Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26.171
Filtrar
1.
J Inflamm Res ; 17: 4257-4275, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979434

RESUMO

Introduction: Although sertraline has been widely used for chronic prostatitis (CP), the mechanisms are unclear. Herein, we explored the mechanisms of sertraline in treating CP. Methods: Network pharmacology methods were used to explore the potential targets and molecular mechanisms. LPS was used to stimulate RWPE-1 cells to construct an in vitro model of CP. An experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) mice model was built. CCK-8 assay, EdU assay, BrdU detection, and Tunel assay were performed to evaluate the proliferation and apoptosis process of cells or tissues, respectively. DCFH-DA and Fluo-4 fluorescence probes were used to detect intracellular ROS and calcium concentrations. Von Frey filaments and open-field tests were utilized to evaluate pain response and depressive-like behavior of mice. Histopathology was evaluated through hematoxylin and eosin staining. RT-qPCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry were utilized to evaluate the transcription, expression, and location of related proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay were performed to measure the binding capacity of sertraline and related proteins. Results: Through a network pharmacology analysis, 27 potential targets of sertraline for CP were obtained, and 5 key targets (CHRM1, ADRA1B, HTR2B, HTR2A, and TRPV1) were finally identified. Functional experiments suggested that TRPV1 was involved in the proliferation, apoptosis inhibition, and ROS production of LPS-induced RWPE-1 cells. In vitro experiments showed that sertraline significantly inhibited cell proliferation, ROS generation, and transcription of inflammation cytokines of LPS-induced RWPE-1 cells. Additionally, sertraline markedly promoted the apoptosis level of LPS-stimulated RWPE-1 cells and elevated the expression level of BAX while reducing the expression levels of Bcl2 and Caspase-3. MD simulation and SPR assay confirmed the direct binding of sertraline to TRPV1. Moreover, sertraline significantly down-regulated the expression level of TRPV1 and inhibited calcium influx of LPS-induced RWPE-1 cells. TRPV1 agonist (Capsaicin) significantly restored the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, ROS production, and calcium influx of sertraline on LPS-induced RWPE-1 cells. Mice experiments demonstrated that sertraline treatment could reduce pain response, improve depression-like symptoms, and relieve local prostate inflammation of EAP mice, as well as down-regulated the expression level of TRPV1, inhibit the proliferation, and promote apoptosis of prostate tissues in EAP mice. Discussion: The results revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of sertraline for RWPE-1 cells and EAP mice, and the potential mechanism was regulating the TRPV1 channel. It indicated that sertraline might serve as a complementary anti-inflammatory agent for CP.

2.
J Physiol ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980963

RESUMO

Limited knowledge exists regarding the chronic effect of muscular exercise on muscle function in a murine model of severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we determined the effects of 1 month of voluntary wheel running (WR), 1 month of enforced treadmill running (TR) and 1 month of mechanical overloading resulting from the removal of the synergic muscles (OVL) in mice lacking both dystrophin and desmin (DKO). Additionally, we examined the effect of activin receptor administration (AR). DKO mice, displaying severe muscle weakness, atrophy and greater susceptibility to contraction-induced functional loss, were exercised or treated with AR at 1 month of age and in situ force production of lower leg muscle was measured at the age of 2 months. We found that TR and OVL increased absolute maximal force and the rate of force development of the plantaris muscle in DKO mice. In contrast, those of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle remained unaffected by TR and WR. Furthermore, the effects of TR and OVL on plantaris muscle function in DKO mice closely resembled those in mdx mice, a less severe murine DMD model. AR also improved absolute maximal force and the rate of force development of the TA muscle in DKO mice. In conclusion, exercise training improved plantaris muscle weakness in severely affected dystrophic mice. Consequently, these preclinical results may contribute to fostering further investigations aimed at assessing the potential benefits of exercise for DMD patients, particularly resistance training involving a low number of intense muscle contractions. KEY POINTS: Very little is known about the effects of exercise training in a murine model of severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). One reason is that it is feared that chronic muscular exercise, particularly that involving intense muscle contractions, could exacerbate the disease. In DKO mice lacking both dystrophin and desmin, characterized by severe lower leg muscle weakness, atrophy and fragility in comparison to the less severe DMD mdx model, we found that enforced treadmill running improved absolute maximal force of the plantaris muscle, while that of tibialis anterior muscle remained unaffected by both enforced treadmill and voluntary wheel running. Furthermore, mechanical overloading, a non-physiological model of chronic resistance exercise, reversed plantaris muscle weakness. Consequently, our findings may have the potential to alleviate concerns and pave the way for exploring the prescription of endurance and resistance training as a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of dystrophic patients. Additionally, such interventions may serve in mitigating the pathophysiological mechanisms induced by physical inactivity.

3.
Immun Ageing ; 21(1): 45, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) decreases with age, which results in infectious and inflammatory complications in older individuals. The underlying causes are not fully understood. ATP release and autocrine stimulation of purinergic receptors help PMNs combat microbial invaders. Excessive extracellular ATP interferes with these mechanisms and promotes inflammatory PMN responses. Here, we studied whether dysregulated purinergic signaling in PMNs contributes to their dysfunction in older individuals. RESULTS: Bacterial infection of C57BL/6 mice resulted in exaggerated PMN activation that was significantly greater in old mice (64 weeks) than in young animals (10 weeks). In contrast to young animals, old mice were unable to prevent the systemic spread of bacteria, resulting in lethal sepsis and significantly greater mortality in old mice than in their younger counterparts. We found that the ATP levels in the plasma of mice increased with age and that, along with the extracellular accumulation of ATP, the PMNs of old mice became increasingly primed. Stimulation of the formyl peptide receptors of those primed PMNs triggered inflammatory responses that were significantly more pronounced in old mice than in young animals. However, bacterial phagocytosis and killing by PMNs of old mice were significantly lower than that of young mice. These age-dependent PMN dysfunctions correlated with a decrease in the enzymatic activity of plasma ATPases that convert extracellular ATP to adenosine. ATPases depend on divalent metal ions, including Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+, and we found that depletion of these ions blocked the hydrolysis of ATP and the formation of adenosine in human blood, resulting in ATP accumulation and dysregulation of PMN functions equivalent to those observed in response to aging. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that impaired hydrolysis of plasma ATP dysregulates PMN function in older individuals. We conclude that strategies aimed at restoring plasma ATPase activity may offer novel therapeutic opportunities to reduce immune dysfunction, inflammation, and infectious complications in older patients.

4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 11(6): nwae142, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966071

RESUMO

Decidual natural killer (dNK) cells are the most abundant immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy in both mice and humans, and emerging single-cell transcriptomic studies have uncovered various human dNK subsets that are disrupted in patients experiencing recurrent early pregnancy loss (RPL) at early gestational stage, suggesting a connection between abnormal proportions or characteristics of dNK subsets and RPL pathogenesis. However, the functional mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse model by adoptively transferring human dNK cells into pregnant NOG (NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull) mice, where human dNK cells predominantly homed into the uteri of recipients. Using this model, we observed a strong correlation between the properties of human dNK cells and pregnancy outcome. The transfer of dNK cells from RPL patients (dNK-RPL) remarkably worsened early pregnancy loss and impaired placental trophoblast cell differentiation in the recipients. These adverse effects were effectively reversed by transferring CD56+CD39+ dNK cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that CD56+CD39+ dNK subset facilitates early differentiation of mouse trophoblast stem cells (mTSCs) towards both invasive and syncytial pathways through secreting macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Administration of recombinant M-CSF to NOG mice transferred with dNK-RPL efficiently rescued the exacerbated pregnancy outcomes and fetal/placental development. Collectively, this study established a novel humanized mouse model featuring functional human dNK cells homing into the uteri of recipients and uncovered the pivotal role of M-CSF in fetal-supporting function of CD56+CD39+ dNK cells during early pregnancy, highlighting that M-CSF may be a previously unappreciated therapeutic target for intervening RPL.

5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1389551, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966642

RESUMO

Introduction: Pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniases involves parasite growth, persistent inflammation, and likely participation of lipoproteins (LP). The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), involved in LP remodeling, has been shown to participate in the inflammatory response and the evolution of infectious conditions. Methods: We evaluated the impact of the presence of CETP on infection by Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis using C57BL6/J mice transgenic for human CETP (CETP), having as control their littermates that do not express the protein, wild-type (WT) mice. The progression of the lesion after infection in the footpad was monitored for 12 weeks. Two groups of animals were formed to collect the plantar pad in the 4th and 12th week post-infection. Results: The lesion increased from the 3rd week onwards, in both groups, with a gradual decrease from the 10th week onwards in the CETP group compared to the WT group, showing a reduction in parasitism and an improvement in the healing process, a reduction in CD68+ cells, and an increase in CD163+ and CD206, characterizing a population of M2 macrophages. A reduction in ARG1+ cells and an increase in INOS+ cells were observed. During infection, the LP profile showed an increase in triglycerides in the VLDL fraction in the CETP group at 12 weeks. Gene expression revealed a decrease in the CD36 receptor in the CETP group at 12 weeks, correlating with healing and parasite reduction. In vitro, macrophages derived from bone marrow cells from CETP mice showed lower parasite load at 48 h and, a reduction in arginase activity at 4 h accompanied by increased NO production at 4 and 24 h compared to WT macrophages, corroborating the in vivo findings. Discussion: The data indicate that the presence of CETP plays an important role in resolving Leishmania (L.) amazonensis infection, reducing parasitism, and modulating the inflammatory response in controlling infection and tissue repair.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Animais , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/metabolismo , Camundongos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Humanos , Progressão da Doença , Modelos Animais de Doenças
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1367566, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983114

RESUMO

Humanized mouse models are valuable tools for investigating the human immune system in response to infection and injury. We have previously described the human immune system (HIS)-DRAGA mice (HLA-A2.HLA-DR4.Rag1KO.IL-2RgKO.NOD) generated by infusion of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-matched, human hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood. By reconstituting human cells, the HIS-DRAGA mouse model has been utilized as a "surrogate in vivo human model" for infectious diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Influenza, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), scrub typhus, and malaria. This humanized mouse model bypasses ethical concerns about the use of fetal tissues for the humanization of laboratory animals. Here in, we demonstrate the presence of human microglia and T cells in the brain of HIS-DRAGA mice. Microglia are brain-resident macrophages that play pivotal roles against pathogens and cerebral damage, whereas the brain-resident T cells provide surveillance and defense against infections. Our findings suggest that the HIS-DRAGA mouse model offers unique advantages for studying the functions of human microglia and T cells in the brain during infections, degenerative disorders, tumors, and trauma, as well as for testing therapeutics in these pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microglia , Linfócitos T , Animais , Microglia/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually dimorphic spinal motoneurons (MNs) in the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and dorsolateral nucleus (DLN) as well as those in the cremaster nucleus are involved in reproductive behaviours, and the cremaster nucleus additionally contributes to testicular thermoregulation. It has been reported that MNs in DMN and DLN are extensively linked by gap junctions forming electrical synapses composed of connexin36 (Cx36) and there is evidence that subpopulation of MNs in the cremaster nucleus are also electrically coupled by these synapses. METHODOLOGY: We used immunofluorescence methods to detect enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter for Cx36 expression in these motor nuclei. RESULTS: We document in male mice that about half the MNs in each of DMN and DLN express eGFP, while the remaining half do not. Further, we found that the eGFP+ vs. eGFP- subsets of MNs in each of these motor nuclei innervate different target muscles; eGFP+ MNs in DMN and DLN project to sexually dimorphic bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus muscles, while the eGFP- subsets project to sexually non-dimorphic anal and external urethral sphincter muscles. Similarly, eGFP+ vs. eGFP- cremaster MNs were found to project to anatomically distinct portions of the cremaster muscle. By immunofluorescence, nearly all motoneurons in both DMN and DLN displayed punctate labelling for Cx36, including at eGFP+/eGFP+, eGFP+/eGFP- and eGFP-/eGFP- cell appositions. CONCLUSIONS: Most if not all motoneurons in DMN and DLN are electrically coupled, including sexually dimorphic and non-dimorphic motoneurons with each other, despite absence of eGFP reporter in the non-dimorphic populations in these nuclei that have selective projections to sexually non-dimorphic target muscles.

8.
Anim Reprod ; 21(2): e20230124, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021499

RESUMO

In 2015-2016, the Zika virus (ZIKV) caused a major epidemic in the Americas, increasing cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. During this period, the discovery of ZIKV sexual transmission intensified studies on the impact of this virus on the reproductive organs. For this study, 2-month-old male BALB/c mice were infected with 1.26 x 106 PFU/mL of ZIKV in solution via the intravenous route. After three, seven, and fourteen days post-infection (DPI), blood and testicle samples were obtained to detect ZIKV RNA. The authors observed that the infected animals had slower weight gain than the control group. Viremia occurred only at 3DPI, and the ZIKV RNA was detected in one testis sample at 7DPI. The histopathological analysis of this organ revealed intense disorganization of the seminiferous tubules' structure, inflammatory infiltrate, necrosis, hemorrhage, fluid accumulation, congestion of blood vessels, and reduced sperm count. Ultrastructural analysis showed nuclear changes in tubule cells, activation of interstitial cells, and morphological changes in spermatozoa, in addition to fragmentation and decreased electron density of the genetic material of these cells. Thus, despite causing predominantly asymptomatic infections, ZIKV can cause significant subclinical and transient damage, including to male reproductive organs.

9.
Heliyon ; 10(12): e32949, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021958

RESUMO

Osteoclasts are essential for bone remodeling by adapting their resorptive activity in response to their mechanical in vivo environment. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated the role of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, Acp5), a key enzyme secreted by osteoclasts, in bone remodeling and mechanosensitivity. Using CRISPR/Cas9 reporter mice, we demonstrated bone cell reporter (BCRIbsp/Acp5) mice feature fluorescent TRAP-deficient osteoclasts and examined their activity during mechanically driven trabecular bone remodeling. Although BCRIbsp/Acp5 mice exhibited trabecular bone impairments and reduced resorption capacity in vitro, RNA sequencing revealed unchanged levels of key osteoclast-associated genes such as Ctsk, Mmp9, and Calcr. These findings, in conjunction with serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and in vivo mechanical loading outcomes collectively indicated an unaltered bone resorption capacity of osteoclasts in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated similar mechanoregulation during trabecular bone remodeling in BCRIbsp/Acp5 and wild-type (WT) mice. Hence, this study provides valuable insights into the dynamics of TRAP activity in the context of bone remodeling and mechanosensation.

10.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023670

RESUMO

The TRPV1 channel is actively involved in various neuronal processes and is found in various structures of the nervous system, including peripheral and central neurons, sensory ganglia, spinal cord, and various parts of the brain. Due to its ability to respond to various stimuli, TRPV1 can have a significant impact on the body's responses to stress. Studies indicate the involvement of TRPV1 in the regulation of anxiety behavior. Suppression of TRPV1 activity leads to a decrease in the level of anxiety in animals, which indicates the importance of this channel in psychoemotional regulation. A promising compound for inhibiting this channel is the APHC3 peptide, which is a selective receptor antagonist. The results obtained this study show that this peptide has a pronounced anxiolytic effect, reducing the level of anxiety in the studied animals.

11.
Exp Physiol ; 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023735

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic neuromuscular disease. Lack of dystrophin in skeletal muscles leads to intrinsic weakness, injury, subsequent degeneration and fibrosis, decreasing contractile function. Dystropathology eventually presents in all inspiratory and expiratory muscles of breathing, severely curtailing their critical function. In people with DMD, premature death is caused by respiratory or cardiac failure. There is an urgent need to develop therapies that improve quality of life and extend life expectancy in DMD. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of information on respiratory control in animal models of DMD, and respiratory outcome measures are often limited or absent in clinical trials. Characterization of respiratory performance in murine and canine models has revealed extensive remodelling of the diaphragm, the major muscle of inspiration. However, significant compensation by extradiaphragmatic muscles of breathing is evident in early disease, contributing to preservation of peak respiratory system performance. Loss of compensation afforded by accessory muscles in advanced disease is ultimately associated with compromised respiratory performance. A new and potentially more translatable murine model of DMD, the D2.mdx mouse, has recently been developed. Respiratory performance in D2.mdx mice is yet to be characterized fully. However, based on histopathological features, D2.mdx mice might serve as useful preclinical models, facilitating the testing of new therapeutics that rescue respiratory function. This review summarizes the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with DMD both in humans and in animal models, with a focus on breathing. We consider the translational value of each model to human DMD and highlight the urgent need for comprehensive characterization of breathing in representative preclinical models to better inform human trials.

12.
Reprod Med Biol ; 23(1): e12597, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39010880

RESUMO

Background: Early pregnancy events, including embryo implantation, are critical for maintaining a healthy pregnancy and facilitating childbirth. Despite numerous signaling pathways implicated in establishing early pregnancy, a comprehensive understanding of implantation remains elusive. Methods: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current research on lipids in the context of early pregnancy, with a particular focus on feto-maternal communications. Main Findings: Embryo implantation entails direct interaction between uterine tissues and embryos. Introducing embryos triggers significant changes in uterine epithelial morphology and stromal differentiation, facilitating embryo implantation through communication with uterine tissue. Studies employing genetic models and chemical compounds targeting enzymes and receptors have elucidated the crucial roles of lipid mediators-prostaglandins, lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and cannabinoids-in early pregnancy events. Conclusion: Given the high conservation of lipid synthases and receptors across species, lipid mediators likely play pivotal roles in rodents and humans. Further investigations into lipids hold promise for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for infertility in humans.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1418556, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946910

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to explore the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis HFY14 (LLSLHFY14) and investigate its effects on the intestinal barrier, cranial nerve, and motor function in mice treated with antibiotics. Methods: Mice were administered an antibiotic mixture (neomycin 5 mg/mL, vancomycin 25 mg/mL, amphotericin B 0.1 mg/mL, ampicillin 10 mg/mL, metronidazole file 5 mg/mL, and lipopolysaccharide 1.5 µg/mL) intraperitoneally, and oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the serum and brain tissues, and liver index were measured. H&E staining was performed to detect pathological alterations in brain tissues. The expression of intestinal-barrier-related genes and that of genes involved in inflammatory pathways in the brain were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: LLSLHFY14 administration extended the weight-loaded swimming and running times of mice and decreased the liver index. Moreover, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the serum and brain tissue were reduced, whereas those of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated. Elevated brain expression of the protein kinase B (AKT)/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) pathway, decreased brain expression of the IL-6 gene, and elevated cecum expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin-1, and claudin-1 genes were noted. LLSLHFY14 supplementation significantly increased Bacteroidetes expression but decreased Firmicutes expression, thus increasing the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. Discussion: Overall, LLSLHFY14 supplementation ameliorated antibiotic-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the mouse central nervous system, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and increased motor function, thus confirming its potential application as probiotics.

14.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 18: 1397046, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948027

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from low-intensity blast (LIB) exposure in military and civilian individuals is linked to enduring behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. These injuries can serve as confounding risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease-related dementias (ADRD). Recent animal studies have demonstrated LIB-induced brain damage at the molecular and nanoscale levels. Nevertheless, the mechanisms linking these damages to cognitive abnormalities are unresolved. Challenges preventing the translation of preclinical studies into meaningful findings in "real-world clinics" encompass the heterogeneity observed between different species and strains, variable time durations of the tests, quantification of dosing effects and differing approaches to data analysis. Moreover, while behavioral tests in most pre-clinical studies are conducted at the group level, clinical tests are predominantly assessed on an individual basis. In this investigation, we advanced a high-resolution and sensitive method utilizing the CognitionWall test system and applying reversal learning data to the Boltzmann fitting curves. A flow chart was developed that enable categorizing individual mouse to different levels of learning deficits and patterns. In this study, rTg4510 mice, which represent a neuropathology model due to elevated levels of tau P301L, together with the non-carrier genotype were exposed to LIB. Results revealed distinct and intricate patterns of learning deficits and patterns within each group and in relation to blast exposure. With the current findings, it is possible to establish connections between mice with specific cognitive deficits to molecular changes. This approach can enhance the translational value of preclinical findings and also allow for future development of a precision clinical treatment plan for ameliorating neurologic damage of individuals with mTBI.

15.
Mycobiology ; 52(3): 191-200, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948451

RESUMO

Candida ranks as among the most frequently encountered fungal infections that associated with high morbidity and mortality. Quinoxaline derivatives are a group of small molecules that showed a promising antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to investigate the fungicidal effects of 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol against Candida in comparison with Amphotericin B in vitro as a reference. Also, we aim to assess the efficacy of 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol in vivo using mice oral candidiasis model. Fifty-six Candida isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method for 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol and Amphotericin B. Therefore, Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were assessed and compared. The oral candidiasis mice model was used to evaluate the activity of 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol in vivo. Microbiological evaluation of progression and ELISA were used in this study. 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol was more effective than Amphotericin B against most clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Higher effectiveness was seen against Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis isolates. However, the efficiency against Candida tropicalis isolates varies. 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol was also effective against Pichia kudriavzevii and Clavispora lusitaniae. 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol showed a good efficacy in mice model against C. albicans cells ATCC 10231. 3-hydrazinoquinoxaline-2-thiol has shown promising antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity against different Candida species. More tests and experiments are needed.

16.
Aging Cell ; : e14231, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952076

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments. Unfortunately, the drugs the Food and Drug Administration currently approved for AD have shown low effectiveness in delaying the progression of the disease. The focus has shifted to non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) because of the challenges associated with pharmacological treatments for AD. One such intervention is environmental enrichment (EE), which has been reported to restore cognitive decline associated with AD effectively. However, the therapeutic mechanisms by which EE improves symptoms associated with AD remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the alleviating effects of EE on AD symptoms using histological, proteomic, and neurotransmitter-related analyses. Wild-type (WT) and 5XFAD mice were maintained in standard housing or EE conditions for 4 weeks. First, we confirmed the mitigating effects of EE on cognitive impairment in an AD animal model. Then, histological analysis revealed that EE reduced Aß accumulation, neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and synaptic loss in the AD brain. Moreover, proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry showed that EE enhanced synapse- and neurotransmitter-related networks and upregulated synapse- and neurotransmitter-related proteins in the AD brain. Furthermore, neurotransmitter-related analyses showed an increase in acetylcholine and serotonin concentrations as well as a decrease in polyamine concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice raised under EE conditions. Our findings demonstrate that EE restores cognitive impairment by alleviating AD pathology and regulating synapse-related proteins and neurotransmitters. Our study provided neurological evidence for the application of NPIs in treating AD.

17.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 28(3): 288-298, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952707

RESUMO

Elevated leptin in pregnant mice improves metabolism in offspring fed high-calorie diet and its influence may be sex-specific. Molecular mechanisms mediating leptin programming action are unknown. We aimed to investigate programming actions of maternal leptin on the signaling function of the placenta and fetal liver and on adaptation to high-calorie diet in male and female offspring. Female C57BL/6J mice received leptin injections in mid-pregnancy. Gene expression was assessed in placentas and in the fetal brain and liver at the end of pregnancy. Metabolic parameters and gene expression in the liver, brown fat and hypothalamus were assessed in adult male and female offspring that had consumed sweet and fatty diet (SFD: chow, lard, sweet biscuits) for 2 weeks. Females had lower blood levels of leptin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol than males. Consuming SFD, females had increased Ucp1 expression in brown fat, while males had accumulated fat, decreased blood triglycerides and liver Fasn expression. Leptin administration to mothers increased Igf1 and Dnmt3b expression in fetal liver, decreased post-weaning growth rate, and increased hypothalamic Crh expression in response to SFD in both sexes. Only in male offspring this administration decreased expression of Fasn and Gck in the mature liver, increased fat mass, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and Dmnt3a expression in the fetal liver. The results suggest that the influence of maternal leptin on the expression of genes encoding growth factors and DNA methyltransferases in the fetal liver may mediate its programming effect on offspring metabolic phenotypes.

18.
Stroke ; 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GPR65 (G protein-coupled receptor 65) can sense extracellular acidic environment to regulate pathophysiological processes. Pretreatment with the GPR65 agonist BTB09089 has been proven to produce neuroprotection in acute ischemic stroke. However, whether delayed BTB09089 treatment and neuronal GPR65 activation promote neurorestoration remains unknown. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced in wild-type (WT) or GPR65 knockout (GPR65-/-) mice by photothrombotic ischemia. Male mice were injected intraperitoneally with BTB09089 every other day at days 3, 7, or 14 poststroke. AAV-Syn-GPR65 (adenoassociated virus-synapsin-GPR65) was utilized to overexpress GPR65 in the peri-infarct cortical neurons of GPR65-/- and WT mice. Motor function was monitored by grid-walk and cylinder tests. The neurorestorative effects of BTB09089 were observed by immunohistochemistry, Golgi-Cox staining, and Western blotting. RESULTS: BTB09089 significantly promoted motor outcomes in WT but not in GPR65-/- mice, even when BTB09089 was delayed for 3 to 7 days. BTB09089 inhibited the activation of microglia and glial scar progression in WT but not in GPR65-/- mice. Meanwhile, BTB09089 reduced the decrease in neuronal density in WT mice, but this benefit was abolished in GPR65-/- mice and reemerged by overexpressing GPR65 in peri-infarct cortical neurons. Furthermore, BTB09089 increased the GAP43 (growth-associated protein-43) and synaptophysin puncta density, dendritic spine density, dendritic branch length, and dendritic complexity by overexpressing GPR65 in the peri-infarct cortical neurons of GPR65-/- mice, which was accompanied by increased levels of p-CREB (phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein). In addition, the therapeutic window of BTB09089 was extended to day 14 by overexpressing GPR65 in the peri-infarct cortical neurons of WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that delayed BTB09089 treatment improved neurological functional recovery and brain tissue repair poststroke through activating neuronal GRP65. GPR65 overexpression may be a potential strategy to expand the therapeutic time window of GPR65 agonists for neurorehabilitation after ischemic stroke.

19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 727: 150319, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963983

RESUMO

Castration promotes subcutaneous fat deposition that may be associated with metabolic adaptations in the liver. However, fatty acid composition, abundance, and metabolic characteristics of the liver after castration are not fully understood. Our results showed that surgical castration significantly reduced water and food intake, reduced liver weight, and induced liver inflammation in mice. Transcriptome analyses revealed that castration enhanced fatty acid metabolism, particularly that of arachidonic and linoleic acids metabolism. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that castration altered the composition and relative abundance of fatty acids in the liver. The relative abundances of arachidonic and linoleic acids were significantly decreased in 4-week-old castrated mice. Analysis of fatty acid synthesis- and metabolism-related genes revealed that castration enhanced the transcription of fatty acid synthesis- and oxidation-related genes. Analyzing the level of key enzymes in the ß-oxidation and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways of fatty acids in mitochondria, we found that castration enhanced the ß-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria, and also enhanced the protein level of the rate-limiting enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2. These results comprehensively clarify metabolic changes in liver fatty acids after castration in mice of different ages and provide a reference for understanding castration-induced fat deposition from the perspective of liver fatty acid metabolism in male mice.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950840

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports dopamine's role in aversive states, yet systematic reviews focusing on dopamine receptors in defensive behaviors are lacking. This study presents a systematic review of the literature examining the influence of drugs acting on dopamine D2-like receptors on unconditioned and conditioned fear in rodents. The review reveals a predominant use of adult male rats in the studies, with limited inclusion of female rodents. Commonly employed tests include the elevated plus maze and auditory-cued fear conditioning. The findings indicate that systemic administration of D2-like drugs has a notable impact on both innate and learned aversive states. Generally, antagonists tend to increase unconditioned fear, while agonists decrease it. Moreover, both agonists and antagonists typically reduce conditioned fear. These effects are attributed to the involvement of distinct neural circuits in these states. The observed increase in unconditioned fear induced by D2-like antagonists aligns with dopamine's role in suppressing midbrain-mediated responses. Conversely, the reduction in conditioned fear is likely a result of blocking dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway. The study highlights the need for future research to delve into sex differences, explore alternative testing paradigms, and identify specific neural substrates. Such investigations have the potential to advance our understanding of the neurobiology of aversive states and enhance the therapeutic application of dopaminergic agents.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...