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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 290-299, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232723

RESUMO

Existe un debate considerable en la literatura sobre cómo el narcisismo predice diversos comportamientos asociados con la utilidad de los sitios de redes sociales, pero los investigadores han prestado menos atención a explorar los mediadores potenciales de esta relación. Con base en la literatura existente, anticipamos que el narcisismo predice comportamientos de autopromoción en los sitios de redes sociales. El estudio actual también investigó el papel mediador del perfeccionismo multidimensional entre el narcisismo y el comportamiento de autopromoción. Se recopiló un total de 605 cuestionarios completos de estudiantes de universidades de Rawalpindi e Islamabad, Pakistán, mediante un muestreo conveniente. El estudio utilizó el Inventario de Personalidad Narcisista (Ames et al., 2006), un cuestionario de desarrollo propio sobre comportamiento de autopromoción en sitios de redes sociales y la Escala de Perfeccionismo Multidimensional (Hewitt et al., 1991). Los hallazgos indicaron que las mujeres en comparación con los hombres y las solteras en comparación con las casadas obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en narcisismo. Los niveles educativos más altos se asociaron con tasas más altas de narcisismo. Los resultados también sugieren que el narcisismo se correlaciona con el perfeccionismo orientado a uno mismo y, más significativamente, con el narcisismo orientado a los demás. El perfeccionismo orientado a uno mismo y a los demás medió significativamente la relación entre el narcisismo y el comportamiento de autopromoción en los sitios de redes sociales.(AU)


There is considerable debate in the literature about how narcis-sism predicts various behaviors associated with the utility of social net-working sites, but researchers have paid less attention to exploring the po-tential mediators of this relationship.Based on the existing literature, we anticipated that narcissism predicts self-promoting behaviors on social networking sites. The current study also investigated the mediating role of multidimensional perfectionismbetween narcissism and self-promoting behavior. A total of 605 complete questionnaires weregathered fromstu-dents from universities from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan using convenient sampling. The study used Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Ames et al., 2006), self-developed Self-promoting Behavior on social net-working sites questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt et al., 1991). Findings indicated that females as compared to males and single as comparedto married individuals scored higher on narcissism. Higher educational levels were associated with higher rates of narcissism. The results also suggestthat narcissism correlated with self-oriented per-fectionism, and more significantlywith others-oriented narcissism. Self-oriented and others-oriented perfectionism significantly mediated the rela-tionship between narcissism and self-promoting behavior on social net-working sites.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Perfeccionismo , Narcisismo , Comportamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Paquistão
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 542, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives, familiarity, and readiness of dental faculty members regarding the integration and application of artificial intelligence (AI) in dentistry, with a focus on the possible effects on dental education and clinical practice. METHODOLOGY: In a mix-method cross-sectional quantitative and quantitative study conducted between June 1st and August 30th, 2023, the perspectives of faculty members from a public sector dental college in Pakistan regarding the function of AI were explored. This study used qualitative as well as quantitative techniques to analyse faculty's viewpoints on the subject. The sample size was comprised of twenty-three faculty members. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, while the qualitative data was analysed using theme analysis. RESULTS: Position-specific differences in faculty familiarity underscore the value of individualized instruction. Surprisingly few had ever come across AI concepts in their professional lives. Nevertheless, many acknowledged that AI had the potential to improve patient outcomes. The majority thought AI would improve dentistry education. Participants suggested a few dental specialties where AI could be useful. CONCLUSION: The study emphasizes the significance of addressing in dental professionals' knowledge gaps about AI. The promise of AI in dentistry calls for specialized training and teamwork between academic institutions and AI developers. Graduates of dentistry programs who use AI are better prepared to navigate shifting environments. The study highlights the positive effects of AI and the value of faculty involvement in maximizing its potential for better dental education and practice.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Docentes de Odontologia , Paquistão , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Projetos Piloto , Educação em Odontologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência Odontológica , Masculino , Feminino , Previsões , Odontólogos/psicologia , Adulto
3.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57958, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741845

RESUMO

Hydatid disease, attributed to the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, poses a significant health threat in regions where it is endemic. Here, we present a case involving a 15-year-old boy from rural Pakistan who initially sought medical attention due to a persistent cough and hemoptysis. Despite initially testing negative for serological markers, imaging studies revealed well-defined cysts in both lungs. Confirmation of the diagnosis was achieved through histopathological examination. Management includes albendazole therapy and surgical excision of the cyst. Our case underscores the diagnostic challenges associated with seronegative cases and underscores the importance of considering hydatid disease in endemic regions, irrespective of typical serological markers. This report enhances understanding regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and management strategies for pulmonary hydatid cysts.

4.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(6): 1100-1107, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 epidemiology changed with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). Pakistan administered mostly inactivated vaccines. We investigated the association between VOC and breakthrough infections in a mixed-vaccination-status population of Karachi. METHODS: We investigated SARS-CoV-2 VOC tested in 392 respiratory specimens collected between May and December 2021. Data for age, sex, hospital admission, vaccinations, together with CT values of the diagnostic PCR test were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of COVID-19 cases tested was 40 (27-57) years and 43.4% were female. Delta variants were most common (56.4%) followed by Alpha (15.9%), Omicron (12.2%), Beta/Gamma (11.3%), and others (4.3%). Eighteen percent of cases were hospitalized whereby, predominant VOC were Beta/Gamma (40.8%), Alpha (35.2%) and Delta (22.5%). Overall, 55.4% of individuals were fully vaccinated, 7.4% were partially vaccinated and 37.2% were unvaccinated. Most (74.6%) inpatients were unvaccinated. Vaccines comprised inactivated (85.34%), single-shot vector (8.62%), two-shot vector (3.02%) and mRNA (3.02%) types. Omicron variants showed lower viral loads as compared to Alpha, Beta/Gamma, and Delta (p = 0.017). The risk of infection with Delta and Omicron variants was higher, 8 weeks after vaccination. The majority of those with breakthrough infections after receiving inactivated vaccines acquired COVID-19 within 4 months of vaccination. CONCLUSION: Our data highlights the shifting of VOC from Delta to Omicron during 2021 and that COVID-19 vaccinations reduced both hospitalizations and viral transmission. It informs on the increased risk of breakthrough infection within 8 weeks of vaccination, indicating the need for booster vaccinations.

5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(4): 609-617, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza is a serious underestimated viral infection in Pakistan and influenza vaccination and vaccination awareness are low. The current work aimed to develop consensus on influenza epidemiology, prevention, vaccination, and awareness in Pakistan. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature search was conducted to develop recommendations on influenza vaccines in Pakistan. Experts' feedback was incorporated using the modified Delphi method. A three-step process was used, with 18 experts from different specialties from Pakistan who participated in voting rounds to achieve a minimum 75% agreement level. RESULTS: Pakistan has a low-immunization-rate and is susceptible to serious influenza outbreaks and influenza-related complications. Influenza circulates year-round in Pakistan but peaks during January and February. The subtype A/H1N1 is predominant. The experts urged vaccination in all individuals ≥ 6 months of age and with no contraindications. They highlighted special considerations for those with comorbidities and specific conditions. The experts agreed that the inactivated influenza vaccine is safe and efficient in pregnant women, immunocompromised, and comorbid respiratory and cardiovascular patients. Finally, the experts recommended conducting promotional and educational programs to raise awareness on influenza and vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first regional consensus on influenza and influenza vaccination in Pakistan with experts' recommendations to increase influenza vaccination and decrease influenza cases and its associated detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Vacinação , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Consenso , Técnica Delphi , Feminino
6.
Cureus ; 16(3): e57337, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690481

RESUMO

Background Lung carcinoma is a leading cause of death worldwide. Histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma is an important indicator of patient's outcome as it is helpful in surgical planning and guidance of prognosis. Objective To determine the diagnostic efficacy of computerized tomography-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) in identifying the histopathological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods and materials This is a retrospective, descriptive study including clinical data of 73 patients irrespective of their age and gender, who underwent computerized tomography-guided CNB for lung masses at the Department of Pathology, Aznostics - the Diagnostic Centre, Lahore, Pakistan from January 01, 2019 to June 30, 2023. Data collected was analyzed via Google Form (Google Inc., Mountainview, CA) and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24, released 2016; IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, United States) and was sent to statistician for descriptive analysis. Categorical data was used for calculating frequency and percentage, while continuous data was computed as mean and standard deviation. Results Seventy-three patients with adenocarcinoma underwent pulmonary biopsy. The mean age of included patients was 64.88 ± 11.39 year with a male predominance of 61.64%. Upper lobe was commonly affected by adenocarcinoma lung in 57.53% patients and 58.90% cases involved the right lung. The most common subtype was acinar with 51.65% followed by solid with 17.58% cases. Computerized tomography-guided CNB showed a diagnostic yield of 75.34% and identified histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma in 55 cases. Conclusion Computerized tomography-guided CNB is a useful, yet minimally invasive diagnostic tool to identify the histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. It not only helps in planning the surgical and adjuvant management of the patients, but also guides the patient-prognosis.

7.
J Relig Health ; 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691261

RESUMO

This qualitative study was conducted to explore the common dyadic coping (DC) efforts of married couples, with a chronically ill partner. The sample for the study consisted of twelve couples chosen from Gujrat, Pakistan. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with the help of an interview guide and analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006). The following four major themes were emerged: "common problem-focused DC," "common emotion-focused DC," "common religious DC," and "combined pattern of intimate relationships." The findings indicated that partners are not preferring relational coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused DC. However, the majority of couples participate in religious DC process in a complementary way to cope with stressful situation in the result of chronic illness. The study also indicated various indigenous factors, for example, socioeconomic status, family culture, lack of physical resource, and religious standpoints contributing in the lack of connectivity and sexual intimacy. To conclude, the results revealed that future research is required to investigate the patient and partner's relationship in greater depth, focusing on above-mentioned contextual factors.

8.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 112, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a large burden of life-limitingillness, there exists a dearth of services of palliative care in Pakistan. International guidelines have questionable applicability in Pakistan due to the socioeconomic differences. We generated a protocol describing the process of developing comprehensive palliative care guidelines and palliative care referral pathways for primary care practitioners to adopt in Pakistan. METHODS: A GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach with modification has been employed to create guidelines for a Pakistani context. The "National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines Insights: Palliative Care, Version 2.2021" was used as the source guideline. Recommendations from the source guideline were reviewed by two local palliative care specialists to either "Adopt," "Adapt" or "Exclude". The finalized recommendations were incorporated into the local palliative care guideline. Clinical diagnosis and referral pathways were made from the finalized guideline. Any gaps in management found in the pathways were filled by taking existing recommendations from other credible guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty-seven recommendations were adopted without modification. No recommendations were deemed to be adapted and 15 were excluded. The referral care pathways created were reflective of the local guideline and included elements of initial assessment, preliminary management, reassessment, and referral. 6 additional recommendations were made. CONCLUSION: The described clinical practice guidelines and primary care clinical referral pathways will aid to standardize palliative care provision in Pakistan. These can be used by other resource constrained settings to develop guidelines within their own local context.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Paquistão , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 588, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective skills and training for physicians are essential for communicating difficult or distressing information, also known as breaking bad news (BBN). This study aimed to assess both the capacity and the practices of clinicians in Pakistan regarding BBN. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 151 clinicians. Quantitative component used a structured questionnaire, while qualitative data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 13 medical educationists. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. RESULTS: While most clinicians acknowledged their responsibility of delivering difficult news, only a small percentage had received formal training in BBN. Areas for improvement include time and interruption management, rapport building, and understanding the patients' point of view. Prognosis and treatment options were not consistently discussed. Limited importance is given to BBN in medical education. DISCUSSION: Training in BBN will lead to improved patient and attendants' satisfaction, and empathetic support during difficult times.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Revelação da Verdade , Humanos , Paquistão , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Médicos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Competência Clínica , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
10.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58244, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745788

RESUMO

Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypomagnesemia and its association with the severity of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital. Methodology A total of 100 patients with AIS were included in the study. Demographic data, including age, gender, and severity of stroke, were collected. Serum magnesium levels were measured at admission, and the severity of stroke was classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on clinical criteria. The presence of hypomagnesemia was defined as a serum magnesium level below 1.8 mg/dL determined within 72 hours of onset of stroke. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association between hypomagnesemia, stroke severity, age, and gender. Results The mean age of the patients with standard deviation was 65.45 ± 11.8 years, with the majority (38, 38%) aged 60-74 years. There were 53 (53%) male and 47 (47%) female patients. Hypomagnesemia was found in 35 (35%) patients, with an average magnesium level of 1.93 mg/dL and a standard deviation of 0.37 at admission. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of stroke severity (P = 0.779; P = 0.406) or hypomagnesemia (P = 0.287; P = 0.591) based on gender or age group, respectively. Stratification based on stroke severity showed that 16 (39%) patients with mild stroke, 10 (31.3%) with moderate stroke, and 9 (33.3%) with severe stroke had hypomagnesemia. The correlation between stroke severity and hypomagnesemia was weak (r = 0.099). Further, among hypomagnesemia patients, the majority were females aged 60-74 years. Conclusions This study found a weak positive relationship between the severity of AIS and the presence of hypomagnesemia. However, no statistically significant association was observed between gender or age group and stroke severity or hypomagnesemia. These findings suggest that further research is needed to understand the role of hypomagnesemia in AIS and its potential implications for patient management.

11.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58240, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi strains has led to heightened morbidity, mortality, and treatment expenses. This study aims to assess the resistance patterns of Salmonella Typhi to diverse antibiotics among patients seeking care at a tertiary hospital in Pakistan. METHODS: A database from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan was reviewed, and data on blood cultures that isolated Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi were collected. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and IBM SPSS software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). RESULTS: Demographic information of the selected data was retrieved from the hospital database, and the results showed that 63.7% were male, 36.1% were female, and 0.2% were categorized as neutered. Regarding antibiotic resistance, ampicillin exhibited the highest resistance rate (91.50%), while meropenem demonstrated the lowest (3.00%). Antibiotic sensitivity patterns also varied across different age groups, although statistical analysis indicated no significant differences. Significant associations were found between antibiotic resistance and comorbidities, as well as previous antibiotic use. CONCLUSION:  Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi showed a high resistance to ampicillin and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. The emergence of resistance and decreased sensitivity to current first-line antibiotics necessitates a shift towards alternative options, such as third-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, and newer antibiotics like meropenem.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743635

RESUMO

Background: Theileria spp. are responsible for ovine and caprine theileriosis, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in small ruminants. The present study aims to investigate Theileria spp. infections in small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan, and genetic characterize revealed Theileria spp. isolates. Methods: A total of 93 sheep and 107 goats were sampled between May and August 2022. Blood smears were examined microscopically, and PCR amplification targeting the 18S rRNA gene was performed to detect Theileria spp. Additionally, specific PCR assays targeting 18S rRNA and ms1 partial sequences were used to identify Theileria ovis and T. lestoquardi, respectively.  Results: The prevalence of Theileria spp. was significantly higher using PCR (13.5%) compared to microscopic screening (5%). Sheep showed a higher prevalence rate (19.4%) compared to goats (8.4%) (p = 0.024). Young sheep aged ≤ 1 year were more commonly infected with Theileria spp. (41%) compared to older sheep (p = 0.006). The prevalence of Theileria spp. was higher in sheep-only herds (37.3%) compared to goat-only herds (18%) or mixed-species herds (8.1%) (p = 0.015). The prevalence rates of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi were 9% and 2.5%, respectively, with four animals (2 goats and 2 sheep) showing co-infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that our T. ovis 18S rRNA sequence clustered with previously reported sequences from sheep in Turkey, China, Spain, and goats in Tanzania. The obtained T. lestoquardi ms1 partial sequence formed a distinct cluster from other T. lestoquardi isolates in Pakistan and neighboring countries.  Conclusion: Theileria spp. co-circulation in Pakistani small ruminants, particularly the presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, highlights the need for attention from animal health decision-makers due to their financial and health impacts.

13.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 477, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since domestication, both evolutionary forces and human selection have played crucial roles in producing adaptive and economic traits, resulting in animal breeds that have been selected for specific climates and different breeding goals. Pakistani goat breeds have acquired genomic adaptations to their native climate conditions, such as tropical and hot climates. In this study, using next-generation sequencing data, we aimed to assess the signatures of positive selection in three native Pakistani goats, known as milk production breeds, that have been well adapted to their local climate. RESULTS: To explore the genomic relationship between studied goat populations and their population structure, whole genome sequence data from native goat populations in Pakistan (n = 26) was merged with available worldwide goat genomic data (n = 184), resulting in a total dataset of 210 individuals. The results showed a high genetic correlation between Pakistani goats and samples from North-East Asia. Across all populations analyzed, a higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) level (- 0.59) was found in the Pakistani goat group at a genomic distance of 1 Kb. Our findings from admixture analysis (K = 5 and K = 6) showed no evidence of shared genomic ancestry between Pakistani goats and other goat populations from Asia. The results from genomic selection analysis revealed several candidate genes related to adaptation to tropical/hot climates (such as; KITLG, HSPB9, HSP70, HSPA12B, and HSPA12B) and milk production related-traits (such as IGFBP3, LPL, LEPR, TSHR, and ACACA) in Pakistani native goat breeds. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study shed light on the structural variation in the DNA of the three native Pakistani goat breeds. Several candidate genes were discovered for adaptation to tropical/hot climates, immune responses, and milk production traits. The identified genes could be exploited in goat breeding programs to select efficient breeds for tropical/hot climate regions.


Assuntos
Genômica , Cabras , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Leite , Clima Tropical , Animais , Cabras/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Genômica/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Seleção Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Cruzamento
14.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 11: 20499361241251744, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716078

RESUMO

Introduction and objective: Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare but rapidly progressive fatal disease. Limited data exist on the outcomes and factors associated with poor prognosis of pulmonary mucormycosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, factors associated with mortality, and outcomes of pulmonary mucormycosis at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Medical records of hospitalized patients diagnosed with proven or probable pulmonary mucormycosis between January 2018 and December 2022 were reviewed. Univariate and regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with mortality. Results: Fifty-three pulmonary mucormycosis patients (69.8% male) were included, with mean age of 51.19 ± 21.65 years. Diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity [n = 26 (49.1%)]. Chronic lung diseases were present in [n = 5 (9.4%)], and [n = 16 (30.2%)] had concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. The predominant isolated Mucorales were Rhizopus [n = 32 (60.3%)] and Mucor species [n = 9 (17%)]. Main radiological findings included consolidation [n = 39 (73.6%)] and nodules [n = 14 (26.4%)]. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was prescribed in [n = 38 (71.7%)], and [n = 14 (26.4%)] of patients received combined medical and surgical treatment. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] hospital stay was 15.0 (10.0-21.5) days. Intensive care unit (ICU) care was required in [n = 30 (56.6%)] patients, with 26 (49.1%) needing mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality was seen in 29 (54.7%) patients. Significantly higher mortality was found among patients requiring mechanical ventilation 20/29 (69%, p = 0.002). Immunosuppression (p = 0.042), thrombocytopenia (p = 0.004), and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.018) were identified as risk factors for mortality on multivariable analysis. Conclusion: This study provides essential insights into the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and mortality factors associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. The mortality rate was high (54.7%), particularly in patients with immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia, and those who required mechanical ventilation.

15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e89, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the burden of communicable diseases and characterize the most reported infections during public health emergency of floods in Pakistan. METHODS: The study's design is a descriptive trend analysis. The study utilized the disease data reported to District Health Information System (DHIS2) for the 12 most frequently reported priority diseases under the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system in Pakistan. RESULTS: In total, there were 1,532,963 suspected cases during August to December 2022 in flood-affected districts (n = 75) across Pakistan; Sindh Province reported the highest number of cases (n = 692,673) from 23 districts, followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) (n = 568,682) from 17 districts, Balochistan (n = 167,215) from 32 districts, and Punjab (n = 104,393) from 3 districts. High positivity was reported for malaria (79,622/201,901; 39.4%), followed by acute diarrhea (non-cholera) (23/62; 37.1%), hepatitis A and E (47/252; 18.7%), and dengue (603/3245; 18.6%). The crude mortality rate was 11.9 per 10 000 population (1824/1,532,963 [deaths/cases]). CONCLUSION: The study identified acute respiratory infection, acute diarrhea, malaria, and skin diseases as the most prevalent diseases. This suggests that preparedness efforts and interventions targeting these diseases should be prioritized in future flood response plans. The study highlights the importance of strengthening the IDSR as a Disease Early Warning System through the implementation of the DHIS2.


Assuntos
Inundações , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 16(1): 105, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) progression is often influenced by biomechanical factors. Biomechanical interventions, such as Trunk stabilization exercise (TSE) and Mulligan joint mobilization (MWM), may offer relief from KOA symptoms and potentially slow disease progression. However, the comparative efficacy of these therapies remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of TSE, Mulligan joint mobilization, and isometric knee strengthening (KSE) on disability, pain severity, and aerobic exercise capacity in patients with KOA. METHODOLOGY: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three intervention groups was conducted between September 2020 to February 2021. The study enrolled adults aged between 40 and 60 years with a confirmed KOA diagnosis recruited from the physical therapy clinic of the Sindh Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pakistan. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 24 sessions of either TSE, MWM, or KSE. The knee's functionality was assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and two objective functional tests-the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 11-stair climb test (SCT). These assessments were conducted at baseline, the third week, and the sixth week. Changes in outcome measures were analyzed using a mixed-design ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, with statistical significance set at a p-value < 0.05. RESULT: Of the 60 participants, 22 (36.7%) were females, and 38 (63.3%) were males. Within-group analysis revealed a significant improvement in all outcome measures at the third week (p < 0.05) and sixth week (p < 0.05). Notably, the TSE group exhibited a greater reduction in mean difference (M.D) in VAS scores than the MWM and KSE groups across various measures in the third week. At rest, during stair ascent, and descent, the TSE group showed significant improvements in VAS scores: MWM (-2.05; -1.94; -1.94), TSE (-2.38; -2.5; -2.5), KSE (-1.05; -0.63; -0.63). Additionally, during sub-maximal exercise capacity assessment, the TSE group showed greater improvement (MWM 12.89; TSE 22.68; KSE 7.89), as well as in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for activities of daily living (KOOS-ADL) (MWM 20.84; TSE 28.84; KSE 12.68), and KOOS-pain (MWM 24.84; TSE 27.77; KSE 5.77) at the third-week assessment (p < 0.05). The TSE group demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) across various measures in the sixth week. Specifically, improvements were observed in VAS scores at rest (MWM - 4.15; TSE - 4.42; KSE - 3.78), during stair ascent (MWM - 3.89; TSE - 4.88; KSE - 3.56) and descent (MWM - 3.78; TSE - 4.05; KSE - 2.94). Furthermore, significant improvements were noted in the stair climb test (MWM - 7.05; TSE - 7.16; KSE - 4.21), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) (MWM 22.42; TSE 37.6; KSE 13.84), KOOS-pain (MWM 41.47; TSE 49.11; KSE 28.73), and KOOS-ADL (MWM 40.31; TSE 50.57; KSE 26.05). CONCLUSION: In this study in patients with KOA, TSE had greater efficacy compared to MWM and KSE in enhancing functional levels, reducing pain, improving sub-maximal exercise capacity, and performance on the stair climb test. Importantly, mean scores between the groups, particularly in the TSE group, reached the minimally important level, particularly in key areas such as pain, functional levels, sub-maximal exercise capacity, and stair climb performance. Clinicians should consider the significant pain reduction, improved functionality, and enhanced exercise capacity demonstrated by TSE, indicating its potential as a valuable therapeutic choice for individuals with KOA. TRIAL NO: ClinicalTrials.gov = NCT04099017 23/9/2019.

17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 203: 116415, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723552

RESUMO

This study assessed the occurrence, origins, and potential risks of emerging perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the first time in drinking water resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. In total, 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with carbon (C) chains C4-C18 and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) with C chains C4-C10 were tested in both surface and ground drinking water samples using a high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with an Agilent 6460 Triple Quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system. The concentrations of ∑PFCAs, ∑PFSAs, and ∑PFAAs in drinking water ranged from 1.46 to 72.85, 0.30-8.03, and 1.76-80.88 ng/L, respectively. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) were the dominant analytes in surface water followed by ground water, while the concentration of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) were greater than long-chain PFOA and PFOS. The correlation statistics, which showed a strong correlation (p < 0.05) between the PFAA analytes, potentially indicated the fate of PFAAs in the area's drinking water sources, whereas the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) statistics identified industrial, domestic, agricultural, and commercial applications as potential point and non-point sources of PFAA contamination in the area. From risk perspectives, the overall PFAA toxicity in water resources was within the ecological health risk thresholds, where for the human population the hazard quotient (HQ) values of individual PFAAs were < 1, indicating no risk from the drinking water sources; however, the hazard index (HI) from the ∑PFAAs should not be underestimated, as it may significantly result in potential chronic toxicity to exposed adults, followed by children.

18.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57695, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711703

RESUMO

Background Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, enabling them to perform tasks. The advancements in AI have also improved virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) experience allowing a greater opportunity for use in the field of medicine. Objective To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of AI and types of realities among Pakistani healthcare professionals (HCPs). Materials and methods This was a prospective, nationwide study designed at the Department of Neurosurgery at Punjab Institute of Neurosciences (PINS), Lahore, was conducted between January 2024 to February 2024. More than 500 HCPs were approached, out of which 176 participated in this survey consensually. A pre-formed general questionnaire based on knowledge, attitude and practices of AI and types of realities was modified according to local conditions. Google Forms (Google Inc., USA) was used to conduct the one-time sign up response. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24, USA) was used to analyze submitted responses. Results About 69.9% respondents were male HCPs. Most of the respondents were from the fields of neurosurgery, medicine and general surgery, i.e., 10.80%, 10.20% and 4%, respectively. More than 90% HCPs used Internet and electronic devices daily. A majority of 62.50% respondents agreed that AI brings benefits for the patients, while at the same time, 45.50% agreed that they would not trust the assessment of AI more than that of HCPs. 61% HCPs feared that AI-based systems could be manipulated from the outside sources, like terrorists and hackers. Although 90% respondents knew the definition of AR and VR, a strikingly low 40% respondents could only identify the practical applications of these realities when asked in a mini-quiz. About 61.40% HCPs never used any AI-based application throughout their clinical practice, but Google Health was used by 29.50% respondents, followed by Remote Patient Monitoring AI application used by 3.4% individuals. Conclusion There is an evident under-utilization of AI and types of realities in clinical practice in Pakistan. Lack of awareness, paucity of resources and conventional clinical practices are the key reasons identified. Pakistan is on the path towards the point where the developed world is currently. There is a potential to move past the initial stages of AI implementation and into more advanced modes of adopting AI and types of realities.

19.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 516, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empathy is described as one's ability to perceive and apprehend another person's feelings, situation, emotions, and problems as their own. Empathetic behavior increases patients' satisfaction, reduces discomfort, and helps with patient's satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Jefferson Empathy Scale and compare the measure of invariance within genders and amongst the public and private sector dental students. METHOD: This cross-sectional study utilized JSE-HPS version for research purpose. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to detect underlying factors. Reliability of the study tool was evaluated using Cronbach alpha test. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in scores between genders and among public and private university students while Student's t analysis compared the scores according to different domains. The level of significance was ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Females demonstrated higher empathy levels (88.52 ± 14.19) along with private institute students (88.46 ± 13.98). Perspective taking and compassionate care domain was also scored highest by the females (31.73 ± 6.49 & 29.31 ± 6.22) and among second year students (33.30 ± 7.11 & 30.50 ± 7.16). PCA analysis extracted 4 factors namely (i) Health-care-provider's sense of humor contributed to improved outcome (ii) Health-care provider's understanding of patients' feelings and of their families influences treatment outcomes (iii) Understanding body language is as important as verbal communication and (iv) Patients feel better when their feelings are understood, which accounted for the 59.51% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that students from private institute and females demonstrated higher empathy score. Moreover, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was found to be a reliable and validated tool for assessment of empathy in our sample population.


Assuntos
Empatia , Psicometria , Estudantes de Odontologia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
EJIFCC ; 35(1): 23-30, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706736

RESUMO

Introduction: As Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology continues to assimilate into various industries, there is a huge scope in the healthcare industry specifically in clinical laboratories. The perspective of the laboratory professionals can give valuable insight on the ideal path to take for AI implementation. Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design and was conducted at the section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan in collaboration with Consultant Pathologists of 9 clinical laboratories associated with teaching hospitals across Pakistan from October-November 2023. The survey was for a duration of 2 weeks and was circulated to all working laboratory technical staff after informed consent. Results: A total of 351 responses were received, of which 342 (male=146, female=196) responses were recorded after exclusion. Respondents ranged from technologists, faculty, residents, and coordinators, and were from different sections (chemical pathology, microbiology, haematology, histopathology, POCT). Out of the total 312 (91.2%) of respondents stated that they were at least somewhat familiar with AI technology. Experts in AI were only 2.0% (n=7) of all respondents, but 90% (n=6) of these were < 30 years old. 76.3% (n=261) of the respondents felt the need to implement more AI technology in the laboratories, with time saving (26.1%) and improving performances of tests (17.7%) cited to be the greatest benefits of AI. Security concerns (n=144) and a fear of decreasing personal touch (n=143) were the main concerns of the respondents while the younger employees had an increased fear of losing their jobs. 76.3% were in favour of an increase in AI usage in the laboratories. Conclusion: This study highlights a favourable perspective among laboratory professionals, acknowledging the potential of AI to enhance both the efficiency and quality of laboratory practices. However, it underscores the importance of addressing their concerns in the thoughtful implementation of this emerging technology.

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