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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 323-334, May-Sep, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232725

RESUMO

Las percepciones de olvidos recurrentes o episodios de distracción en la vida diaria se denominan quejas subjetivas de memoria (QSM). Su naturaleza se ha estudiado ampliamente en adultos mayores, pero su importancia y relación con el rendimiento neurocognitivo no se han abordado por completo en adultos más jóvenes. Se han sugerido algunos rasgos psicológicos como posibles moderadores de la asociación entre el rendimiento de la memoria objetiva y subjetiva. El primer objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la correspondencia entre la percepción objetiva y subjetiva de los fallos de memoria en jóvenes. En segundo lugar, estudiamos si el rasgo psicológico del neuroticismo podría estar influyendo en esta relación. Para ello, medimos QSM, diferentes dominios cognitivos (memoria episódica y de trabajo y funciones ejecutivas) y neuroticismo en 80 hombres y mujeres jóvenes. Los resultados mostraron que solo la memoria episódica inmediata estaba estadísticamente relacionada con los QSM. Curiosamente, las relaciones negativas entre el rendimiento de la memoria objetiva y subjetiva solo aparecieron en participantes con mayor neuroticismo. Por lo tanto, las quejas de memoria reportadas por los jóvenes podrían reflejar un peor rendimiento de la memoria episódica inmediata, mientras que el neuroticismo jugaría un papel principal en la asociación entre los déficits de memoria y las QSM. Este estudio proporciona datos que pueden ayudar a comprender mejor las QSM en los jóvenes.(AU)


Perceptions of recurrent forgetfulness or episodes of distraction in daily life are referred to as subjective memory complaints (SMCs). Their nature has been extensively studied in older adults, but their significance and relationship with neurocognitive performance have not been fully ad-dressed in younger adults. Some psychological traits have been suggested as possible moderators of the association between objective and subjective memory performance. The first aim of this study was to analyze the corre-spondence between the objective and subjective perception of memory failures in young people. Second, we studied whether the psychological trait of neuroticism could be influencing this relationship. Todo this, we measured SMCs, different cognitive domains (episodic and working memory and executive functions), and neuroticism in 80 young men and women. Results showed that only immediate episodic memory was statisti-cally related to SMCs. Interestingly, the negative relationships between ob-jective and subjective memory performance only appeared in participants with higher neuroticism. Thus, memory complaints reported by young people could reflect poorer immediate episodic memory performance, whereas neuroticism would play a main role in the association between memory deficits and SMCs. This study provides data that can help to bet-ter understand SMCs in young people.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Neuroticismo , Memória Episódica , Cognição , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Memória
2.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 18: 1388495, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720784

RESUMO

Introduction: Locomotor adaptation is a motor learning process used to alter spatiotemporal elements of walking that are driven by prediction errors, a discrepancy between the expected and actual outcomes of our actions. Sensory and reward prediction errors are two different types of prediction errors that can facilitate locomotor adaptation. Reward and punishment feedback generate reward prediction errors but have demonstrated mixed effects on upper extremity motor learning, with punishment enhancing adaptation, and reward supporting motor memory. However, an in-depth behavioral analysis of these distinct forms of feedback is sparse in locomotor tasks. Methods: For this study, three groups of healthy young adults were divided into distinct feedback groups [Supervised, Reward, Punishment] and performed a novel locomotor adaptation task where each participant adapted their knee flexion to 30 degrees greater than baseline, guided by visual supervised or reinforcement feedback (Adaptation). Participants were then asked to recall the new walking pattern without feedback (Retention) and after a washout period with feedback restored (Savings). Results: We found that all groups learned the adaptation task with external feedback. However, contrary to our initial hypothesis, enhancing sensory feedback with a visual representation of the knee angle (Supervised) accelerated the rate of learning and short-term retention in comparison to monetary reinforcement feedback. Reward and Punishment displayed similar rates of adaptation, short-term retention, and savings, suggesting both types of reinforcement feedback work similarly in locomotor adaptation. Moreover, all feedback enhanced the aftereffect of locomotor task indicating changes to implicit learning. Discussion: These results demonstrate the multi-faceted nature of reinforcement feedback on locomotor adaptation and demonstrate the possible different neural substrates that underly reward and sensory prediction errors during different motor tasks.

3.
Bioact Mater ; 38: 154-168, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721595

RESUMO

Effective therapies are urgently needed to stabilize patients with marginally compressible junctional hemorrhage long enough to get them to the hospital alive. Herein, we report injectable and rapidly expandable cryogels consisting of polyacrylamide and thrombin (AT cryogels) created by cryo-polymerization for the efficient management of lethal junctional hemorrhage in swine. The produced cryogels have small pore sizes and highly interconnected porous architecture with robust mechanical strength. The cryogels exhibit rapid shape memory properties and prove to be resilient against fatigue. These cryogels also show high water/blood absorption capacity, fast blood clotting effect, and enhanced adhesion of red blood cells and platelets in vitro. Further, in vivo, hemostatic efficacy tests in a lethal swine junctional hemorrhage model suggest that treatment with AT cryogels, especially AT-2 cryogels, achieves the least blood loss and the highest survival rate (100 %) compared to currently employed products such as XStat® and combat gauze. The high hemostatic performance of the cryogels may be attributed to highly interconnected porous architecture with small pore size and the use of thrombin as a pro-coagulant agent. Collectively, injectable and rapidly expandable thrombin-decorated polyacrylamide-based cryogels show significant promise as hemostatic material, offering effective management of marginally compressible junctional hemorrhages in prehospital settings.

4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 572, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a leading neurological disorder that gradually impairs memory and cognitive abilities, ultimately leading to the inability to perform even basic daily tasks. Teriflunomide is known to preserve neuronal activity and protect mitochondria in the brain slices exposed to oxidative stress. The current research was undertaken to investigate the teriflunomide's cognitive rescuing abilities against scopolamine-induced comorbid cognitive impairment and its influence on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition-mediated behavior alteration in mice. METHODS: Swiss albino mice were divided into 7 groups; vehicle control, scopolamine, donepezil + scopolamine, teriflunomide (10 mg/kg) + scopolamine; teriflunomide (20 mg/kg) + scopolamine, LY294002 and LY294002 + teriflunomide (20 mg/kg). Mice underwent a nine-day protocol, receiving scopolamine injections (2 mg/kg) for the final three days to induce cognitive impairment. Donepezil, teriflunomide, and LY294002 treatments were given continuously for 9 days. MWM, Y-maze, OFT and rota-rod tests were conducted on days 7 and 9. On the last day, blood samples were collected for serum TNF-α analysis, after which the mice were sacrificed, and brain samples were harvested for oxidative stress analysis. RESULTS: Scopolamine administration for three consecutive days increased the time required to reach the platform in the MWM test, whereas, reduced the percentage of spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze, number of square crossing in OFT and retention time in the rota-rod test. In biochemical analysis, scopolamine downregulated the brain GSH level, whereas it upregulated the brain TBARS and serum TNF-α levels. Teriflunomide treatment effectively mitigated all the behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by scopolamine. Furthermore, LY294002 administration reduced the memory function and GSH level, whereas, uplifted the serum TNF-α levels. Teriflunomide abrogated the memory-impairing, GSH-lowering, and TNF-α-increasing effects of LY294002. CONCLUSION: Our results delineate that the improvement in memory, locomotion, and motor coordination might be attributed to the oxidative and inflammatory stress inhibitory potential of teriflunomide. Moreover, PI3K inhibition-induced memory impairment might be attributed to reduced GSH levels and increased TNF-α levels.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Crotonatos , Hidroxibutiratos , Nitrilas , Estresse Oxidativo , Toluidinas , Animais , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Hidroxibutiratos/farmacologia , Crotonatos/farmacologia , Toluidinas/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Cromonas/farmacologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Donepezila/farmacologia
5.
Pharmacol Rep ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic cathinones (SC) constitute the second most frequently abused class of new psychoactive substances. They serve as an alternative to classic psychostimulatory drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine, cocaine, or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Despite the worldwide prevalence of SC, little is known about their long-term impact on the central nervous system. Here, we examined the effects of repeated exposure of mice during infancy, to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a SC potently enhancing dopaminergic neurotransmission, on learning and memory in young adult mice. METHODS: All experiments were performed on C57BL/6J male and female mice. Animals were injected with MDPV (10 or 20 mg/kg) and BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine, 25 mg/kg) during postnatal days 11-20, which is a crucial period for the development of their hippocampus. At the age of 12 weeks, mice underwent an assessment of various types of memory using a battery of behavioral tests. Afterward, their brains were removed for detection of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation with immunohistochemistry, and for measurement of the expression of synaptic proteins, such as synaptophysin and PSD95, in the hippocampus using Western blot. RESULTS: Exposure to MDPV resulted in impairment of spatial working memory assessed with Y-maze spontaneous alternation test, and of object recognition memory. However, no deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were found using the Morris water maze paradigm. Consistently, hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were not interrupted. All observed MDPV effects were sex-independent. CONCLUSIONS: MDPV administered repeatedly to mice during infancy causes learning and memory deficits that persist into adulthood but are not related to aberrant hippocampal development.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 669: 444-457, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723533

RESUMO

The memristors offer significant advantages as a key element in non-volatile and brain-inspired neuromorphic systems because of their salient features such as remarkable endurance, ability to store multiple bits, fast operation speed, and extremely low energy usage. This work reports the resistive switching (RS) characteristics of the hydrothermally synthesized iron tungstate (FeWO4) based thin film memristive device. The detailed physicochemical analysis was investigated using Rietveld's refinement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The fabricated Ag/FWO/FTO memristive device exhibits bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. In addition, the devices exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) at both positive and negative bias. The charge-flux relation portrayed the non-ideal or memristive nature of the devices. The reliability in the RS process was analyzed in detail using Weibull distribution and time series analysis techniques. The device exhibits stable and multilevel endurance and retention characteristics which demonstrates the suitability of the device for the high-density non-volatile memory application. The current conduction of the device was dominated by Ohmic and trap controlled-space charge limited current (TC-SCLC) mechanisms and filamentary RS process responsible for the BRS in the device. In a nutshell, the present investigations reveal the potential use of the iron tungstate for the fabrication of memristive devices for the non-volatile memory application.

7.
Mem Cognit ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724882

RESUMO

Models of recognition memory often assume that decisions are made independently from each other. Yet there is growing evidence that consecutive recognition responses show sequential dependencies, whereby making one response increases the probability of repeating that response from one trial to the next trial. Across six experiments, we replicated this response-related carryover effect using word and nonword stimuli and further demonstrated that the content of the previous trial-both perceptual and conceptual-can also bias the response to the current test probe, with both perceptual (orthographic) and conceptual (semantic) similarity boosting the probability of consecutive "old" responses. Finally, a manipulation of attentional engagement in Experiments 3a and 3b provided little evidence these carryover effects on recognition decisions are merely a product of lapses in attention. Taken together, the current study reinforces prior findings that recognition decisions are not made independently, and that multiple forms of information perseverate across consecutive trials.

8.
Brain ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743818

RESUMO

Despite advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes underlying memory and cognition, and recent successful modulation of cognitive performance in brain disorders, the neurophysiological mechanisms remain underexplored. High frequency oscillations beyond the classic electroencephalogram spectrum have emerged as a potential neural correlate of fundamental cognitive processes. High frequency oscillations are detected in the human mesial temporal lobe and neocortical intracranial recordings spanning gamma/epsilon (60-150 Hz), ripple (80-250 Hz) and higher frequency ranges. Separate from other non-oscillatory activities, these brief electrophysiological oscillations of distinct duration, frequency and amplitude are thought to be generated by coordinated spiking of neuronal ensembles within volumes as small as a single cortical column. Although the exact origins, mechanisms, and physiological roles in health and disease remain elusive, they have been associated with human memory consolidation and cognitive processing. Recent studies suggest their involvement in encoding and recall of episodic memory with a possible role in the formation and reactivation of memory traces. High frequency oscillations are detected during encoding, throughout maintenance, and right before recall of remembered items, meeting a basic definition for an engram activity. The temporal coordination of high frequency oscillations reactivated across cortical and subcortical neural networks is ideally suited for integrating multimodal memory representations, which can be replayed and consolidated during states of wakefulness and sleep. High frequency oscillations have been shown to reflect coordinated bursts of neuronal assembly firing and offer a promising substrate for tracking and modulation of the hypothetical electrophysiological engram.

9.
Brain ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743817

RESUMO

Single-value scores reflecting the deviation from (FADE score) or similarity with (SAME score) prototypical novelty-related and memory-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns in young adults have been proposed as imaging biomarkers of healthy neurocognitive aging. Here, we tested the utility of these scores as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and risk states like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or subjective cognitive decline (SCD). To this end, we analyzed subsequent memory fMRI data from individuals with SCD, MCI, and AD dementia as well as healthy controls (HC) and first-degree relatives of AD dementia patients (AD-rel) who participated in the multi-center DELCODE study (N = 468). Based on the individual participants' whole-brain fMRI novelty and subsequent memory responses, we calculated the FADE and SAME scores and assessed their association with AD risk stage, neuropsychological test scores, CSF amyloid positivity, and ApoE genotype. Memory-based FADE and SAME scores showed a considerably larger deviation from a reference sample of young adults in the MCI and AD dementia groups compared to HC, SCD and AD-rel. In addition, novelty-based scores significantly differed between the MCI and AD dementia groups. Across the entire sample, single-value scores correlated with neuropsychological test performance. The novelty-based SAME score further differed between Aß-positive and Aß-negative individuals in SCD and AD-rel, and between ApoE ε4 carriers and non-carriers in AD-rel. Hence, FADE and SAME scores are associated with both cognitive performance and individual risk factors for AD. Their potential utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers warrants further exploration, particularly in individuals with SCD and healthy relatives of AD dementia patients.

10.
Neuropsychologia ; : 108908, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744410

RESUMO

Episodic memory impairments are one of the early hallmarks in Alzheimer's Disease. In the clinical diagnosis and research, episodic memory impairment is typically assessed using word lists that are repeatedly presented to and recalled by the participant across several trials. Until recently, total learning scores, which consist of the total number of words that are recalled by participants, were almost exclusively used for diagnostic purposes. The present review aims at summarizing evidence on additional scores derived from the learning trials which have recently been investigated more frequently regarding their diagnostic potential. These scores reflect item acquisition, error frequencies, strategy use, intertrial fluctuations, and recall consistency. Evidence was summarized regarding the effects of clinical status on these scores. Preclinical, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's Disease stages were associated with a pattern of reduced item acquisition, more errors, less strategy use, and reduced access of items, indicating slowed and erroneous encoding. Practical implications and limitations of the present research will be discussed.

11.
Mem Cognit ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744775

RESUMO

Working- and long-term memory are often studied in isolation. To better understand the specific limitations of working memory, effort is made to reduce the potential influence of long-term memory on performance in working memory tasks (e.g., asking participants to remember artificial, abstract items rather than familiar real-world objects). However, in everyday life we use working- and long-term memory in tandem. Here, our goal was to characterize how long-term memory can be recruited to circumvent capacity limits in a typical visual working memory task (i.e., remembering colored squares). Prior work has shown that incidental repetitions of working memory arrays often do not improve visual working memory performance - even after dozens of incidental repetitions, working memory performance often shows no improvement for repeated arrays. Here, we used a whole-report working memory task with explicit rather than incidental repetitions of arrays. In contrast to prior work with incidental repetitions, in two behavioral experiments we found that explicit repetitions of arrays yielded robust improvement to working memory performance, even after a single repetition. Participants performed above chance at recognizing repeated arrays in a later long-term memory test, consistent with the idea that long-term memory was used to rapidly improve performance across array repetitions. Finally, we analyzed inter-item response times and we found a response time signature of chunk formation that only emerged after the array was repeated (inter-response time slowing after two to three items); thus, inter-item response times may be useful for examining the coordinated interaction of visual working and long-term memory in future work.

12.
J Physiol ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747052

RESUMO

Regular exercise benefits learning and memory in older adults, but the neural mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. Evidence in young adults indicates that acute exercise creates a favourable environment for synaptic plasticity by enhancing cortical disinhibition. As such, we investigated whether plasticity-related disinhibition mediated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and memory function in healthy older adults (n = 16, mean age = 66.06). Participants completed a graded maximal exercise test and assessments of visual and verbal memory, followed by two counterbalanced sessions involving 20 min of either high-intensity interval training exercise or rest. Disinhibition was measured following intermittent theta burst stimulation via paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In line with our hypotheses, we observed a positive correlation between cardiorespiratory fitness and verbal memory, which was mediated by plasticity-related cortical disinhibition. Our novel finding implicates cortical disinhibition as a mechanism through which the effects of acute bouts of exercise may translate to improved memory in older adults. This finding extends current understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying the positive influence of cardiorespiratory fitness for memory function in older adults, and further highlights the importance of promoting exercise engagement to maintain cognitive health in later life. KEY POINTS: There are well established benefits of regular exercise for memory function in older adults, but the mechanisms are unclear. Cortical disinhibition is important for laying down new memories, and is enhanced following acute exercise in young adults, suggesting it is a potential mechanism underlying these benefits in ageing. Older adults completed a fitness test and assessments of memory, followed by two sessions involving either 20 min of exercise or rest. Disinhibition was measured following intermittent theta burst stimulation via paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with memory performance. Higher fitness was associated with enhanced cortical disinhibition following acute exercise. Cortical disinhibition completely mediated the relationship between fitness and memory. This novel finding provides a mechanistic account for the positive influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on memory in later life, and emphasises the importance of regular exercise for cognitive health in older populations.

13.
Psychophysiology ; : e14609, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747502

RESUMO

Several studies suggest that breathing entrains neural oscillations and thereby improves visual detection and memory performance during nasal inhalation. However, the evidence for this association is mixed, with some studies finding no, minor, or opposite effects. Here, we tested whether nasal breathing phase influences memory of repeated images presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The RSVP task is ideal for studying the effects of respiratory-entrained oscillations on visual memory because it engages critical aspects of sensory encoding that depend on oscillatory activity, such as fast processing of natural images, repetition detection, memory encoding, and retrieval. It also enables the presentation of a large number of stimuli during each phase of the breathing cycle. In two separate experiments (n = 72 and n = 142, respectively) where participants were explicitly asked to breathe through their nose, we found that nasal breathing phase at target presentation did not significantly affect memory performance. An exploratory analysis in the first experiment suggested a potential benefit for targets appearing approximately 1 s after inhalation. However, this finding was not replicated in the pre-registered second experiment with a larger sample. Thus, in two large sample experiments, we found no measurable impact of breathing phase on memory performance in the RSVP task. These results suggest that the natural breathing cycle does not have a significant impact on memory for repeated images and raise doubts about the idea that visual memory is broadly affected by the breathing phase.

14.
Soc Stud Sci ; : 3063127241252081, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747550

RESUMO

Biobanks are becoming ubiquitous infrastructures in zoology and other non-human life sciences. They promise to store frozen research samples for the long term for future use. That use remains speculative but nevertheless needs to be anticipated. Following the establishment of a physical and digital infrastructure for frozen samples in an animal biobanking project, this article explores how the future is anticipated to remember the past, and how frozen objects are shaped accordingly. Situating the biobank between mundane freezing routines in a research lab and the 'dry' and 'wet' collections of natural history museums, I argue that frozen research objects need to be conserved in two separate ways. The unavailability of cryo-objects in cold storage forces researchers to store materials independently of metadata, while retaining a link between them that allows for their reunion after thawing. The result is a split object, leading a double life at sub-zero and room temperature, linked only through the surface of special plastic containers. Following the making of such split objects, this article offers an elaboration of Radin's 'planned hindsight' as well as a reflection on the universality and particularity of biobanks as standardized scientific memory.

15.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(9): 2367-2383, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747954

RESUMO

With the widespread application of machine learning in various fields, enhancing its accuracy in hydrological forecasting has become a focal point of interest for hydrologists. This study, set against the backdrop of the Haihe River Basin, focuses on daily-scale streamflow and explores the application of the Lasso feature selection method alongside three machine learning models (long short-term memory, LSTM; transformer for time series, TTS; random forest, RF) in short-term streamflow prediction. Through comparative experiments, we found that the Lasso method significantly enhances the model's performance, with a respective increase in the generalization capabilities of the three models by 21, 12, and 14%. Among the selected features, lagged streamflow and precipitation play dominant roles, with streamflow closest to the prediction date consistently being the most crucial feature. In comparison to the TTS and RF models, the LSTM model demonstrates superior performance and generalization capabilities in streamflow prediction for 1-7 days, making it more suitable for practical applications in hydrological forecasting in the Haihe River Basin and similar regions. Overall, this study deepens our understanding of feature selection and machine learning models in hydrology, providing valuable insights for hydrological simulations under the influence of complex human activities.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Rios , Hidrologia , Modelos Teóricos , Movimentos da Água , China , Previsões/métodos
16.
Zebrafish ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748396

RESUMO

Various methods have been used in rodents to evaluate learning and memory. Although much less frequently used, the zebrafish emerges as an alternative model organism in this context. For example, it allows assessing potential behavioral deficits because of neurodevelopmental disorders or environmental neurotoxins. A variety of learning tasks have been employed in previous studies that required extensive habituation and training sessions. Here, we introduce a simpler and faster method to evaluate learning and memory of zebrafish with minimum habituation. A new apparatus, a transparent L-shaped tube, was developed in which we trained each zebrafish to swim through a long arm and measured the time to swim through this arm. We demonstrate that in this task, zebrafish could acquire both short-term (1 h) and long-term memory (4 days). We also studied learning and memory of a gene knockout (KO) zebrafish that showed social impairments related to autism. We found KO mutant zebrafish to show a quantitative impairment in habituation, learning, and memory performance compared with wild-type control fish. In conclusion, we established a novel learning apparatus and sensitive paradigm that allowed us to evaluate learning and memory of adult zebrafish that required only a brief habituation period and minimal training.

17.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731653

RESUMO

In pursuit of enhancing the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength, of 4D-printable consumables derived from waste cooking oil (WCO), we initiated the production of acrylate-modified WCO, which encompasses epoxy waste oil methacrylate (EWOMA) and epoxy waste oil acrylate (EWOA). Subsequently, a series of WCO-based 4D-printable photocurable resins were obtained by introducing a suitable diacrylate molecule as the second monomer, coupled with a composite photoinitiator system comprising Irgacure 819 and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB). These materials were amenable to molding using an LCD light-curing 3D printer. Our findings underscored the pivotal role of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) among the array of diacrylate molecules in enhancing the mechanical properties of WCO-based 4D-printable resins. Notably, the 4D-printable material, composed of EWOA and TEGDMA in an equal mass ratio, exhibited nice mechanical strength comparable to that of mainstream petroleum-based 4D-printable materials, boasting a tensile strength of 9.17 MPa and an elongation at break of 15.39%. These figures significantly outperformed the mechanical characteristics of pure EWOA or TEGDMA resins. Furthermore, the EWOA-TEGDMA resin demonstrated impressive thermally induced shape memory performance, enabling deformation and recovery at room temperature and retaining its shape at -60 °C. This resin also demonstrated favorable biodegradability, with an 8.34% weight loss after 45 days of soil degradation. As a result, this 4D-printable photocurable resin derived from WCO holds immense potential for the creation of a wide spectrum of high-performance intelligent devices, brackets, mold, folding structures, and personalized products.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1387575, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736453

RESUMO

Plants have evolved interconnected regulatory pathways which enable them to respond and adapt to their environments. In plants, stress memory enhances stress tolerance through the molecular retention of prior stressful experiences, fostering rapid and robust responses to subsequent challenges. Mounting evidence suggests a close link between the formation of stress memories and effective future stress responses. However, the mechanism by which environmental stressors trigger stress memory formation is poorly understood. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the RNA-based regulation on stress memory formation in plants and discuss research challenges and future directions. Specifically, we focus on the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and alternative splicing (AS) in stress memory formation. miRNAs regulate target genes via post-transcriptional silencing, while siRNAs trigger stress memory formation through RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). lncRNAs guide protein complexes for epigenetic regulation, and AS of pre-mRNAs is crucial to plant stress memory. Unraveling the mechanisms underpinning RNA-mediated stress memory formation not only advances our knowledge of plant biology but also aids in the development of improved stress tolerance in crops, enhancing crop performance and global food security.

20.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 17: 1386924, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736483

RESUMO

The Slitrk family consists of six synaptic adhesion molecules, some of which are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of Slitrk4 by analyzing Slitrk4 knockout (KO) mice. The Slitrk4 protein was widely detected in the brain and was abundant in the olfactory bulb and amygdala. In a systematic behavioral analysis, male Slitrk4 KO mice exhibited an enhanced fear memory acquisition in a cued test for classical fear conditioning, and social behavior deficits in reciprocal social interaction tests. In an electrophysiological analysis using amygdala slices, Slitrk4 KO mice showed enhanced long-term potentiation in the thalamo-amygdala afferents and reduced feedback inhibition. In the molecular marker analysis of Slitrk4 KO brains, the number of calretinin (CR)-positive interneurons was decreased in the anterior part of the lateral amygdala nuclei at the adult stage. In in vitro experiments for neuronal differentiation, Slitrk4-deficient embryonic stem cells were defective in inducing GABAergic interneurons with an altered response to sonic hedgehog signaling activation that was involved in the generation of GABAergic interneuron subsets. These results indicate that Slitrk4 function is related to the development of inhibitory neurons in the fear memory circuit and would contribute to a better understanding of osttraumatic stress disorder, in which an altered expression of Slitrk4 has been reported.

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