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1.
Transl Anim Sci ; 8: txae037, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572173

RESUMO

The goal of this project was to determine whether various measures of mammary development differed between gilts and multiparous sows at the end of gestation. During gestation, Yorkshire × Landrace gilts (n = 19) and sows (second and third gestations, n = 17) were fed one daily meal of a conventional corn-based diet, where the amount fed was based on body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (BF) at mating. On day 110 ±â€…1 of gestation, a jugular blood sample was obtained from all gilts and sows to measure insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucose, free fatty acids, and urea. On that same day, BW and BF were measured and animals were euthanized. Mammary glands from one side of the udder were dissected for compositional analyses. The fifth gland of the contralateral row of mammary glands was sampled for histology and immunohistochemical localization of Ki67. There was less total parenchyma (1,437.4 vs. 2,004.7 ±â€…127.1 g; P < 0.001) and total extraparenchymal tissue (1,691.0 vs. 2,407.0 ±â€…125.3 g; P < 0.001) in mammary glands of gilts compared to those from sows. When these values were expressed per kg BW (226.0 and 284.0 ±â€…2.7 kg for gilts and sows, respectively), parenchymal mass did not differ (P > 0.10), while extraparenchymal tissue weight tended to be less in gilts than sows (P = 0.07). All components within the parenchyma differed by parity (P < 0.001). Specifically, parenchymal tissue from gilts contained a greater proportion of fat and dry matter (DM), a lower proportion of protein, and lower concentrations of DNA (6.59 vs. 9.35 ±â€…0.53 mg/g DM) and RNA (7.76 vs. 12.33 ±â€…0.70 mg/g DM) than that from sows. On the other hand, the circumference of alveolar lumens was greater in gilts than sows (P < 0.001), while the percentage of epithelial cells that were positive for Ki67, a marker of cell proliferation, was greater in sows than gilts (P < 0.05). Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 were greater in gilts than in multiparous sows (45.0 vs. 27.3 ±â€…2.8 ng/mL, P < 0.001). None of the other blood variables were changed by parity. Results show a marked effect of parity on mammary gland development in swine. At the end of gestation, the mammary glands of gilts had less parenchyma with lower epithelial proliferation than glands from multiparous sows. These differences could alter the response of mammary tissue to various nutritional or endocrine signals. This information is crucial for the development of management strategies designed to maximize sow milk yield.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common ovarian cancer subtype. Parity is an important risk-reducing factor, but the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect is unclear. Our aim was to study if the expression of hormones and proteins involved in pregnancy were affected by the woman's parity status, and if they may be associated with tumor stage and survival. METHODS: We evaluated expression of progesterone receptor (PR), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), relaxin-2, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1) in tumor tissue from 92 women with HGSC parous (n = 73) and nulliparous (n = 19). Key findings were then evaluated in an independent expansion cohort of 49 patients. Survival rates by hormone/protein expression were illustrated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The independent prognostic value was tested by Cox regression, using models adjusted for established poor-prognostic factors (age at diagnosis, FIGO stage, type of surgery, and macroscopic residual tumor after surgery). RESULTS: HGSC tumors from parous women were PR positive (≥ 1% PR expression in tumor cells) more often than tumors from nulliparous women (42% vs. 16%; p-value 0.04), and having more children was associated with developing PR positive tumors [i.e., ≥ 3 children versus nulliparity, adjusted for age at diagnosis and stage: OR 4.31 (95% CI 1.12-19.69)]. A similar result was seen in the expansion cohort. Parity status had no impact on expression of PGRMC1, relaxin-2 and TGFß1. No associations were seen with tumor stage or survival. CONCLUSION: Tumors from parous women with HGSC expressed PR more often than tumors from nulliparous women, indicating that pregnancies might possibly have a long-lasting impact on ovarian cancer development.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After implementing the two-child policy, more Chinese women who had a previous delivery had their second child. Nevertheless, the impacts of parity on Gestational Diabetes (GDM) and macrosomia have not been fully confirmed. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the characteristics of pregnancy by parity and evaluate the association of parity with risks of GDM/macrosomia in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 193,410 pregnant women (including 148,293 primiparae and 45,117 multiparae) with complete information were included. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between parity and risks of GDM/macrosomia. RESULTS: With the gradual implementation of the two-child policy, the proportion of multiparae increased rapidly and then decreased slightly. Multiparae were more likely to be older and have higher intrapartum BMI, as compared to primiparae (P < 0.001). Univariate regression analyses suggested that parity could increase the risks of GDM and macrosomia; while after adjustment, the association between parity and GDM risk disappeared, and the effects of parity on macrosomia risk and birth weight of babies were also weakened. Further, stratified analysis showed that parity only increased the risk of GDM in women over 30 years, and the effects of parity on macrosomia risk and birth weight were more pronounced among women over 30 years compared to women under 30 years. CONCLUSION: Parity was not associated with GDM risk, but mildly associated with macrosomia risk. Particular attention should be paid to multiparae with advanced age to reduce the risks of GDM and macrosomia.

4.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1354094, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577336

RESUMO

Background: We investigated the associations of reproductive factors known to influence breast cancer risk with the expression of breast stem cell markers CD44, CD24, and ALDH1A1 in benign breast biopsy samples. Methods: We included 439 cancer-free women with biopsy-confirmed benign breast disease within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. The data on reproductive and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue microarrays. For each core, the IHC expression was assessed using a semi-automated platform and expressed as % of cells that stained positive for a specific marker out of the total cell count. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the associations of reproductive factors with a log-transformed expression of each marker (in epithelium and stroma), adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors. Results: In multivariate analysis, the time between menarche and age at first birth was inversely associated with CD44 in epithelium (ß per 5 years = -0.38, 95% CI -0.69; -0.06). Age at first birth and the time between menarche and age at first birth were inversely associated with ALDH1A1 (stroma: ß per 5 years = -0.43, 95% CI -0.76; -0.10 and ß = -0.47, 95% CI -0.79; -0.15, respectively; epithelium: ß = -0.15, 95% CI -0.30; -0.01 and ß = -0.17, 95% CI -0.30; -0.03, respectively). Time since last pregnancy was inversely associated with stromal ALDH1A1 (ß per 5 years = -0.55, 95% CI -0.98; -0.11). No associations were found for CD24. The observed associations were similar in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, lifetime duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with stromal ALDH1A1 expression (ß for ≥24 vs. 0 to <1 months = -2.24, 95% CI 3.96; -0.51, p-trend = 0.01). Conclusion: Early-life reproductive factors may influence CD44 and ALDH1A1 expression in benign breast tissue.

5.
Hernia ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between parity and the incidence rate of groin hernia repair in women. METHOD: This study was based on two Swedish national registers, the Medical Birth Register (MBR), and the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR). The cohort constituted of women born between 1956 and 1983. Data on vaginal and cesarean deliveries were retrieved from the MBR. The birth and hernia registers were cross matched to identify hernia repairs carried out after deliveries. RESULTS: A total of 1,535,379 women were born between 1956 and 1983. Among these, 1,417,237 (92.3%) were registered for at least one birth. The incidence rate for Inguinal Hernia Repair (IHR) and Femoral Hernia Repair (FHR) was 10.7 per 100,000 person-year and 2.6 per 100,000 person-year, respectively. Compared with women registered for one delivery, the incidence rate ratio for IHR was 1.31 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.23-1.40) among women registered for two deliveries, 1.70 (1.58-1.82) among women registered for ≥ 3 deliveries. Additionally, the incidence rate ratios were higher 1.30 (1.14-1.49) and 1.70 (1.49-1.95) for FHR among women with two and ≥ 3 registered deliveries, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present cohort, higher parity was associated with a higher incidence of inguinal as well as FHRs.

6.
Demography ; 61(2): 251-266, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506313

RESUMO

Fertility is a life course process that is strongly shaped by geographic and sociodemographic subgroup contexts. In the United States, scholars face a choice: they can situate fertility in a life course perspective using panel data, which is typically representative only at the national level; or they can attend to subnational contexts using rate schedules, which do not include information on life course statuses. The method and data source we introduce here, Census-Held Linked Administrative Records for Fertility Estimation (CLAR-FE), permits both. It derives fertility histories and rate schedules from U.S. Census Bureau-held data for the nation and by state, racial and ethnic subgroups, and the important life course status of parity. We generate three types of rates for 2000-2020 at the national and state levels by race and ethnicity: age-specific rates and both unconditional and conditional parity- and age-specific rates. Where possible, we compare these rates with those produced by the National Center for Health Statistics. Our new rate schedules illuminate state and racial and ethnic differences in transitions to parenthood, providing evidence of the important subgroup heterogeneity that characterizes the United States. CLAR-FE covers nearly the entire U.S. population and is available to researchers on approved projects through the Census Bureau's Federal Statistical Research Data Centers.


Assuntos
Censos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Fertilidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Etnicidade
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 162, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), new vector-control tools are needed to target mosquitoes that bite outside during the daytime and night-time to advance malaria elimination. METHODS: We conducted systematic literature searches to generate a bionomic dataset of the main malaria vectors in the GMS, including human blood index (HBI), parity proportion, sac proportion (proportion with uncontracted ovary sacs, indicating the amount of time until they returned to host seeking after oviposition) and the resting period duration. We then performed global sensitivity analyses to assess the influence of bionomics and intervention characteristics on vectorial capacity. RESULTS: Our review showed that Anopheles minimus, An. sinensis, An. maculatus and An. sundaicus display opportunistic blood-feeding behaviour, while An. dirus is more anthropophilic. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that environmental, climatic and sampling factors influence the proportion of parous mosquitoes, and resting duration varies seasonally. Sensitivity analysis highlighted HBI and parity proportion as the most influential bionomic parameters, followed by resting duration. Killing before feeding is always a desirable characteristic across all settings in the GMS. Disarming is also a desirable characteristic in settings with a low HBI. Repelling is only an effective strategy in settings with a low HBI and low parity proportion. Killing after feeding is only a desirable characteristic if the HBI and parity proportions in the setting are high. CONCLUSIONS: Although in general adopting tools that kill before feeding would have the largest community-level effect on reducing outdoor transmission, other modes of action can be effective. Current tools in development which target outdoor biting mosquitoes should be implemented in different settings dependent on their characteristics.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores , Ecologia , Comportamento Alimentar
8.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447056

RESUMO

Progeny born to primiparous sows (gilt progeny; GP) have lower birth, weaning and slaughter weights than sow progeny (SP). GP also have reduced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, as evidenced by lower organ weights. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to quantify changes in GIT barrier function that occur in birth and weaning, representing two major challenges to the young piglet. The effects of parity (GP vs. SP) in GIT barrier integrity function were quantified at four timepoints: birth (~0 h), 24 h after birth (24 h), 1-d preweaning (PrW), and 1-d postweaning (PoW) in commercially reared piglets. Due to inherent differences between newborn and weanling pigs, the results were analyzed in two cohorts, birth (0 vs. 24 h, n = 31) and weaning (PrW vs. PoW, n = 40). Samples of the stomach, jejunum, ileum, and colon were excised after euthanasia and barrier integrity was quantified by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER), macromolecular permeability, the abundance of inflammatory proteins (IL-8, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and tight junction proteins (claudin-2 and -3). Papp was characterized using a dual tracer approach comprising 4 KDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FD4) and 150 kDa tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (T150)-labeled dextrans. Characteristic effects of the initiation of feeding and weaning were observed on the GIT with the initiation of feeding, such as increasing TER and reducing Papp at 24 h, consistent with mucosal growth (P = 0.058) This was accompanied by increased cytokine abundance as evidenced by elevations in TNF-α and IL-1ß. However, GP had increased IL-8 abundance (P = 0.011 and 0.063 for jejunum and ileum respectively) at birth than 24 h overall. In the weaning cohort, jejunal and ileal permeability to FD4 was higher in GP (P = 0.05 and 0.022, respectively) while only higher ileal T150 was observed in GP (P = 0.032). Ileal claudin-2 abundance tended to be higher in SP overall (P = 0.063), but GP ileal claudin-2 expression was upregulated weaning while no change was observed in SP (P = 0.043). Finally, other than a higher jejunal TNF-α abundance observed in SP (P = 0.016), no other effect of parity was observed on inflammatory markers in the weaning cohort. The results from this study indicate that the GIT of GP have poorer adaptation to early life events, with the response to weaning, being more challenging which is likely to contribute to poorer postweaning growth.


The progeny of primiparous sows (gilt progeny; GP) have poorer lifetime growth performance in comparison to progeny from multiparous sows (sow progeny; SP). Previous research suggests that there is an underlying biological basis for reduced growth performance which is attributed to differences in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) barrier development during early life. This study aimed to clarify the timeframes of when these differences are in effect by investigating GIT development during two major events of a piglet's life: birth and weaning. To do this, GIT tissue was collected from GP and SP at four time points; birth, 24 h after birth, 1-d preweaning, and 1-d postweaning and assessed for functional development. The main findings from this study indicate there are early signs of variation in GIT development within the first 24 h of life between GP and SP, and that these differences increase through the preweaning period, with GP entering weaning with poorer GIT development and function. Possible explanations for the reduced GI development may be reduced maternal nutrition during the suckling period.


Assuntos
Claudina-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Interleucina-8 , Sus scrofa , Jejuno , Biomarcadores , Lactação
9.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 174, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether the number of pregnancies contributes to the development of chronic lower back pain, worsening the lumbar disc degeneration and altering the normal lumbar sagittal balance. MATERIAL METHOD: There are 134 ladies participated in this study. They are divided into two groups based on their number of pregnancies (parity). All patients with chronic back pain were assessed using a visual analog scale for pain and the Oswestry Disability Index for their functional status assessment. Degenerative signs in lumbar MRI, which are Modic changes and the presence of Schmorl's node, were evaluated. Besides that, the sagittal balance of the lumbar spine was also measured via an erect lumbar plain radiograph. RESULTS: Patients with parities < 5 were included in Group 1, and those with parities ≥ 5 in Group 2. The mean visual analog scale score of Group 2 was significantly higher than that of Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.34 vs.6.50 ± 1.61). The mean Oswestry Disability Index score in Group 2 was significantly higher than that of Group 1 (29.87 ± 6.75 vs.18.41 ± 7.97). This relationship between the groups in terms of Modic change was statistically significant. The relationship between the groups regarding the presence of Schmorl's nodes was also statistically significant. The difference between the groups in terms of sagittal balance parameters was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Chronic lower back pain is significantly worse and associated with more disability in patients with more than five previous pregnancies. MRI degenerative changes are also significantly higher in these grand multipara groups.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Dor Lombar , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Região Lombossacral , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Nano Lett ; 24(14): 4108-4116, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536003

RESUMO

Symmetry breaking plays a pivotal role in unlocking intriguing properties and functionalities in material systems. For example, the breaking of spatial and temporal symmetries leads to a fascinating phenomenon: the superconducting diode effect. However, generating and precisely controlling the superconducting diode effect pose significant challenges. Here, we take a novel route with the deliberate manipulation of magnetic charge potentials to realize unconventional superconducting flux-quantum diode effects. We achieve this through suitably tailored nanoengineered arrays of nanobar magnets on top of a superconducting thin film. We demonstrate the vital roles of inversion antisymmetry and its breaking in evoking unconventional superconducting effects, namely a magnetically symmetric diode effect and an odd-parity magnetotransport effect. These effects are nonvolatilely controllable through in situ magnetization switching of the nanobar magnets. Our findings promote the use of antisymmetry (breaking) for initiating unconventional superconducting properties, paving the way for exciting prospects and innovative functionalities in superconducting electronics.

11.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1339605, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454927

RESUMO

Introduction: Donor choosing remains to play a pivotal role in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Numerous criteria beyond HLA compatibility impact the selection of a suitable donor. Methods: We evaluated the effect of donor parity on transplant outcomes in a large homogeneously treated population that received an HLA-matched allo-HSCT between 2010 and 2021 at our center. All patients were transplanted from a peripheral blood stem cell source following a myeloablative Busulfan-based conditioning and an identical protocol for graftversus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen. Results: A total of 1103 allo-HSCT recipients were included. 188 (17.04%) had transplants from parous female donors, whereas 621 (56.30%) and 294 (26.70%) received transplants from male and nulliparous female donors, respectively. HSCTs from parous female donors compared to male and nulliparous females were associated with a significantly higher incidence of grade III-IV acute (a) GVHD (55.27% vs. 11.34 and 10.84%) and extensive chronic (c) GVHD (64.32% vs. 15.52 and 13.65%), as well as lower relapse incidence (RI). Discussion: This study finds that while parous female donors are associated with higher incidences of grade III-IV aGVHD and extensive cGVHD post-allo-HSCT, the advantages, such as a lower RI, outweigh the risks. The results of our study provide valuable insights for donor selection.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although infertility (i.e., failure to conceive after ≥ 12 months of trying) is strongly correlated with established breast cancer risk factors (e.g., nulliparity, number of pregnancies, and age at first pregnancy), its association with breast cancer incidence is not fully understood. Previous studies were primarily small clinic-based or registry studies with short follow-up and predominantly focused on premenopausal breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between infertility and postmenopausal breast cancer risk among participants in the Women's Health Initiative (analytic sample = 131,784; > 25 years of follow-up). METHODS: At study entry, participants were asked about their pregnancy history, infertility history, and diagnosed reasons for infertility. Incident breast cancers were self-reported with adjudication by trained physicians reviewing medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer for women with infertility (overall and specific infertility diagnoses) compared to parous women with no history of infertility. We examined mediation of these associations by parity, age at first term pregnancy, postmenopausal hormone therapy use at baseline, age at menopause, breastfeeding, and oophorectomy. RESULTS: We observed a modest association between infertility (n = 23,406) and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.02-1.13). The association was largely mediated by age at first term pregnancy (natural indirect effect: 46.4% mediated, CI 12.2-84.3%). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that infertility may be modestly associated with future risk of postmenopausal breast cancer due to age at first pregnancy and highlight the importance of incorporating reproductive history across the life course into breast cancer analyses.

13.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474771

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a set of complex carbohydrates and the third largest solid component of human milk, after lactose and lipids. To date, over 150 HMOs have been identified and the diversity of structures produced by lactating women is influenced by maternal genetics as well as other maternal, infant, and environmental factors. While the concentrations of individual HMOs have been shown to vary between individuals and throughout the course of lactation, the variability of HMO concentration profiles following different pregnancies occurring in the same woman is presently unknown. As such, the objective of this study was to compare HMO concentrations in human milk samples provided by the same women (n = 34) following repeat pregnancies. We leveraged existing human milk samples and metadata from the UC San Diego Human Milk Research Biorepository (HMB) and measured the concentrations of the 19 most abundant HMOs using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL). By assessing dissimilarities in HMO concentration profiles, as well as concentration trends in individual structures between pregnancies of each participant, we discovered that HMO profiles largely follow a highly personalized and predictable trajectory following different pregnancies irrespective of non-genetic influences. In conclusion, this is the first study to assess the interactions between parity and time following delivery on variations in HMO compositions.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite Humano , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Leite Humano/química , Aleitamento Materno , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 49, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite strategies and recommendations for complementary feeding initiation were applied globally, mothers initiated complementary feeding to the infants on time was low. Previous works of literatures were not identified the effect of parity on time to initiate complementary feeding. Particularly, evidences regarding to this in Ethiopia is scanty. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the effect of parity on time to initiate complementary feeding among mother-infants pairs in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based prospective cohort study was carried out among 732 primipara, and 1464 multipara mothers who had a live birth in Northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected using Kobo collect software at the start of and on a monthly bases until the end of the follow up period. Parity as exposure variable and other confounders were analyzed using cox proportional hazard regression. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the Schoenfeld residuals global test (P-value = 0.4861) was performed. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to declare statistical significance of predictors. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of initiation of complementary feeding among primipara and multipara mothers were 16.27 (95%CI: 15.04, 17.61) and 13.30 (95%CI: 12.53, 14.12) person months' observations respectively. The median time to initiate complementary feeding among primipara and multipara mothers for their infants was 5 and 6 months respectively. Primipara mothers had a 30% higher rate to initiate complementary feeding early (AHR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.17, 1.43). Age from 15 to 24 and 25-34 years (AHR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.36, 2.09; and AHR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.17, 1.81) and Birth type (twin) (AHR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.64) were statistically significant predictors for time to initiate complementary feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Parity was identified as a statistically significant predictor for time to initiate complementary feeding. The incidence rate of early and late initiation of complementary feeding was higher among primipara than multipara mothers. Besides, the median time to initiate complementary feeding was earlier among primipara than multipara mothers. So, a parity based complementary feeding practice education should be advocated to tackle the gap and further reduce infants and children malnutrition. Relatively younger age and twin delivered mothers initiated complementary feeding against the recommendation. Therefore, intervention considering such statistically significant predictors could have a public health importance.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente
15.
Entropy (Basel) ; 26(3)2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539760

RESUMO

We commonly encounter the problem of identifying an optimally weight-adjusted version of the empirical distribution of observed data, adhering to predefined constraints on the weights. Such constraints often manifest as restrictions on the moments, tail behavior, shapes, number of modes, etc., of the resulting weight-adjusted empirical distribution. In this article, we substantially enhance the flexibility of such a methodology by introducing a nonparametrically imbued distributional constraint on the weights and developing a general framework leveraging the maximum entropy principle and tools from optimal transport. The key idea is to ensure that the maximum entropy weight-adjusted empirical distribution of the observed data is close to a pre-specified probability distribution in terms of the optimal transport metric, while allowing for subtle departures. The proposed scheme for the re-weighting of observations subject to constraints is reminiscent of the empirical likelihood and related ideas, but offers greater flexibility in applications where parametric distribution-guided constraints arise naturally. The versatility of the proposed framework is demonstrated in the context of three disparate applications where data re-weighting is warranted to satisfy side constraints on the optimization problem at the heart of the statistical task-namely, portfolio allocation, semi-parametric inference for complex surveys, and ensuring algorithmic fairness in machine learning algorithms.

16.
J Med Entomol ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527268

RESUMO

Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) to the United States over 20 years ago, thousands of cases of human disease and death have been reported. Yearly seasonal outbreaks continue to persist, and the city and suburbs of Chicago, Illinois, is considered a "hot spot" for WNV activity. To interrupt WNV transmission, ground ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide applications are regularly used to reduce Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobold (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and infection. The real-world effectiveness of adulticide applications has not been comprehensively assessed, and prior studies, including our own investigation, have yielded inconclusive or conflicting results. Therefore, we expanded our prior work and evaluated the effects of 5 sequential weekly truck-mounted ULV adulticide applications in large residential areas in the northern suburbs of Chicago, Illinois, in 2019 and 2020. Each day, Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans host-seeking and gravid mosquitoes were collected to assess abundance, age structure, and WNV infection rates. Adulticide applications resulted in significant reductions of both host-seeking and gravid abundance on the night of treatment. The reduction in host-seeking mosquitoes was followed by a reduction in gravid mosquitoes trapped 3 and 4 days after adulticide application and an increase in the proportion of nulliparous mosquitoes. WNV infection rates were significantly reduced in treatment sites as compared to untreated sites when infection rates were higher in 2020. This large-scale study provides comprehensive evidence that ground ULV adulticide applications are an effective tool in an integrated mosquito management program for combating WNV vectors and infection risk.

17.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 15(1): 33, 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursery pigs undergo stressors in the post-weaning period that result in production and welfare challenges. These challenges disproportionately impact the offspring of primiparous sows compared to those of multiparous counterparts. Little is known regarding potential interactions between parity and feed additives in the post-weaning period and their effects on nursery pig microbiomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal parity on sow and offspring microbiomes and the influence of sow parity on pig fecal microbiome and performance in response to a prebiotic post-weaning. At weaning, piglets were allotted into three treatment groups: a standard nursery diet including pharmacological doses of Zn and Cu (Con), a group fed a commercial prebiotic only (Preb) based on an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract, and a group fed the same prebiotic plus Zn and Cu (Preb + ZnCu). RESULTS: Although there were no differences in vaginal microbiome composition between primiparous and multiparous sows, fecal microbiome composition was different (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.03). The fecal microbiomes of primiparous offspring displayed significantly higher bacterial diversity compared to multiparous offspring at d 0 and d 21 postweaning (P < 0.01), with differences in community composition observed at d 21 (R2 = 0.03, P = 0.04). When analyzing the effects of maternal parity within each treatment, only the Preb diet triggered significant microbiome distinctions between primiparous and multiparous offspring (d 21: R2 = 0.13, P = 0.01; d 42: R2 = 0.19, P = 0.001). Compositional differences in pig fecal microbiomes between treatments were observed only at d 21 (R2 = 0.12, P = 0.001). Pigs in the Con group gained significantly more weight throughout the nursery period when compared to those in the Preb + ZnCu group. CONCLUSIONS: Nursery pig gut microbiome composition was influenced by supplementation with an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract, with varying effects on performance when combined with pharmacological levels of Zn and Cu or for offspring of different maternal parity groups. These results indicate that the development of nursery pig gut microbiomes is shaped by maternal parity and potential interactions with the effects of dietary feed additives.

18.
Metabolomics ; 20(2): 28, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Allergies and other immune-mediated diseases are thought to result from incomplete maturation of the immune system early in life. We previously showed that infants' metabolites at birth were associated with immune cell subtypes during infancy. The placenta supplies the fetus with nutrients, but may also provide immune maturation signals. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between metabolites in placental villous tissue and immune maturation during the first year of life and infant and maternal characteristics (gestational length, birth weight, sex, parity, maternal age, and BMI). METHODS: Untargeted metabolomics was measured using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Subpopulations of T and B cells were measured using flow cytometry at birth, 48 h, one, four, and 12 months. Random forest analysis was used to link the metabolomics data with the T and B cell sub populations as well as infant and maternal characteristics. RESULTS: Modest associations (Q2 = 0.2-0.3) were found between the placental metabolome and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) at birth and naïve B cells and memory T cells at 12 months. Weak associations were observed between the placental metabolome and sex and parity. Still, most metabolite features of interest were of low intensity compared to associations previously found in cord blood, suggesting that underlying metabolites were not of placental origin. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that metabolomic measurements of the placenta may not effectively recognize metabolites important for immune maturation.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Placenta , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Suécia , Metaboloma , Sangue Fetal
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 86(4): 358-362, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325837

RESUMO

This study was carried out as an observational study in order to examine the difference of change in serum very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) between primiparous and multiparous cows. Twenty-one clinically healthy cows (10 primiparous and 11 multiparous) were selected at 21 days prior to expected calving. Blood samples were collected in the morning (before feeding) on days -21, -7, 7, 21 and 56 days in milk (DIM). At 7 and 21 DIM, the serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration of multiparous cows was significantly higher than that of primiparous cows. The serum ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration was also markedly higher in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows at 21 DIM. These results suggested that the degree of negative energy balance was greater in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows during this period. In both, serum VLDL concentrations decreased at over 7 DIM, increased at 21 DIM, and then decreased at 56 DIM. On the other hand, triglyceride and total protein concentrations of VLDL in multiparous cows were significantly lower than in primiparous cows at 21 DIM. This suggests that multiparous cows have poor triglyceride secretion from the liver and that they become more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis.


Assuntos
Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo
20.
R Soc Open Sci ; 11(1): 231200, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298392

RESUMO

This research introduces a novel methodology of harnessing liquids to facilitate the realization of parity-time (PT)-symmetric optical waveguides on highly integrated microscale platforms. Additionally, we propose a realistic and detailed fabrication process flow, demonstrating the practical feasibility of fabricating our optofluidic system, thereby bridging the gap between theoretical design and actual implementation. Extensive research has been conducted over the past two decades on PT-symmetric systems across various fields, given their potential to foster a new generation of compact, power-efficient sensors and signal processors with enhanced performance. Passive PT-symmetry in optics can be achieved by evanescently coupling two optical waveguides and incorporating an optically lossy material into one of the waveguides. The essential coupling distance between two optical waveguides in air is usually less than 500 nm for near-infrared wavelengths and under 100 nm for ultraviolet wavelengths. This necessitates the construction of the coupling region via expensive and time-consuming electron beam lithography, posing a significant manufacturing challenge for the mass production of PT-symmetric optical systems. We propose a solution to this fabrication challenge by introducing liquids capable of dynamic flow between optical waveguides. This technique allows the attainment of evanescent wave coupling with coupling gap dimensions compatible with standard photolithography processes. Consequently, this paves the way for the cost-effective, rapid and large-scale production of PT-symmetric optofluidic systems, applicable across a wide range of fields.

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