoplasias da Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Carcinoma in Situ/cirurgia , Carcinoma in Situ/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias da Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Túnica Conjuntiva/terapia , Crioterapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Melanoma/cirurgia , Melanoma/terapia , Melanose/patologia , Melanose/cirurgia , Melanose/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nevo Pigmentado/cirurgia , Nevo Pigmentado/terapia , Exame Físico , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos
Av. enferm ; 36(1): 40-49, jan.-abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-950672


Resumo Objetivo: analisar os conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas da equipe de saúde sobre melasma na gravidez. Metodologia: estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de outubro de 2012 a março de 2013, em duas etapas, com abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Participaram da primeira fase, respondendo a um questionário com questões abertas e fechadas, 61 membros da equipe de 5 unidades básicas da zona leste de São Paulo (Brasil), que atuavam na assistência a gestante. Destes, 9 foram entrevistados. Os dados dos questionários foram analisados pela estatística descritiva, e os das entrevistas, por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: a média de respostas incorretas sobre causas, prevenção e tratamento do melasma foi superior a 50 %; para 52,4 %, as manchas na pele não interferem na qualidade de vida, e a condição é considerada um problema simples. Cuidados com a pele na gestação foram as ações consideradas de menor importância. A maioria não aborda o tema nos atendimentos realizados. Conclusões: o conhecimento da equipe sobre o melasma e seus desdobramentos psicossociais mostrou-se deficiente, com pouca valorização do quadro principalmente em função de sua baixa morbidade. Nesse sentido, processos educativos junto às equipes são necessários.

Resumen Objetivo: analizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas del equipo de salud sobre melasma en el embarazo. Metodología: estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado de octubre del 2012 a marzo del 2013, en dos etapas, con un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo. Participaron de la primera etapa, respondiendo un cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y cerradas, 61 miembros del equipo de salud de 5 unidades básicas de la zona leste de São Paulo (Brasil), que actuaban en la atención a embarazadas. De estos, 9 fueron entrevistados. Los datos de los cuestionarios fueron analizados a través de estadística descriptiva, y las entrevistas por medio del análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: el promedio de respuestas incorrectas sobre causas, prevención y tratamiento del melasma fue superior al 50 %; para el 52,4 %, las manchas en la piel no interfieren en la calidad de vida, y la condición es considerada un problema simple. Los cuidados con la piel durante el embarazo fueron las acciones consideradas como de menor importancia. La mayoría no aborda el tema durante las consultas. Conclusiones: fue identificado un deficiente conocimiento del equipo de salud sobre el melasma y sus impactos psicosociales, con poca valoración del problema principalmente por su baja morbilidad. En este sentido, es necesario implementar procesos educativos con la participación de todos los miembros del equipo de salud.

Abstract Objective: to study health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices on melasma (skin discoloration) in pregnancy. Methodology: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 in two distinct stages, with a quantitative and qualitative approach. 61 health professionals from five basic health-care units on the east side of São Paulo who attend to pregnant women participated in the first phase, answering a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions. Nine of these professionals were also interviewed. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method and the interviews were subjected to a the thematic content analysis. Results: the average number of wrong answers to questions about the causes, prevention and treatment of melasma was greater than 50%. 52.4% of the respondents thought that skin blemishes do not affect the quality of life of the patients and regarded the condition as a simple problem. Skin care during pregnancy was thought to be of minor importance. Most of them do not deal with this subject in consultations with the patients. Conclusions: the staffs' knowledge of melasma and its psychosocial consequences proved to be poor, with little concern about this problem, primarily because of the low morbidity rate. The teams should be trained about the importance of this condition.

Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Gravidez , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Gestantes , Melanose , Brasil
Surg. cosmet. dermatol. (Impr.) ; 9(4): 328-330, out.-dez. 2017. ilus., tab.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-880521


A prática clínica do dermatologista baseia-se na análise das lesões cutâneas. Essa análise é feita essencialmente pela observação clínica, e atualmente complementada com exames como a dermatoscopia e a microscopia confocal. Apesar de seu baixo custo, a lâmpada de Wood tem sido cada vez menos utilizada como método diagnóstico auxiliar. Apresentamos diversos casos de utilização da lâmpada de Wood sendo de grande auxílio ao dermatologista. Esperamos assim incentivar o uso desse aparelho na prática diária.

The dermatologist's clinical practice is based on the analysis of cutaneous lesions that is carried out mainly by clinical observation, and currently supplemented with tests such as dermoscopy and confocal microscopy. Despite its low cost, the Wood's lamp has been decreasingly used as an auxiliary diagnostic method. The authors of the present study describe several cases of use of the Wood's lamp where it provided valuable assistance to the dermatologist, aiming at encouraging the use of this device in the daily practice.

Surg. cosmet. dermatol. (Impr.) ; 9(3): 214-217, jul.-set. 2017. ilus., tab.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-880361


Introdução: Melasma é distúrbio de pigmentação que acomete principalmente mulheres em idade fértil com fototipos elevados. Polypodium leucotomos tem atividade antioxidante, fotoprotetora e imunomodulatória, sendo tratamento adjuvante do melasma. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia, em relação à qualidade de vida e à melhora objetiva, do uso de PL no tratamento do melasma. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e individualizado. Nove voluntárias portadoras de melasma foram submetidas ao tratamento com Polypodium leucotomos durante 45 dias. Escores MELASQoL, DLQI e MASI foram calculados no D0 e no D45. Realizou-se a análise de variância Anova com pós-teste de Tukey para comparação entre D0 e D45 (p < 0,05). Resultados: Todas as pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 37,18 ± 6,78 anos, história familiar de melasma em 55,6%, e fotoexposição desprotegida e uso de estrogênio em 88,9%. Após 45 dias de tratamento com Polypodium leucotomos houve redução significativa do MELASQoL e DLQI (p < 0,05) e melhora do MASI em 55,6% das pacientes. Conclusões: Houve melhora do MASI em 55,6% das pacientes após 45 dias de tratamento. A despeito da discreta melhora no MASI, houve reflexo na melhora dos escores de qualidade de vida (DLQI e MELASQoL).

Introduction: Melasma is a pigmentation disorder that mainly affects women of childbearing age with high phototypes. Polypodium leucotomos has antioxidant, photoprotective and immuno-modulatory activity, and can be considered as an adjunctive treatment for melasma. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, in relation to quality of life and objective improvement, of the use of Polypodium leucotomos in the treatment of melasma. Methods: Prospective and individualized study. Nine volunteers with melasma were submitted to treatment with Polypodium leucotomos for 45 days. MELASQoL, DLQI and MASI scores were calculated at the beginning (D0) and 45 days after (D45). Analysis of variance ANOVA with Tukey post-test for comparison be-tween D0 and D45 (p <0.05). Results: All patients were females, mean age of 37.18 ± 6.78 years. Family history of melasma in 55.6%; 88.9% with unprotected photoexposure and use of estrogen. After 45 days of treatment with Polypodium leucotomos there was a significant reduction of ME-LASQoL and DLQI (p <0.05) and improvement of MASI in 55.6% of the patients. Conclusions: There was improvement of MASI in 55.6% of patients after 45 days of treatment. In spite of the slight improvement in MASI, there was a reflex in the improvement of quality of life scores (DLQI and MELASQoL).

Surg. cosmet. dermatol. (Impr.) ; 8(3): 232-240, jul.-set. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-875037


Introdução: O melasma é doença pigmentar frequente que acomete áreas expostas, principalmente nas regiões frontal e malar. A hidroquinona se mostra ativo eficaz no tratamento da hiperpigmentação; no entanto, devido a problemas com sua tolerabilidade, diversos estudos são conduzidos para desenvolver alternativas terapêuticas com eficácia equivalente. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e tolerabilidade de formulação cosmecêutica contendo ácido elágico, ácido hidroxifenoxi propiônico, extrato de levedura e ácido salicílico em pacientes brasileiros apresentando melasma leve a moderado. Métodos: 40 pacientes portadores de melasma leve a moderado na face utilizaram o cosmecêutico duas vezes ao dia, associado a filtro solar durante 90 dias. Foram feitas avaliações subjetivas de eficácia e tolerabilidade, medida do grau Masi e questionário MelasQoL-BP. A avaliação da luminosidade da pele e das características colorimétricas foram obtidas por meio de colorimetria. Resultados: Após 90 dias de tratamento, observou-se melhora significativa nos parâmetros clínicos avaliados, nos parâmetros colorimétricos, no questionário de qualidade de vida e no escore Masi em 43%. O tratamento se mostrou eficaz sem causar eventos adversos. Conclusões: A formulação cosmecêutica avaliada demonstrou ser alternativa eficaz à hidroquinona para o tratamento do melasma com excelente perfil de tolerabilidade cutânea.

Introduction: Melasma is a common pigmentary condition that affects exposed body areas, especially in the frontal and malar regions. Hydroquinone is an effective active principle in the treatment of hyperpigmentation, however, due to issues linked to its tolerability, many studies are being conducted aimed at developing alternative therapies with equivalent effectiveness. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a cosmeceutical formulation containing ellagic acid, hydroxyphenoxy propionic acid, yeast extract and salicylic acid in Brazilian patients with mild to moderate melasma. Methods: Forty patients with mild to moderate melasma on the face used the cosmeceutical twice daily, combined with sunscreen for 90 days. Subjective assessments of efficacy and tolerability were carried out. Measurements of the MASI grade and the application of the MELASQoL-BP questionnaire were also performed. The evaluation of the skin's brightness and the colorimetric characteristics were obtained by colorimetry. Results: After 90 days of treatment, a significant improvement could be observed in the clinical and colorimetric parameters evaluated, and in the quality of life questionnaire. In addition, the MASI score improved by 43%. The treatment was effective without causing adverse events. Conclusions: The evaluated cosmeceutical formulation was proven as an effective alternative to hydroquinone for the treatment of melasma, with excellent cutaneous tolerability profile.

ImplantNewsPerio ; 1(1): 143-147, jan.-fev. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-847008


Este artigo relatou dois tipos diferentes de tratamento para pacientes com despigmentação melânica gengival. No primeiro caso, uma paciente de 21 anos de idade apresentou-se com intensa pigmentação melânica (marrom escuro) na região entre os caninos. O tratamento consistiu na remoção desta faixa de tecido (raspagem gengival) usando-se apenas anestesia local e uma lâmina de bisturi 15C. No segundo caso, um paciente de 22 anos de idade apresentou-se com pigmentação melânica moderada (marrom médio), também na região intercanina superior. O tratamento consistiu na remoção deste tecido utilizando brocas diamantadas 1016HL sob irrigação com soro fisiológico e finalização com broca diamantada 4138. Em ambos os casos, um cimento cirúrgico foi usado para proteção, a dor foi controlada com dipirona, e as áreas foram limpas com solução de clorexidina 0,12%. Após 14 dias, uma coloração rosácea final foi obtida. As duas técnicas apresentadas possuem eficácia imediata satisfatória, agilidade e custo baixo em relação às técnicas mais sofisticadas. Entretanto, os pacientes precisam estar cientes da possibilidade de recorrência da pigmentação melânica.

This article reports on two different treatments for gingival pigmentation. In the fi rst case, a 21 years-old female patient presented with intense pigmentation (dark-brown) at the maxillary canine region. The treatment consisted on removal of this tissue band (gingival peeling) by applying local anesthesia and using a 15C scalpel blade. In the second case, a 22 years-old male patient demonstrated moderate gingival pigmentation (middle-brown) also in the maxillary canine region. The treatment was made by rotary removal with diamond bur 1016HL, application of saline solution, and finishing with a 4138 tapered diamond bur. In both cases, a surgical dressing was applied to protect the operated area. Pain control was provided with dipyrone, and a 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine solution recommended in the postoperative period. After 14 days, a pink, gingival aspect was generated. Both techniques have immediate efficacy, are fast, and low cost compared to more sophisticated treatments. However, the patients need to be aware of recurrence of gingival pigmentation.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Gengiva , Melaninas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/métodos , Periodontia , Pigmentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos