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1.
Biol Psychol ; 175: 108430, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181967

RESUMO

Face context effect refers to the influence of the emotional context on facial expression perception. Numerous empirical studies have explored the mechanisms of the face context effect, but no consistent conclusions have been drawn. Hence, we investigated the cognitive mechanisms of the face context effect using recordings of event-related potentials. In Experiment 1, we adopted the context-target paradigm to explore the mechanisms of the effect of context with different emotional valences on the neutral face perception (emotional valence-based face context effect). In Experiment 2, we explored the mechanisms of the effect of context with different emotional types on the neutral face perception (specific emotion-based face context effect). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants were biased toward contextual valence when recognizing the emotional valence of neutral faces, and that the neutral target faces under emotional contexts with different valences induced significant differences in the P1, N170, and LPP amplitudes. In Experiment 2, the results of Experiment 2 indicated that the participants were biased toward specific contextual emotions when recognizing the emotion type of neutral faces, and that the neutral target faces under contexts of different emotional types induced significant differences in the LPP amplitude, but not in the P1 or N170 amplitude. We concluded that the emotional valence-based face context effect occurred in the early processing stage, whereas the specific emotion-based face context effect occurred in the late processing stage.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Cognição
2.
Behav Res Methods ; 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018484

RESUMO

Faces convey a wide range of information, including one's identity, and emotional and mental states. Face perception is a major research topic in many research fields, such as cognitive science, social psychology, and neuroscience. Frequently, stimuli are selected from a range of available face databases. However, even though faces are highly dynamic, most databases consist of static face stimuli. Here, we introduce the Sabanci University Dynamic Face (SUDFace) database. The SUDFace database consists of 150 high-resolution audiovisual videos acquired in a controlled lab environment and stored with a resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels at a frame rate of 60 Hz. The multimodal database consists of three videos of each human model in frontal view in three different conditions: vocalizing two scripted texts (conditions 1 and 2) and one Free Speech (condition 3). The main focus of the SUDFace database is to provide a large set of dynamic faces with neutral facial expressions and natural speech articulation. Variables such as face orientation, illumination, and accessories (piercings, earrings, facial hair, etc.) were kept constant across all stimuli. We provide detailed stimulus information, including facial features (pixel-wise calculations of face length, eye width, etc.) and speeches (e.g., duration of speech and repetitions). In two validation experiments, a total number of 227 participants rated each video on several psychological dimensions (e.g., neutralness and naturalness of expressions, valence, and the perceived mental states of the models) using Likert scales. The database is freely accessible for research purposes.

3.
Front Psychol ; 11: 264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180750

RESUMO

The evolution of the human brain and visual system is widely believed to have been shaped by the need to process and make sense out of expressive information, particularly via the face. We are so attuned to expressive information in the face that it informs even stable trait inferences (e.g., Knutson, 1996) through a process we refer to here as the face-specific fundamental attribution error (Albohn et al., 2019). We even derive highly consistent beliefs about the emotional lives of others based on emotion-resembling facial appearance (e.g., low versus high brows, big versus small eyes, etc.) in faces we know are completely devoid of overt expression (i.e., emotion overgeneralization effect: see Zebrowitz et al., 2010). The present studies extend these insights to better understand lay beliefs about older and younger adults' emotion dispositions and their impact on behavioral outcomes. In Study 1, we found that older versus younger faces objectively have more negative emotion-resembling cues in the face (using computer vision), and that raters likewise attribute more negative emotional dispositions to older versus younger adults based just on neutral facial appearance (see too Adams et al., 2016). In Study 2, we found that people appear to encode these negative emotional appearance cues in memory more so for older than younger adult faces. Finally, in Study 3 we exam downstream behavioral consequences of these negative attributions, showing that observers' avoidance of older versus younger faces is mediated by emotion-resembling facial appearance.

4.
Psicol. pesq ; 14(spe): 120-139, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155176

RESUMO

Em 1920, Lev Vladimirovitch Kuleshov relatou que o contexto emocional quando justaposto à face neutra poderia afetar a percepção da face, tornando-a emocional. Na área do cinema este fenômeno foi denominado de efeito Kuleshov. A existência do efeito tem sido cientificamente questionada, e desde então, neurocientistas tentam validar o efeito Kuleshov. Neste artigo iremos sumarizar os diferentes modelos experimentais que têm sido utilizados na investigação do efeito Kuleshov e os resultados encontrados até o momento por meio do método científico; mais precisamente em pesquisas experimentais e da neurociência. Os resultados desses estudos mostram indícios do efeito Kuleshov a nível comportamental e de processamento neuronal, entretanto, nenhum estudo conseguiu comprová-lo.


In 1920, Lev Vladimirovitch Kuleshov reported that the emotional context juxtaposed with the neutral face could affect the face perception making it reported as emotional. In the cinema area, this phenomenon was denominate of Kuleshov effect. The existence of the effect is scientifically questionable, and neuroscientists are engaged in validating the Kuleshov effect. In this article we will summarize the different experimental models that have been used in the investigation of the Kuleshov effect and the results found so far through the scientific method; more precisely in experimental and neuroscience research.The results of these studies show some evidence, however, there is no complete proof of the Kuleshov effect.


En 1920, Lev Vladimirovitch Kuleshov demostró que el contexto emocional, cuando se yuxtaponía con un rostro neutro, afectaba la percepción del rostro, haciéndolo emocional. En el área del cine, este fenómeno se denominaba efecto Kuleshov. La existencia del efecto es científicamente cuestionable, y los neurocientíficos se dedican a validar el efecto Kuleshov. En este artículo resumiremos los diferentes modelos experimentales que se han utilizado en la investigación del efecto Kuleshov y los resultados encontrados hasta ahora a través del método científico; más precisamente en investigación experimental y neurociencia. Los resultados de estos estudios mostran alguna evidencia, sin embargo, no hay una prueba completa del efecto Kuleshov.

5.
Cogn Emot ; 31(2): 360-368, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465265

RESUMO

Past research has demonstrated differential recognition of emotion on faces of different races. This paper reports the first study to explore differential emotion attribution to neutral faces of different races. Chinese and Caucasian adults viewed a series of Chinese and Caucasian neutral faces and judged their outward facial expression: neutral, positive, or negative. The results showed that both Chinese and Caucasian viewers perceived more Chinese faces than Caucasian faces as neutral. Nevertheless, Chinese viewers attributed positive emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces, whereas Caucasian viewers attributed negative emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces. Moreover, Chinese viewers attributed negative and neutral emotion to the faces of both races without significant difference in frequency, whereas Caucasian viewers mostly attributed neutral emotion to the faces. These differences between Chinese and Caucasian viewers may be due to differential visual experience, culture, racial stereotype, or expectation of the experiment. We also used eye tracking among the Chinese participants to explore the relationship between face-processing strategy and emotion attribution to neutral faces. The results showed that the interaction between emotion attribution and face race was significant on face-processing strategy, such as fixation proportion on eyes and saccade amplitude. Additionally, pupil size during processing Caucasian faces was larger than during processing Chinese faces.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , /psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Movimentos Sacádicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Psychol ; 6: 1386, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26441761

RESUMO

Little is known about people's accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge - automated facial coding (AFC) software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90%) was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%). I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e., smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

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