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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(18): 2001-2009, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624058

RESUMO

AIM: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multi-Society Cholesterol Guidelines recommended the addition of non-statins to statin therapy for high-risk secondary prevention patients above a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) threshold of ≥70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). We compared effectiveness and safety of treatment to achieve lower (<70) vs. higher (≥70 mg/dL) LDL-C among patients receiving intensive lipid-lowering therapy (statins alone or plus ezetimibe or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven randomized controlled trials (130 070 patients), comparing intensive vs. less-intensive lipid-lowering therapy, with follow-up ≥6 months and sample size ≥1000 patients were selected. Meta-analysis was reported as random effects risk ratios (RRs) [95% confidence intervals] and absolute risk differences (ARDs) as incident cases per 1000 person-years. The median LDL-C levels achieved in lower LDL-C vs. higher LDL-C groups were 62 and 103 mg/dL, respectively. At median follow-up of 2 years, the lower LDL-C vs. higher LDL-C group was associated with significant reduction in all-cause mortality [ARD -1.56; RR 0.94 (0.89-1.00)], cardiovascular mortality [ARD -1.49; RR 0.90 (0.81-1.00)], and reduced risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, revascularization, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). These benefits were achieved without increasing the risk of incident cancer, diabetes mellitus, or haemorrhagic stroke. All-cause mortality benefit in lower LDL-C group was limited to statin therapy and those with higher baseline LDL-C (≥100 mg/dL). However, the RR reduction in ischaemic and safety endpoints was independent of baseline LDL-C or drug therapy. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that treatment to achieve LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL using intensive lipid-lowering therapy can safely reduce the risk of mortality and MACE.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Infarto do Miocárdio , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle
3.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise
4.
JACC CardioOncol ; 4(1): 98-109, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35492831

RESUMO

Background: Studies assessing whether heart failure (HF) is associated with cancer and cancer-related mortality have yielded conflicting results. Objectives: This study assessed cancer incidence and mortality according to pre-existing HF in a community-based cohort. Methods: Among individuals ≥50 years of age from the Puglia region in Italy with administrative health data from 2002 to 2018, no cancer within 3 years before the baseline evaluation, and ≥5-year follow-up, the study matched 104,020 subjects with HF at baseline with 104,020 control subjects according to age, sex, drug-derived complexity index, Charlson comorbidity index, and follow-up duration. Cancer incidence and mortality were defined based on International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes in hospitalization records or death certificates. Results: The incidence rate of cancer in HF patients and control subjects was 21.36 (95% CI: 20.98-21.74) and 12.42 (95% CI: 12.14-12.72) per 1000 person-years, respectively, with the HR being 1.76 (95% CI: 1.71-1.81). Cancer mortality was also higher in HF patients than control subjects (HR: 4.11; 95% CI: 3.86-4.38), especially in those <70 years of age (HR: 7.54; 95% CI: 6.33-8.98 vs HR: 3.80; 95% CI: 3.44-4.19 for 70-79 years of age; and HR: 3.10; 95% CI: 2.81-3.43 for ≥80 years of age). The association between HF and cancer mortality was confirmed in a competing risk analysis (subdistribution HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 3.27-3.72). The HF-related excess risk applied to the majority of cancer types. Among HF patients, prescription of high-dose loop diuretic was associated with higher cancer incidence (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.21) and mortality (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.19-1.53). Conclusions: HF is associated with an increased risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality, which may be heightened in decompensated states.

5.
Soc Sci Res ; 105: 102697, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659052

RESUMO

The connection between women's education and infant mortality is one of the most consistent and powerful relationships established in public health. A large body of cross-national research highlights the benefits of women's access to education, especially for improving population health in developing countries. However, most of this literature assumes the relationship is uniform across cases. In this study, we revisit the education-health link using a distributional approach. To do so, we conduct a series of unconditional quantile regression analyses that estimate the impact of female secondary school enrollment on infant mortality rates across 153 countries from 1970 to 2016. This technique allows for the possibility that the relationship between education and health may vary across the distribution of mortality. Indeed, results show that the education advantage is distribution-specific. We find that the expected benefits of women's education are limited to the middle of the distribution where infant mortality rates range from about 11 to 55 deaths per 1000 live births. However, we find no significant effect where mortality is comparatively low or high. Both consistent with and contradictory to prior research, these findings provide a more nuanced picture of how women's access to education relates to global health inequalities.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Mortalidade Infantil , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 46(7): 372-382, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660286

RESUMO

OBJETIVE: To describe mechanical ventilation (MV) practices in Argentina, and to explore factors associated with ICU mortality in this population. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out. SETTING: Intensive Care. PATIENTS: We enrolled patients above 18 years old admitted to any of the participating ICUs requiring invasive MV for at least 12 h since the admission to the healthcare institution, including MV initiation in emergency department, operating room or other hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: None. VARIABLES: All variables were classified into three categories: variables related to demographic and clinical factors before the MV, factors related to the first day on MV, and factors related to events happening during the MV (complications and weaning from MV). Mechanical ventilation weaning and mortality were classified according to WIND. RESULTS: The primary analysis included 950 patients. The main indication for MV was acute respiratory failure (58% of patients). Initial ventilation mode was volume control-continuous mandatory ventilation in 75% of cases. ICU and hospital mortality were 44.6% and 47.9% respectively. The variables identified as independent predictors of mortality in ICU were age (OR 3.48 IC 95% 1.22-11.66; p = 0.028), failure to implement NIV before MV (OR 2.76 IC 95% 1.02-7.10; p = 0.038), diagnosis of sepsis (OR 2.46 IC 95% 1.09-5.47; p = 0.027) and extubation failure (OR 4.50 IC 95% 2.05-9.90; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study allowed us to describe the characteristics and clinical course of the patients who received mechanical ventilation in Argentina, finding as the main result that mortality was higher than that reported in international studies.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial , Desmame do Respirador , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Clin Nutr ; 41(7): 1475-1482, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While prior work has examined activities of daily living (ADL) dependence and malnutrition separately, the additive effects of these conditions remain uncertain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the joint association of malnutrition and ADL dependence with poor health outcomes in incident dialysis patients. METHODS: 1457 patients from the Aichi Cohort Study of Prognosis in Patients Newly Initiated into Dialysis database were identified for inclusion in this longitudinal study. The geriatric nutritional risk index and Barthel index were used as the evaluation tool for nutritional status and functional ability. Combined classifications of malnutrition and ADL dependence were generated with four subgroups derived. Associations between these exposures and health outcomes, including all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and infection-related death were investigated using Cox-proportional hazard models and competing risk survival models, respectively. RESULTS: 39.5% of the participants were not malnourished nor ADL dependent (normal), 30.3% were malnourished, 10.5% ADL dependent and 19.8% as having both malnutrition and ADL dependence. During 4752 person-years of follow-up, 367 (25.2%) died and 650 (44.6%) patients suffered a MACE. Compared with the reference group (ADL dependency and no-malnutrition), the combination malnourished/ADL dependent showed the strongest association with all cause death (fully-adjusted HR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79-3.89), mortality from infection (fully-adjusted HR 4.41, 95% CI 1.88-10.40), and MACE incidence (fully-adjusted HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.36-2.42). This relationship remained credible and robust in several subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Additionally, we identified this associations were higher in patients aged 75 and older. CONCLUSION: The concurrent presence of malnutrition and ADL dependence at the time of dialysis initiation has significant detrimental impacts.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Desnutrição , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
8.
Bone ; 162: 116455, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have found that not all atypical femoral fractures (AFF) are associated with bisphosphonate (BP) use. There are limited data on AFF in non-BP patients. In this study, we characterise factors associated with BP and non-BP related AFF and its mortality in a single centre in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of subjects above 50 years old admitted to Changi General Hospital (CGH), Singapore with fragility subtrochanteric and femoral fractures from 2009 to 2015. Using the ASBMR 2014 criteria fractures are classified into atypical and typical femoral fractures. CGH uses a nationalised electronic health record that allows review of information on patient's demographics, clinical history and previous investigations. Mortality was assessed as of 31st December 2019. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2015, there were 3097 hip fractures, of which 393 were subtrochanteric and femoral fractures and 69 were classified as AFF by ASBMR 2014 criteria. 35 of AFF occurred in BP exposed and 34 occurred in non-BP exposed patients. There were no significant demographic differences in patients with BP and non-BP related AFF. There were also similar incidences of type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and glucocorticoid use. Notably, there were a higher percentage of previous fragility fractures (35.3 % vs 9.4 %) in BP related AFF. Time to healing of fracture was slightly longer in BP related AFF at median (3 months vs 2 month, p = 0.02), however there were no differences in incidence of delayed healing. Mortality between BP and non-BP related AFF were similar. CONCLUSION: In a South East Asian population in Singapore, 47.8 % of AFF were found to be non-BP related. We found no major demographic and clinical differences between BP and non-BP related AFF. Mortality between BP and non-BP related AFF was similar. Further studies are needed to better understand the optimal treatment of osteoporosis in AFF prone patients in the Asian population.

9.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 72: 103255, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The management of sepsis in critically ill patients varies globally based on the availability of resources resulting in increased sepsis-related mortality rates in resource-restricted countries. We aimed to summarise evidence regarding components of sepsis protocols, compliance with implementing sepsis protocol, effects on lengths of stay and sepsis-related mortality, and facilitators and barriers to implementing sepsis protocols. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: A systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. The quality was appraised using the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practise model. RESULTS: Six eligible studies reported using modified-sepsis protocols to recognise early warning signs of sepsis and manage sepsis in resource-restricted settings. Interventions comprised educational components and modified sepsis protocols (early sepsis screening tool and sepsis intervention bundle). Studies reported increased protocol compliance with education on and standardised sepsis protocols. While there was no significant impact on hospital lengths of stay, the sepsis-related mortality rates decreased by 22.6% even with partial implementation of the protocol. The primary challenge in implementing sepsis protocols in resource-restricted settings is the lack of resources necessary to complete every component of the protocol successfully. CONCLUSION: Simplified sepsis protocols are essential to improving sepsis-related mortality rates in resource-restricted settings, but adequate training of clinicians and modified protocols are necessary for successful implementation.


Assuntos
Sepse , Estado Terminal , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 533: 1-7, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains poorly investigated. METHODS: The study included 1426 patients with DM and IHD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were divided in groups according to tertiles of ALP activity: a group with ALP activity in 1st tertile (ALP activity: 20.8-65.0 U/L; n = 478), a group with ALP activity in 2nd tertile (ALP activity: 65.1-87.0 U/L; n = 473) and a group with ALP activity in 3rd tertile (ALP activity: 87.1-1520 U/L; n = 475). The primary endpoint was 3-year all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At 3 years, all-cause deaths occurred in 182 patients: 50 deaths (12.4%) in patients of 1st tertile, 47 deaths (11.7%) in patients of 2nd tertile and 85 deaths (20.8%) in patients of 3rd tertile of ALP activity (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.42, P = 0.031); cardiac deaths occurred in 110 patients: 28 deaths (7.0%) in patients of 1st tertile, 30 deaths (7.6%) in patients of 2nd tertile and 52 deaths (12.7%) in patients of 3rd tertile of ALP activity (adjusted HR = 1.27 [1.04-1.56], P = 0.021, with both risk estimates calculated for unit increment in the log scale of ALP activity). The C-statistic of the multivariable model with baseline data without and with ALP was 0.787 [0.750-0.818] and 0.804 [0.757-0.851], (P = 0.575) for all-cause mortality and 0.832 [0.798-0.864] and 0.876 [0.833-0.918], (P = 0.115) for cardiac mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with DM and IHD, elevated ALP activity was associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156626, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697224

RESUMO

Most studies have explored the adverse health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) occupational exposure. However, the general population is also exposed to PAH, mainly through the diet. The goal of the present study is thus to investigate the association between PAH dietary exposure and mortality risk in middle-aged women of the E3N (Étude Épidémiologique auprès de femmes de la mutuelle générale de l'Éducation Nationale) French prospective cohort. The study included 72,513 women, whom completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire on 208 food items in 1993. Food contamination levels were assessed using data provided by the Anses (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety) in the framework of the French second total diet study. PAH dietary exposure was studied as the sum of four PAH (PAH4), namely benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene (CHR), benzo[a]anthracene (BaA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of all-cause mortality as well as all-cancer, specific cancer (separately from breast, lung/tracheal, and colorectal cancer), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and specific CVD (including only stroke and coronary heart disease) mortality. During follow-up (1993-2011), 4620 validated deaths were reported, of which 2726 due to cancer and 584 to CVD. The median PAH4 dietary intake was 66.1 ng/day. There was no significant association between PAH4 dietary intake and the risk of all-cause, all-cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, all-CVD and stroke and coronary heart disease mortality. On the contrary, we observed a positive and statistically significant association between PAH4 dietary intake and lung/tracheal cancer mortality risk, with a stronger association among current smokers than among former smokers and never smokers. In this study, we observed an association between PAH dietary exposure and lung/tracheal cancer mortality risk, especially among current smokers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Dietética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
13.
Stroke ; 53(7): 2220-2226, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke to be effective in the elderly, despite resulting in poorer outcomes and higher rates of mortality compared with younger patients. Randomized data on the effect of advanced age on outcomes following EVT are, however, lacking. Our aim was to assess the EVT effect for ischemic stroke in patients aged ≥85 years and the influence of age on outcome in a large, randomized trial dataset. METHODS: Data were from the HERMES (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials) collaboration, a meta-analysis of 7 randomized trials published between January 1, 2010, and May 31, 2017, that tested the efficacy of EVT. A possible multiplicative interaction effect of age on the relationship between treatment and outcome was investigated. Ordinal logistic regression tested the association between EVT and 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, primary outcome) in patients ≥85 years. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to compare primary and secondary outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2/5-6) of patients ≥85 years versus those <85 years. RESULTS: We included 1764 patients in the analysis, of whom 77 (4.4%) were ≥85 years old. A significant interaction of age and treatment on poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 5-6, P=0.020) and mortality (P=0.031) was observed, with older adults having worse functional outcomes at 90 days compared with younger patients (adjusted common odds ratio, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.13-0.33]). However, a benefit of EVT was observed in the ≥85-year-old patient subgroup (common odds ratio, 4.20 [95% CI, 1.56-11.32]). Age ≥85 years was not significantly associated with differing rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage or reperfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 0.71-5.15] and adjusted odds ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.40-2.06], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients ≥85 years old with independent premorbid function more often achieve good functional outcomes and have lower rates of mortality when treated with EVT compared with conservative management, with an observed treatment effect modification of age on outcome. EVT should therefore not be withheld in this subgroup.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156660, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change will increase drought duration and severity in many regions around the world, including the Central Plains of North America. However, studies on drought-related health impacts are still sparse. This study aims to explore the potential associations between drought and all-cause mortality in Nebraska from 1980 to 2014. METHODS: The Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI) were used to define short-, medium- and long-term drought exposures, respectively. We used a Bayesian zero-inflated censored negative binomial (ZICNB) regression model to estimate the overall association between drought and annual mortality first in the total population and second in stratified sub-populations based on age, race, sex, and the urbanicity class of the counties. RESULTS: The main findings indicate that there is a slightly negative association between all-cause mortality and all types of droughts in the total population, though the effect is statistically null. The joint-stratified analysis renders significant results for a few sub-groups. White population aged 25-34 and 45-64 in metro counties and 45-54 in non-metro counties were the population more at risk in Nebraska. No positive associations were observed in any race besides white. Black males aged 20-24 and white females older than 85 showed protective effect against drought mainly in metro counties. We also found that more sub-populations had higher rates of mortality with longer-term droughts compared to shorter-term droughts (12-month vs 1- or 6-month timescales), in both metro and non-metro counties, collectively. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mortality in middle aged white population in Nebraska shows a greater association with drought. Moreover, women aged 45-54 were more affected than men in non-metro counties. With a projected increase in the frequency and severity of drought due to climate change, understanding these relationships between drought and human health will better inform drought mitigation planning to reduce potential impacts.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Secas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebraska/epidemiologia
15.
Prev Med ; 161: 107114, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718118

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate associations between health locus of control (HLC) and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), cancer and other cause mortality. A public health postal questionnaire was distributed in the autumn of 2008 to a stratified random sample of the 18-80 year old adult population in Scania in southernmost Sweden. The participation rate was 54.1%, and 25,517 participants were included in the present study. Baseline 2008 survey data was linked to cause of death register data to create a prospective cohort with 8.3-year follow-up. Associations between health locus of control and mortality were investigated in survival (Cox) regression models. Prevalence of internal HLC was 69.0% and external HLC 31.0% among women. Internal HLC was 67.6% and external HLC 32.4% among men. In the models with women and men combined, external HLC had significantly higher all-cause, CVD, cancer and other cause mortality even after adjustments for sociodemographic factors and chronic disease at baseline, but after the introduction of health-related behaviors, external HLC only displayed higher cancer mortality compared to internal HLC. External HLC displayed higher all-cause, cancer and other cause mortality for men in the final model adjusted for health-related behaviors, but not for women. Other pathways than health-related behaviors may exist for the association between external HLC and cancer mortality, particularly among men.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 571, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare short- and long-term mortality among patients with urosepsis caused by Escherichia coli susceptibile (EC-SC) and resistant (EC-RC) to 3rd generation cephalosporins. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study that included all patients with E. coli urosepsis admitted to a 700-bed hospital from January 2014 until December 2019. Mortality up to 30 days, 6 months and 1 year was assessed using logistic multivariate regression analysis and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 313 adult were included, 195 with EC-SC and 118 patients with EC-RC. 205 were females (74%), mean age was 79 (SD 12) years. Mean Charlson score was 4.93 (SD 2.18) in the EC-SC group and 5.74 (SD 1.92) in the EC-RC group. Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated in 245 (78.3%) patients, 100% in the EC-SC group but only 42.5% in the EC-RC group. 30-day mortality occurred in 12 (6.3%) of EC-SC group and 15 (12.7%) in the EC-RC group. Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were Charlson score, Pitt bacteremia score, fever upon admission and infection with a EC-RC. Appropriate antibiotic therapy was not independently associated with 30-day mortality. Differences in mortality between groups remained significant one year after the infection and were significantly associated with the Charlson co-morbidity score. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients with urosepsis due to E. coli is highly affected by age and comorbidities. Although mortality was higher in the EC-RC group, we could not demonstrate an association with inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. Mortality remained higher at 6 months and 1 year long after the infection resolved but was associated mainly with co-morbidity.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Lactamases
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 513, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess if simulation-based training (SBT) of B-Lynch suture and uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) for the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) impacted provider attitudes, practice patterns, and patient management in Guatemala, using a mixed-methods approach. METHODS: We conducted an in-country SBT course on the management of PPH in a governmental teaching hospital in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Participants were OB/GYN providers (n = 39) who had or had not received SBT before. Surveys and qualitative interviews evaluated provider knowledge and experiences with B-Lynch and UBT to treat PPH. RESULTS: Multiple-choice surveys indicated that providers who received SBT were more comfortable performing and teaching B-Lynch compared to those who did not (p = 0.003 and 0.005). Qualitative interviews revealed increased provider comfort with B-Lynch compared to UBT and identified multiple barriers to uterine balloon tamponade implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training had a stronger impact on provider comfort with B-Lynch compared to uterine balloon tamponade. Qualitative interviews provided insight into the challenges that hinder uptake of uterine balloon tamponade, namely resource limitations and decision-making hierarchies. Capturing data through a mixed-methods approach allowed for more comprehensive program evaluation.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Treinamento por Simulação , Tamponamento com Balão Uterino , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Tamponamento com Balão Uterino/métodos
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: there is limited data on Emergency department (ED) cardiovascular disease (CVD) presentations and outcomes amongst cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, prevalence, and clinical outcomes of the most common cardiovascular ED admissions in patients with cancer. METHODS: All ED encounters with a primary CVD diagnosis from the US Nationwide Emergency Department Sample between January 2016 to December 2018 were stratified by cancer type as well as metastatic status. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the adjusted odds ratios of in-hospital mortality in different groups. RESULTS: From a total of 20,737,247 ED encounters with a primary CVD diagnosis, cancer was present in 3.4%. In patients with cancer the most common CVDs were DVT/PE (20%), hypertensive heart or kidney disease (14.7%), and AF/flutter (11.2%). The distribution of CVDs varied by cancer type, with AF/flutter most common in patients with lung cancer, AMI most common in patients with prostate cancer, heart failure most common in those with haematological malignancies, and patients with colorectal cancer having the greatest frequency of DVT/PE. Cancer status was independently associated with significantly higher risk of mortality in almost all CVD categories, consistent across all the cancer types, amongst which lung cancer patients had the highest risk of mortality across all CVD categories, except intracranial haemorrhage and hypertensive crisis. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular presentations to the ED varied by cancer subtype. Across all cancer subtypes, patients presenting with cardiovascular presentations carried a significantly increased risk of mortality compared to patients with no cancer.

20.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 289, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We lack data on the effect of single premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) on the clinical and echocardiographic response after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation. We aimed to assess the predictive value of PVCs at early, 1 month-follow up on echocardiographic response and all-cause mortality. METHODS: In our prospective, single-center study, 125 heart failure patients underwent CRT implantation based on the current guidelines. Echocardiographic reverse remodeling was defined as a ≥ 15% improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-systolic volume (LVESV), or left atrial volume (LAV) measured 6 months after CRT implantation. All-cause mortality was investigated by Wilcoxon analysis. RESULTS: The median number of PVCs was 11,401 in those 67 patients who attended the 1-month follow-up. Regarding echocardiographic endpoints, patients with less PVCs develop significantly larger LAV reverse remodeling compared to those with high number of PVCs. During the mean follow-up time of 2.1 years, 26 (21%) patients died. Patients with a higher number of PVCs than our median cut-off value showed a higher risk of early all-cause mortality (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.38-2.48; P = 0.04). However, when patients were followed up to 9 years, its significance diminished (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.42-1.46; P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing CRT implantation, lower number of PVCs predicted atrial remodeling and showed a trend for a better mortality outcome. Our results suggest the importance of the early assessment of PVCs in cardiac resynchronization therapy and warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/diagnóstico , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/terapia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
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