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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2321761, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426665

RESUMO

Background: Nurses in emergency departments are at a high risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress because of their frequent exposure to trauma patients and high-stress environments.Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among emergency nurses and to identify the contributing factors.Method: We conducted a systematic search for cross-sectional studies in databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Internet up to October 21, 2023. The Joanna Briggs Institute's appraisal checklists for prevalence and analytical cross-sectional studies were used for quality assessment. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Cochrane's Q test and the I2 statistic. A random effects model was applied to estimate the pooled prevalence of secondary traumatic stress, and subgroup analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Descriptive analysis summarized the associated factors.Results: Out of 345 articles retrieved, 14 met the inclusion criteria, with 11 reporting secondary traumatic stress prevalence. The pooled prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among emergency nurses was 65% (95% CI: 58%-73%). Subgroup analyses indicated the highest prevalence in Asia (74%, 95% CI: 72%-77%), followed by North America (59%, 95% CI: 49%-72%) and Europe (53%, 95% CI: 29%-95%). Nine studies identified associated factors, including personal, work-related, and social factors. In the subgroup of divided by recruitment period, emergency department nurses in the COVID-19 outbreak period had a higher prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (70%, 95% CI: 62%-78%).Conclusions: Secondary traumatic stress prevalence is notably high among emergency department nurses, with significant regional variations and period differences. The factors affecting secondary traumatic stress also varied across studies. Future research should focus on improving research designs and sample sizes to pinpoint risk factors and develop prevention strategies.Registration: PROSPERO CRD42022301167.


Secondary traumatic stress is considered an occupational hazard for nurses. Emergency department nurses, in particular, face a greater risk of secondary traumatic stress compared to other professions.While various studies have investigated the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among these nurses, findings have been inconsistent.The pooled prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among emergency nurses is 65%. Subgroup analysis by region shows that Asia experiences the highest combined prevalence at 74%, with North America at 59% and Europe at 53%. Emergency department nurses in the COVID-19 outbreak period had a higher prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (70%, 95% CI: 62%­78%).


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão , Humanos , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Ásia
2.
Gac Sanit ; 38: 102360, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of frailty on health resource use in aged population with cancer. METHOD: Population-based cohort study with retrospective data collection and follow-up from January 2018 to December 2019 in people ≥65 years with cancer. RESULTS: Overall, 996 individuals were included, with a prevalence of frailty of 22.1%. Mortality at 2 years was 14.1% in the frail and 9.0% in the non-frail (p=0.028). Independently of age and sex, frailty increased the number of urgent hospitalizations (168%) and planned hospitalizations (64%), visits to the emergency room (111%), outpatient consultations (59%), day hospital sessions (30%) and visits to primary care (114%). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is more prevalent, determines a poorer prognostic and is associated with higher health resource use in aged population with cancer.

3.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 20(3): 155-161, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of thromboembolic events in children and adolescents with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science to select relevant articles published between 1 January 2000 and 27 February 2022. We used the random-effects meta-analysis to estimate pooled point prevalence rates of thromboembolic events in studies with a minimum sample size of 30. RESULTS: We included five studies reporting data of 336 children and adolescents with primary APS and secondary APS (SAPS). Pooled point prevalence rates of initial general thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and stroke in individuals with seropositive APS were 98.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.5-100), 27.6% (95% CI 21.4-34.2), 51.1% (95% CI 38.2-63.9) and 13.4% 95% CI (6.3-22.7), respectively. Pooled point prevalence rates of initial arterial and venous thromboses in children and adolescents with SAPS were 45.7% (95% CI 21.1-71.6) and 29.2% (95% CI 14.8-46), respectively. CONCLUSION: Arterio-venous thromboembolism is highly frequent in children and adolescents with SAPS. More studies using thrombotic and non-thrombotic APS classification criteria are warranted to better assess the frequency and predictors of thromboembolism in age- and ancestry-diverse pediatric populations affected by different types of APS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Trombose , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a public health concern with a strong impact on the health of the population. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in the prevalence of obesity and to identify changes in this trend in Spain and its 17 autonomous communities (AC) among the population aged ≥ 15 years from 1987 to 2020. METHODS: A trend analysis of the prevalence of obesity was conducted with data extracted from the complete historical series of the Spanish National Health Survey and the European Health Survey in Spain using joinpoint regression models. For each period identified in the trend analysis, we estimated the annual percentage change (APC) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The results are presented for crude and standardized prevalences by the direct method accompanied by 95%CI, sex ratios, and relative changes in prevalences between periods. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity increased from 7.3% (95%CI, 7.0-7.7) in 1987 to 15.7% (95%CI, 15.1-16.3) in 2020. In men, the prevalence increased until 2009 (APC,4.3; [95%CI, 3.8-5.0]) and then stabilized. In women, the prevalence increased until 2001 (APC,4.2; [95%CI, 2.7-8.8]) and subsequently also stabilized. The prevalence of obesity and its trend varied between AC, with three different patterns being observed with standardized prevalences: AC with a continuous increase, AC with an increase and subsequent stabilization, and AC with an increase and subsequent decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity has increased in Spain since 1987, although in the last decade it has remained stable at values above 15%. However, in the group aged 15 to 24 years, the prevalence of obesity showed an increasing trend throughout the study period.

5.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 20(3): 155-161, Mar. 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231129

RESUMO

Background and aim: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of thromboembolic events in children and adolescents with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science to select relevant articles published between 1 January 2000 and 27 February 2022. We used the random-effects meta-analysis to estimate pooled point prevalence rates of thromboembolic events in studies with a minimum sample size of 30. Results: We included five studies reporting data of 336 children and adolescents with primary APS and secondary APS (SAPS). Pooled point prevalence rates of initial general thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and stroke in individuals with seropositive APS were 98.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.5–100), 27.6% (95% CI 21.4–34.2), 51.1% (95% CI 38.2–63.9) and 13.4% 95% CI (6.3–22.7), respectively. Pooled point prevalence rates of initial arterial and venous thromboses in children and adolescents with SAPS were 45.7% (95% CI 21.1–71.6) and 29.2% (95% CI 14.8–46), respectively. Conclusion: Arterio-venous thromboembolism is highly frequent in children and adolescents with SAPS. More studies using thrombotic and non-thrombotic APS classification criteria are warranted to better assess the frequency and predictors of thromboembolism in age- and ancestry-diverse pediatric populations affected by different types of APS.(AU)


Antecedentes y objetivo: Se trata de una revisión sistemática y un metaanálisis de la prevalencia de acontecimientos tromboembólicos en niños y adolescentes con síndrome antifosfolípido (SAF). Métodos: Se realizaron búsquedas en PubMed, EMBASE y Web of Science para seleccionar los artículos pertinentes publicados entre el 1 de enero de 2000 y el 27 de febrero de 2022. Se utilizó el metaanálisis de efectos aleatorios para estimar las tasas de prevalencia puntual agrupadas de eventos tromboembólicos en estudios con un tamaño muestral mínimo de 30. Resultados: Se incluyeron cinco estudios con datos de 336 niños y adolescentes con APS primario y APS secundario (SAPS). Las tasas de prevalencia puntual agrupadas de trombosis general inicial, trombosis arterial, trombosis venosa e ictus en individuos con SAF seropositivo fueron de 98,2% (intervalo de confianza [IC] 95%: 87,5-100), 27,6% (IC 95%: 21,4-34,2), 51,1% (IC 95%: 38,2-63,9) y 13,4% (IC 95%: 6,3-22,7), respectivamente. Las tasas de prevalencia puntual agrupadas de trombosis arteriales y venosas iniciales en niños y adolescentes con SAF secundario fueron de 45,7% (IC 95%: 21,1-71,6) y de 29,2% (IC 95%: 14,8-46), respectivamente. Conclusión: La tromboembolia arteriovenosa es muy frecuente en niños y adolescentes con SAF. Se justifica la realización de más estudios que utilicen criterios de clasificación del SCA trombótico y no trombótico para evaluar mejor la frecuencia y los factores predictivos de la tromboembolia en poblaciones pediátricas de edad y ascendencia diversas afectadas por distintos tipos de SCA.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trombose Venosa , Pediatria , Reumatologia , Doenças Reumáticas , Trombose
6.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 50(2): [102124], Mar. 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231239

RESUMO

Introduction: Microaggressions create negative consequences on the mental health of individuals who experience them, such as feelings of alienation, frustration and low self-esteem. Physicians worldwide are negatively impacted by the detrimental effects of microaggressions and implicit bias. It is imperative to establish the prevalence specificity of the problem hence the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, nature and determinants of microaggressions amongst healthcare professionals. Method: The study used an online anonymous survey to collect data including demographics, awareness of the term, experience of microaggression, acts and response. The research findings were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses using Chi-square test and binary logistic regression respectively. Result: A total of 443 participants (40.9% males, 59.1% females) included 403 physicians (91%), 21 dentists (4.7%), 15 nurses (3.4%) and 4 pharmacists (0.9%). More than half of the participants (59.8%) were aware of the term micro-aggression. The percentage was significantly higher among respondents from the western region of Saudi Arabia than the Gulf/Middle Eastern countries. Approximately 38.1% of the participants experienced microaggression and more than half (55.62%) did not report experiencing microaggression. The most common form of microaggression was passive-aggressive behavior (80.5%) followed by invalidation of an opinion (73.4%). Among those who experienced microaggression, (12.9%) reported anger as the most predominant emotional response. Conclusion: Microaggression is a universal phenomenon. Further research is necessary to determine its prevalence in other countries to establish a comprehensive understanding of its cultural context.(AU)


Introducción: Las microagresiones crean consecuencias negativas en la salud mental de las personas que las experimentan, como sentimientos de alienación, frustración y baja autoestima. Los médicos de todo el mundo se ven afectados negativamente por los efectos perjudiciales de las microagresiones y el sesgo implícito. Es imperativo establecer la especificidad de prevalencia del problema, por lo que el objetivo de este estudio es determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y los determinantes de las microagresiones entre los profesionales de la salud. Método: El estudio utilizó una encuesta anónima en línea para recopilar datos demográficos, conocimiento del término, experiencia de microagresión, actos y respuesta. Los resultados de la investigación se analizaron mediante análisis univariados y multivariados mediante la prueba de Chi-cuadrado y la regresión logística binaria, respectivamente. Resultado: Un total de 443 participantes (40,9% hombres, 59,1% mujeres) incluyeron 403 médicos (91%), 21 dentistas (4,7%), 15 enfermeras (3,4%) y 4 farmacéuticos (0,9%). Más de la mitad de los participantes (59,8%) conocían el término microagresión. El porcentaje fue significativamente mayor entre los encuestados de la región occidental de Arabia Saudita que entre los países del Golfo/Medio Oriente. Aproximadamente el 38,1% de los participantes experimentaron microagresión y más de la mitad (55,62%) informaron no haber experimentado microagresión. La forma más común de microagresión fue el comportamiento pasivo-agresivo (80,5%), seguido de la invalidación de una opinión (73,4%). Entre quienes experimentaron microagresión, 12,9% reportaron ira como la respuesta emocional predominante. Conclusión: La microagresión es un fenómeno universal. Se necesita más investigación para determinar su prevalencia en otros países a fin de establecer una comprensión integral de su contexto cultural.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Conscientização , Hostilidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 100(3): 164-172, Mar. 2024. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231526

RESUMO

Introducción: Los factores y patrones asociados al consumo de antibióticos en los lactantes no están claros. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la incidencia acumulada de consumo de antibióticos desde el nacimiento hasta los 16meses e identificar los factores asociados al consumo de antibióticos entre lactantes de 4 a 16meses. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 2016 que incluyó una muestra de la población de 18.882 mujeres españolas de Galicia que habían dado a luz a un niño vivo entre el 1 de septiembre de 2015 y el 31 de agosto de 2016. Se calculó la incidencia acumulada de consumo de antibióticos a partir de los resultados de la entrevista a la madre sobre el consumo del lactante desde el nacimiento hasta los 14meses; no se estimó a los 15 y 16meses debido al reducido tamaño muestral. Para valorar las características asociadas al consumo de antibióticos se anidó en el estudio transversal un estudio de casos y controles emparejando por mes de nacimiento, un control por caso. Resultados: La incidencia acumulada de consumo de antibióticos entre los lactantes de 0 a 14meses de edad aumentó del 7,5% al 66,0%. Para el estudio de casos y controles, se obtuvo información de 1.852 casos y de 1.852 controles. La asistencia a la guardería (OR: 3,8 [IC95%: 3,2-4,6]), tener hermanos/as mayores (OR: 1,8 [IC95%: 1,6-2,1]), las consultas sanitarias en la clínica privada (OR: 1,6 [IC95%:1,4-2,0]) o haber estado expuesto al humo ambiental de tabaco (OR: 1,3 [IC95%: 1,1-1,6]) se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de consumo de antibióticos. Tener madres de entre 30 y 39años o de 40años y más en el momento del parto se asoció con un menor riesgo de consumo de antibióticos (OR: 0,8 [IC95%: 0,7-1,0] y OR: 0,6 [IC95%: 0,5-0,8], respectivamente).(UA)


Introduction: The factors and patterns associated with antibiotic consumption in infants are unclear. Our aim was to assess the cumulative incidence of antibiotic consumption from birth to 16 months and identify factors associated with antibiotic consumption among infants aged 4 to 16 months. Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2016 in a sample of 18,882 women from Galicia, Spain, who had given birth to a live child between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016. We calculated the cumulative incidence of antibiotic consumption based on maternal reports regarding the infant's consumption from birth to 14 months obtained through interviews; we did not estimate consumption at ages 15 and 16 months due to the small sample size. To assess which factors were associated with antibiotic consumption, we carried out a nested case-control study matching cases and controls for birth month on a 1:1 ratio. Results: The cumulative incidence of antibiotic consumption among infants aged 0 to 14 months increased from 7.5% to 66.0%. The case-control study included data for 1,852 cases and 1,852 controls. Daycare attendance (OR: 3.8 [95%CI: 3.2-4.6]), having older siblings (OR: 1.8 [95%CI: 1.6-2.1]), health care visits to private clinics (OR: 1.6 [95%CI: 1.4-2.0]), and passive smoking (OR: 1.3 [95%CI: 1.1-1.6]) were associated with an increased probability of antibiotic consumption. Maternal age between 30-39 years or 40 years and over at the time of birth was associated with a decreased probability of antibiotic consumption (OR: 0.8 [95%CI, 0.7-1.0] and OR: 0.6 [95%CI: 0.5-0.8], respectively). Conclusions: Some of the factors associated with antibiotic consumption in infants are modifiable and should be considered in the development of public health measures aimed at reducing antibiotic consumption.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Antibacterianos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pediatria , Estudos Transversais , Incidência , Espanha
8.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(6): 273-279, Mar. 2024. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231699

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: El sedentarismo es un factor predictivo para numerosas enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la evolución de la prevalencia de sedentarismo en la población española adulta entre los años 1987-2020. Métodos: Las fuentes de datos fueron las Encuestas Nacionales y Europeas de Salud. La prevalencia de sedentarismo se valoró en 3 escenarios (actividad principal, tiempo libre y todos los escenarios). Se estimaron prevalencias de sedentarismo global, por sexo y grupo de edad. En todos los escenarios la prevalencia también se estimó por comunidad autónoma. La tendencia de las prevalencias se analizó con los porcentajes de cambio anual (PCA) obtenidos a través de modelos joinpoint. Resultados: La prevalencia de sedentarismo en la actividad principal varió entre el 31,2% en 1987 y el 38,4% en 2020 (PCA: 0,7 [0,5 a 1,0]), siendo mayor en los varones que en las mujeres, y más elevada en los más jóvenes y en los más mayores. La prevalencia de sedentarismo en el tiempo libre varió entre el 55,1% en 1993 y el 36,4% en 2020 (PCA: −1,4 [−1,9 a −0,9]), siendo siempre superior en las mujeres, más alta en los mayores de 64 años y menor en los de 16-24 años. Cantabria y Canarias fueron las comunidades autónomas con la prevalencia de sedentarismo más baja en todos los escenarios. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de sedentarismo en la actividad principal está aumentando en España, mientras que durante el tiempo libre está descendiendo. Es importante aplicar medidas de prevención y promoción de la salud dirigidas a disminuir el sedentarismo en la población.(AU)


Background and objective: Sedentary behavior is a predictive factor for numerous diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of the prevalence of sedentary behavior in the Spanish adult population between 1987 and 2020. Methods: The data sources were the National and European Health Surveys. The prevalence of sedentary behavior was assessed in three scenarios (main activity, leisure time and all scenarios). Prevalence of sedentary behavior was estimated overall, by sex and age group. In all scenarios, prevalence was also estimated by Autonomous Community. The prevalence trend was analyzed with the annual percent change (APC) obtained through joinpoint models. Results: The prevalence of sedentary in the main activity ranged from 31.2% in 1987 to 38.4% in 2020 [PCA: 0.7 (0.5-1.0)], being higher in men than in women and higher in younger and older people. The prevalence of sedentary in the leisure time varied between 55.1% in 1993 and 36.4% in 2020 [PCA: −1.4 (−1.9 to −0.9)], being always higher in women, higher in those over 64 years of age and lower in those aged 16–24 years. Cantabria and the Canary Islands were the Autonomous Communities with the lowest prevalence of sedentary behavior in all scenarios. Conclusions: The prevalence of sedentary behavior in the main activity is increasing in Spain, whereas during leisure time it is decreasing. It is important to implement prevention and health promotion measures aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in the population.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Prevalência , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Espanha , Medicina Clínica
9.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 224(4): 189-196, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Goh et al. proposed in 2008 a classificatory algorithm of limited or extensive SSc-ILD. The prevalence of both at the time of diagnosis of SSc-ILD is not known with exactitude. METHODS: The review was undertaken by means of MEDLINE and SCOPUS from 2008 to 2023 and using the terms: "systemic", "scleroderma" or "interstitial lung disease" [MesH]. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the qualifying assessment for observational studies and the Jadad scale for clinical trials. The inverse variance-weighted method was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were initially included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA). Of these, 17 studies had no overlapping data. They reported data from 2,149 patients, 1,369 (81.2%) were female. The mean age was 52.4 (SD 6.6) years. 45.2% of the patients had the diffuse subtype and 54.8% had the limited or sine scleroderma subtype. A total of 38.7% of the patients showed positive antitopoisomerase antibodies (ATA) and 14.2% positive anticentromere antibodies (ACA). The mean percentage of forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline was 80.5% (SD 6.9) and of diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco) was 59.1% (SD 9.6). Twelve studies presented SSc-ILD extension data adjusted for PFTs and were included in the meta-analysis. The 10 observational cohort studies were analyzed separately. The overall percentage of limited extension was estimated at 63.5% (95%CI 55.3-73; p < 0.001) using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity between studies (I2) was 9.8% (95%CI 0-68.2%) with the random-effects model. Extensive pulmonary involvement was estimated at 34.3% (95%CI 26-45.4; p < 0.001). Heterogeneity between studies (I2) was 0% (95%CI 0-61.6%) with the random-effects model. CONCLUSION: The overall percentage of limited SSc-ILD at the time of diagnosis of SSc-ILD was estimated at 63.5% and extensive at 34.3%.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Pulmão , Capacidade Vital , Estudos de Coortes
10.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 100(3): 164-172, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The factors and patterns associated with antibiotic consumption in infants are unclear. Our aim was to assess the cumulative incidence of antibiotic consumption from birth to 16 months and identify factors associated with antibiotic consumption among infants aged 4-16 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2016 in a sample of 18 882 women from Galicia, Spain, who had given birth to a live child between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016. We calculated the cumulative incidence of antibiotic consumption based on maternal reports regarding the infant's consumption from birth to 14 months obtained through interviews; we did not estimate consumption at ages 15 and 16 months due to the small sample size. To assess which factors were associated with antibiotic consumption, we carried out a nested case-control study matching cases and controls for birth month on a 1:1 ratio. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of antibiotic consumption among infants aged 0-14 months increased from 7.5% to 66.0%. The case-control study included data for 1852 cases and 1852 controls. Daycare attendance (OR: 3.8 [95% CI: 3.2-4.6]), having older siblings (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.6-2.1]), health care visits to private clinics (OR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.4-2.0]), and passive smoking (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.6]) were associated with an increased probability of antibiotic consumption. Maternal age between 30-39 years or 40 years and over at the time of birth was associated with a decreased probability of antibiotic consumption (OR: 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-1.0] and OR: 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.8], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Some of the factors associated with antibiotic consumption in infants are modifiable and should be considered in the development of public health measures aimed at reducing antibiotic consumption.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Incidência
11.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(1): 1-11, Ene. -Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-230448

RESUMO

Objetivo Estimar la frecuencia y el perfil clínico de la hipercolesterolemia severa (HS) y del fenotipo de hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) en el ámbito de atención primaria, en un área sanitaria de la comunidad de Madrid (CAM). Material y métodos Estudio transversal, multicéntrico de sujetos con tarjeta sanitaria adscritos a 69 centros de salud (área NorOeste/CAM). Se definió HS como colesterol ≥300mg/dl o colesterol-LDL ≥220mg/dl en alguna analítica realizada (1-1-2018 a 30-12-2021), y fenotipo de HF como cLDL ≥240mg/dl (≥160mg/dl si tratamiento hipolipemiante), con triglicéridos <200mg/dl y TSH <5μIU/ml. Resultados Se analizaron 156.082 adultos ≥18años con perfil lipídico disponible. 6.187 sujetos tenían HS (3,96% de las analíticas estudiadas; IC95%: 3,87-4,06%). El tiempo medio de evolución del diagnóstico de hiperlipemia en la historia clínica informatizada fue 10,8años; el 36,5% tenían hipertensión, el 9,5%, diabetes, y el 62,9%, sobrepeso/obesidad. El 83,7% tomaban hipolipemiantes (65,7% de baja/moderada y 28,6% de alta/muy-alta intensidad). El 6,1% tenían enfermedad cardiovascular (94,2% tratados con hipolipemiantes), con colesterol LDL <55, <70 y <100mg/dl de 1,8%, 5,8% y 20,2%, respectivamente (vs 1%, 2,3% y 11,2% si no había enfermedad cardiovascular). Mil seiscientos sujetos tenían fenotipo de HF (IC95%: 1,03%, 0,98-1,08%). Conclusiones Cuatro de cada 100 pacientes analizados en atención primaria tienen HS. Hay un elevado nivel de tratamiento farmacológico, pero de insuficiente intensidad, y escaso logro de objetivos terapéuticos. Uno de cada 100 tiene fenotipo de HF. La identificación de ambas situaciones por registros informatizados permitiría su detección más precisa y precoz y establecer estrategias preventivas cardiovasculares. (AU)


Objective To examine the frequency of severe hypercholesterolemia (HS) and its clinical profile, and the phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), in the primary-care setting in a large health area of the Community of Madrid (CAM). Material and methods Multicenter study of subjects with a health card assigned to 69 health centers (Northwest/CAM area). HS was defined as cholesterol ≥300mg/dL or LDL-cholesterol ≥220mg/dL in any analysis performed (1-1-2018 to 12-30-2021); and FH phenotype as c-LDL ≥240mg/dL (≥160mg/dL if lipid-lowering treatment) with triglycerides <200mg/dL and TSH <5μIU/mL. Results 156,082 adults ≥18years with an available lipid profile were analyzed. 6187 subjects had HS (3.96% of the laboratory tests studied, 95%CI: 3.87-4.06%). The mean evolution time of the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia in the computerized clinical record was 10.8years, 36.5% had hypertension, 9.5% diabetes and 62.9% overweight/obesity. 83.7% were taking lipid-lowering drugs (65.7% low/moderate and 28.6% high/very high intensity). 6.1% had cardiovascular disease (94.2% treated with lipid-lowering agents), with LDL-cholesterol <55, <70 and <100mg/dL of 1.8%, 5.8% and 20.2%, respectively (vs. 1%, 2.3% and 11.2% if no cardiovascular disease). 1600 subjects had FH phenotype (95%CI: 1.03%, 0.98-1.08%). Conclusions Four out of 100 patients analyzed in primary care have HS, with high treatment level, but insufficient intensity, and poor achievement of treatment goals. One in 100 have the FH phenotype. The identification of both dyslipidemias by computerized records would allow their more precise and early detection and establish cardiovascular preventive strategies. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Espanha/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares
12.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 245-253, 20240220. fig, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532580

RESUMO

Introducción. La apendicitis aguda es una afección común, con un pico de incidencia entre los 10 y 20 años. La cirugía es el tratamiento preferido y la apendicectomía por laparotomía sigue siendo el estándar, aunque el abordaje laparoscópico ha mostrado menos complicaciones. El objetivo de este artículo fue caracterizar tanto la enfermedad como el tratamiento quirúrgico en Colombia, usando datos de bases oficiales. Métodos. Se accedió a la base de datos del Sistema Integrado de Información para la Protección Social (SISPRO) del Ministerio de Salud de Colombia en febrero de 2023. Se recogieron datos de los pacientes con diagnóstico de apendicitis y con procedimiento de apendicectomía entre 2017 y 2021, y se analizaron por edad, sexo y ubicación geográfica. Resultados. Entre 2017 y 2021 se diagnosticaron 345.618 casos de apendicitis (51,8 % mujeres), con pico de incidencia a los 15-20 años. Se realizaron 248.133 apendicectomías, el 16,7 % por laparoscopia. Los hospitales con más procedimientos reportados estaban en Bogotá, Yopal, Popayán y Florencia. La mortalidad fue de 0,56 % en hombres y 0,51 % en mujeres. Conclusión. La apendicitis es común, con pico a los 10-19 años. Las mujeres tienen mayor probabilidad de apendicectomía, debido a otras afecciones ginecológicas. El acceso a la apendicectomía disminuye la mortalidad; en estos pacientes, el 16 % fue laparoscópica, lo que sugiere que se necesita más entrenamiento y acceso a esta técnica. Este estudio aporta a la comprensión de la epidemiología de la apendicitis y apendicectomías en Colombia.


Introduction. Acute appendicitis is a common condition, with a peak incidence between 10 and 20 years of age. Surgery is the preferred treatment and laparotomy appendectomy remains the standard, although the laparoscopic approach has shown fewer complications. The objective of this article was to characterize both the disease and the surgical treatment in Colombia, using data from official databases. Methods. The Integrated Information System for Social Protection (SISPRO) database of the Ministry of Health was accessed in February 2023. Data with diagnosis of apendicitis and with appendectomy between 2017 and 2021 were collected. Analysis was done by age, gender, and geographic location. Results. Between 2017 and 2021, 345,618 cases of appendicitis were diagnosed (51.8% females), with peak incidence at 15-20 years of age. A total of 248,133 appendectomies were performed, 16.7% by laparoscopy. The hospitals with most reported procedures were located in Bogotá, Yopal, Popayán, and Florencia. Mortality was 0.56% in men and 0.51% in women. Conclusion. Appendicitis is common, peaking at ages 10-19. Women are more likely undergo appendectomy due to other gynecological conditions. Access to appendectomy improves mortality. In these patients, 16% were laparoscopic, suggesting that more training and access to this technique is needed. This study contributes to the understanding of the epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomies in Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Apendicite , Epidemiologia , Apendicectomia , Sistema de Registros , Prevalência , Laparoscopia
13.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 254-259, 20240220. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532610

RESUMO

Introducción. El cáncer de vesícula biliar es una de las neoplasias más frecuentes de la vía biliar y la mayoría de los casos se diagnostican de forma incidental o en estadios avanzados. En Colombia existen pocas publicaciones acerca de la prevalencia y características clínicas de pacientes con cáncer insospechado de vesícula biliar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar la información existente. Métodos. Estudio de tipo transversal basado en registros médicos. Como variable de resultado se definió el hallazgo incidental de patología maligna reportado por un patólogo y el subtipo histológico. Se midieron variables demográficas, clínicas y quirúrgicas. Se calcularon OR con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza (IC95%). Resultados. De los 2630 casos analizados, en cuatro se hizo diagnóstico de cáncer incidental de vesícula, con una prevalencia del 0,15 %. Se encontraron como características asociadas al cáncer incidental de vesícula, la edad, el antecedente de cáncer y la presencia de pólipos. Conclusiones. Esta es una patología poco frecuente en la población evaluada, lo que permite afirmar que no es necesario realizar estudios prequirúrgicos más amplios de forma rutinaria, a menos que el paciente presente alguno de los factores asociados.


Introduction. Gallbladder cancer is one of the most common neoplasms of the bile duct and most cases are diagnosed incidentally or in advanced stages. In Colombia, there are few publications about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with unsuspected gallbladder cancer. The objective of this work was to update the existing information. Methods. Cross-sectional study based on medical records. The incidental finding of malignant pathology reported and the histological subtype were defined as the outcome variable. Demographic, clinical and surgical variables were measured. ORs were calculated with their respective 95% CI. Results. Of the 2630 cases analyzed, four were diagnosed with incidental gallbladder cancer, with a prevalence of 0.15%. Characteristics associated with incidental gallbladder cancer were age, history of cancer and the presence of polyps. Conclusions. This is a rare pathology in the population evaluated, which allows us to recommend that it is not necessary to routinely perform more extensive presurgical studies, unless the patient presents any of the associated factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Colecistectomia , Vesícula Biliar , Neoplasias , Pólipos , Prevalência , Achados Incidentais
14.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 44(1): 164-172, Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231320

RESUMO

Introducción: En México el consumo de bebidas azucaradas (BA) es muy alto, siendo el mayor consumidor de refrescos en el mundo, omitiendo las consecuencias negativas en la salud. Por otra parte, la FAO reconoce la importancia de la educación como herramienta para mejorar la salud y nutrición de la población a través de la educación alimentaria-nutricional.Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de la frecuencia y cantidad del consumo de bebidas azucaradas en jóvenes inscritos a licenciaturas relacionadas a ciencias de la salud.Material y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal, de tipo descriptivo, con tamaño de población de N=245 alumnos inscritos a programas educativos correspondientes a las áreas de las ciencias de la salud, con un intervalo de confianza al 95% y un límite de confianza al 4.9%. Para el cuestionario se utilizó el instrumento Beverage Questionnaire (BEVQ-15), adaptándolo al contexto sociocultural y disponibilidad de bebidas de la población objetivo.Resultados: La mayoría de los jóvenes externó sí consumir bebidas azucaradas (82.8%), el tipo de bebidas azucaradas que se consume, fueron los refrescos (42%), las aguas naturales de sabor endulzadas con azúcar (38.4%) y los lácteos saborizados (28.6%).Discusión: Los estudiantes poseen un hábito usual de consumo de bebidas azucaradas, con alto contenido de calorías sin un aporte nutricional benéfico para la salud. Se podría pensar que al estudiar una licenciatura del área de la Ciencias de la Salud este consumo debería estar limitado. Sin embargo, el consumo es alto.Conclusiones: Estos datos ofrecen un punto de partida para analizar la importancia de la educación para la salud sobre todo en estudiantes del área de Ciencias de la Salud, para proponer acciones concretas y prácticas que puedan fomentar la disminución del consumo de bebidas azucaradas.(AU)


ntroduction: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SB) containcaloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high fructose corn syrupor fruit concentrates, all with similar metabolic effects. Mexicois considered one of the countries with the highest consump-tion of these drinks, ignoring the negative consequences onhealth. On the other hand, FAO recognizes the importance ofeducation as a tool to improve the health and nutrition of thepopulation through food-nutrition education.Aim: Identify the prevalence of consumption of sugarydrinks (frequency and quantity) and its association with knowledge in young people enrolled in bachelor’s degrees re-lated to health sciences.Material and methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, de-scriptive study carried out on students enrolled in health sci-ences educational programs. The Beverage Questionnaire(BEVQ-15) instrument was used, adapting it to the socioculturalcontext and availability of beverages of the target population.Results: 293 students were included. The prevalence ofBA consumption was 82.6%; The relationship between BAconsumption and grade level presented a statistically signifi-cant association, with the students with the lowest grade levelbeing those who had the highest BA consumption with27.3%. 41.2% of the young people studied identified softdrinks as the drink they consume most, with a frequency of 2to 3 times a week, followed by flavored waters sweetenedwith sugar, referred to by 38% of the students.Conclusions: The results of this study show a high preva-lence of BA consumption associated with the school grade ofyoung people enrolled in Health Sciences Degrees. It is rec-ommended to continue studying other health determinantsthat could be associated with consumption, such as geo-graphic context, individual characteristics, among others.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Universidades , Ciências da Saúde/educação , Letramento em Saúde , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , México , Ciências da Nutrição , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 59(1): [101426], ene.-feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-476

RESUMO

Introducción Las quejas subjetivas de memoria (QSM) pueden ser una señal inicial de un posterior deterioro de las funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, no se han publicado estudios poblacionales cubriendo toda España para conocer la prevalencia de las QSM. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la prevalencia de las QSM en la población general residente en España >50 años y, también qué actuaciones se llevaban a cabo al respecto. Materiales y métodos Se realizaron entrevistas mediante un cuestionario online/Computer Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) a una muestra representativa a nivel nacional >50 años. La encuesta constaba de 34 ítems divididos en 2 bloques. Se consideró presencia de QSM cuando en la pregunta 1 el sujeto contestaba que ‘Sí’ tenía algún problema de memoria. Resultados Se entrevistó a 2.300 personas (53,7% mujeres; 23,9% ≥75 años). El 31% contestaron que consideraban que tenían un problema de memoria (sin diferencias entre sexos, media de tiempo con problemas de memoria de 3,0 años). Se observó mayor prevalencia de QSM en ≥75 años (44%). El 90% no incluían ningún alimento específico en su dieta para sus problemas de memoria, y tampoco estaban tomando productos farmacéuticos, complementos de la dieta o suplementos nutricionales (92%). El 78% de los entrevistados con QSM no han consultado a profesionales sanitarios por sus problemas de memoria. Conclusiones Las QSM tienen una prevalencia considerable en nuestro medio, afectando a casi un tercio de los individuos >50 años. La mayoría de los entrevistados con quejas de memoria no buscó el consejo/recomendación de profesionales sanitarios con respecto a las mismas. (AU)


Introduction Subjective memory complaints (SMC) might be an early sign of further deterioration in cognitive functions. However, no population studies have been published covering all Spain to determine the SMC prevalence. The objective of the present study was to determine the SMC prevalence in the general population residing in Spain >50 years of age and also which related actions were done. Materials and methods Interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample >50 years of age using an online/computer assisted web interview (CAWI) questionnaire. The survey consisted of 34 items divided into two blocks. Presence of SMC was considered when in question 1 the subject answered that “Yes” he had some memory problem. Results Two thousand three hundred people (53.7% women; 23.9% ≥75 years old) were interviewed. 31% answered that they considered they had a memory problem (no differences between sexes, mean time with memory problems of 3.0 years). A higher prevalence of SMC was observed in ≥75 years old (44%). 90% did not include any specific foods in their diet for their memory problems, neither were taking any pharmaceuticals, diet supplements or nutritional supplements (92%). 78% of those interviewed with SMC have not consulted health professionals for their memory problems. Conclusions SMC are considerably prevalent in our environment affecting almost a third of people ≥50 years of age. Most of the interviewees with SMC did not go to health professionals to manage their SMC. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Espanha , Estudos Transversais
16.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 59(1): [101426], ene.-feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229858

RESUMO

Introducción Las quejas subjetivas de memoria (QSM) pueden ser una señal inicial de un posterior deterioro de las funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, no se han publicado estudios poblacionales cubriendo toda España para conocer la prevalencia de las QSM. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la prevalencia de las QSM en la población general residente en España >50 años y, también qué actuaciones se llevaban a cabo al respecto. Materiales y métodos Se realizaron entrevistas mediante un cuestionario online/Computer Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) a una muestra representativa a nivel nacional >50 años. La encuesta constaba de 34 ítems divididos en 2 bloques. Se consideró presencia de QSM cuando en la pregunta 1 el sujeto contestaba que ‘Sí’ tenía algún problema de memoria. Resultados Se entrevistó a 2.300 personas (53,7% mujeres; 23,9% ≥75 años). El 31% contestaron que consideraban que tenían un problema de memoria (sin diferencias entre sexos, media de tiempo con problemas de memoria de 3,0 años). Se observó mayor prevalencia de QSM en ≥75 años (44%). El 90% no incluían ningún alimento específico en su dieta para sus problemas de memoria, y tampoco estaban tomando productos farmacéuticos, complementos de la dieta o suplementos nutricionales (92%). El 78% de los entrevistados con QSM no han consultado a profesionales sanitarios por sus problemas de memoria. Conclusiones Las QSM tienen una prevalencia considerable en nuestro medio, afectando a casi un tercio de los individuos >50 años. La mayoría de los entrevistados con quejas de memoria no buscó el consejo/recomendación de profesionales sanitarios con respecto a las mismas. (AU)


Introduction Subjective memory complaints (SMC) might be an early sign of further deterioration in cognitive functions. However, no population studies have been published covering all Spain to determine the SMC prevalence. The objective of the present study was to determine the SMC prevalence in the general population residing in Spain >50 years of age and also which related actions were done. Materials and methods Interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample >50 years of age using an online/computer assisted web interview (CAWI) questionnaire. The survey consisted of 34 items divided into two blocks. Presence of SMC was considered when in question 1 the subject answered that “Yes” he had some memory problem. Results Two thousand three hundred people (53.7% women; 23.9% ≥75 years old) were interviewed. 31% answered that they considered they had a memory problem (no differences between sexes, mean time with memory problems of 3.0 years). A higher prevalence of SMC was observed in ≥75 years old (44%). 90% did not include any specific foods in their diet for their memory problems, neither were taking any pharmaceuticals, diet supplements or nutritional supplements (92%). 78% of those interviewed with SMC have not consulted health professionals for their memory problems. Conclusions SMC are considerably prevalent in our environment affecting almost a third of people ≥50 years of age. Most of the interviewees with SMC did not go to health professionals to manage their SMC. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Espanha , Estudos Transversais
17.
Hepatología ; 5(1): 62-74, ene 2, 2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1530766

RESUMO

Introducción. La enfermedad hepática esteatósica asociada a disfunción metabólica (MASLD) es una condición clínica frecuente, relacionada con el sobrepeso, la dislipidemia y la diabetes. Como estos factores de riesgo están a su vez asociados al sedentarismo y la ganancia de peso, se esperaría un impacto como resultado del confinamiento por COVID-19 en la prevalencia de dicha condición. Metodología. Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo en un panel de datos de 132 pacientes de 2017 a 2022, en donde fueron incluidos pacientes con una ecografía hepática y una valoración médica y paraclínica 1,5 años antes y después del periodo de confinamiento (25 de marzo de 2020 a 28 de febrero de 2021). El desenlace primario fue un cambio significativo en la prevalencia de la MASLD, y se utilizó un modelo exploratorio de regresión logística de efectos fijos con panel de datos para hallar los predictores de cambio. Resultados. En un total de 132 pacientes analizados, la prevalencia global de la MASLD antes (31 %; IC95%: 23-39) y después (35,6 %; IC95%: 27,4-43,8) del confinamiento por COVID-19 no cambió significativamente, sin embargo, en las mujeres sí hubo un aumento significativo (RR: 4; IC95%: 1,0004-16). Se encontró una marcada diferencia de prevalencia entre sexos (17 % en mujeres y 46 % en hombres; p=0,001). El confinamiento se asoció a incrementos en la masa corporal (diferencia: +1 kg; IC95%: 0,1-1,9), el colesterol LDL (diferencia: +9,7 mg/dL; IC95%: 4,9-14,4) y al diagnóstico de prediabetes (RR: 2,1; IC95%: 1,4-3,1). La MASLD se asoció positivamente a la preferencia nutricional por la comida rápida (p=0,047). Solo el índice de masa corporal resultó predictor independiente de MASLD (RR: 1,49; IC95%: 1,07-1,93). Conclusión. La prevalencia global de la MASLD no varió después del confinamiento por COVID-19, pero sí se incrementó en mujeres, y algunos de sus factores de riesgo también aumentaron significativamente. Se encontró equivalencia numérica entre la MASLD y la definición previa de la enfermedad. Se requiere un estudio local más grande para desarrollar y validar un mejor modelo predictor del cambio de la MASLD a través del tiempo.


Introduction. Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is a common clinical condition, related to overweight, dyslipidemia and diabetes. As these risk factors are in turn associated with sedentary lifestyle and weight gain, an impact as a result of the COVID-19 confinement on the prevalence of MASLD would be expected. Methodology. Retrospective longitudinal study in a data panel of 132 patients from 2017 to 2022. Patients with a liver ultrasound and a medical and paraclinical assessment 1.5 years before and after the confinement period (March 25, 2020 to February 28, 2021) were included. The primary outcome was a significant change in the prevalence of MASLD, and an exploratory fixed-effects logistic regression model with panel data was used to find predictors of change. Results. In a total of 132 patients analyzed, the overall prevalence of MASLD before (31%, 95%CI: 23-39) and after (35.6%, 95%CI: 27.4-43.8) confinement by COVID-19 did not change significantly, however, in women there was a significant increase (RR: 4, 95%CI: 1.0004-16). A marked difference in prevalence was found between sexes (17% in women and 46% in men; p=0.001). Confinement was associated with increases in body mass (difference: +1 kg, 95%CI: 0.1-1.9), LDL cholesterol (difference: +9.7 mg/dL, 95%CI: 4.9-14.4) and the diagnosis of prediabetes (RR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.4-3.1). MASLD was positively associated with nutritional preference for fast food (p=0.047). Only body mass index was an independent predictor of MASLD (RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.07-1.93). Conclusion. The overall prevalence of MASLD did not change after the COVID-19 lockdown, but it did increase in women, and some of its risk factors also increased significantly. Numerical equivalence was found between MASLD and the previous definition of the disease. A larger local study is required to develop and validate a better predictor model of MASLD change over time.


Assuntos
Humanos
18.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence is essential to understand the evolution of the tobacco epidemic in a population. The objective of this study was to analyze the evolution of smoking prevalence in Spain and its 17 Autonomous Regions (ARs) in population ≥15 years during the period 1987-2020. METHODS: Tobacco consumption data were derived from the National Health Survey of Spain and the European Health Survey in Spain. A smoker was defined as a person who smoked at the time of the survey. The trend in prevalences by sex in Spain and its ARs was analyzed by applying joinpoint models. Age-standardized prevalences were calculated for Spain by applying the direct method. RESULTS: In Spain, the prevalence of consumption decreased 29 percentage points in men and 4.5 in women between 1987-2020. In men, the smoking prevalence decreased in all the ARs and the absolute change varied between -19.5% in the Balearic Islands and -33.9% in Andalusia. In women, the evolution of smoking prevalence differed between ARs. The absolute change varied between -15.4% in Basque Country and 0.5% in Andalusia. CONCLUSIONS: The number of men and women smokers has decreased in Spain between 1987-2020. Different patterns of evolution of the prevalence of consumption are observed among the ARs, especially among women. This reinforces the need for policies adapted to more local contexts and that take into account the gender perspective.

19.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 59(3): 101454, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218135

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The detection of frailty in the elderly is key to preventing disability. The main objective of this study is to find out the proportion of frail people in subjects aged 70 and over who attend a health center in A Coruña (Spain). METHODS: Cross-sectional study, carried out from August 2020 to April 2021. Consecutive selection of patients ≥70 years, with Barthel ≥90, who accessed the health center. DEPENDENT VARIABLES: Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Get Up and Go (TUG) and Gait Speed (MV); independent: gender, age, number of falls in the last year, number of drugs used chronically, and Charlson index. RESULTS: The sample was 114 people. The proportion of frail people is 16.7% (95% CI 10.94-24.57) with the SPPB, 28.6% in those aged 80 and over; and 36.8% using VM. The risk of frailty increases by at least 4.1% for each year of age after 70. Being a woman multiplies the risk by at least 1.5. The concordance between frailty according to the SPPB and MV is 46.8% (95% CI 30.85-62.77). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of frailty in independent people for basic ADL who attend a health center is at least 10.94%. Both the SPPB and the MV are feasible and useful methods in primary care.

20.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 56(1): [102772], Ene. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229202

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer estadísticas reales sobre lactancia materna en España, así como factores socioculturales y perinatales que afectan a su inicio y mantenimiento. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico, longitudinal, de ámbito nacional (estudio LAyDI). Sitio: Consulta de pediatras de atención primaria. Participantes: Cohorte de recién nacidos entre abril de 2017 y marzo de 2018 en España que se siguieron hasta los dos años en ocho visitas. Medidas principales: Se analizaron las tasas de los diferentes tipos de lactancia en cada visita y también se analizaron variables relacionadas con la gestación, el parto, el período neonatal, sociales, económicas y biológicas. Resultados: Muestra inicial de 1.946 (50,1% varones). El 90,7% decidieron iniciar lactancia materna al nacimiento. La cifra de lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) fue del 66,4% a los 15días y del 35,2% a los 6meses. Cualquier tipo de lactancia materna (lactancia materna total [LMT]) a los 6meses fue del 61,7%. La supervivencia de LMT presentó una mediana de 6,0meses (IC95%: 6,0-6,1). Variables relacionadas con LME a los 15días: hijos previos, nivel de educación de madre, ausencia de enfermedad durante el embarazo, no separación madre e hijo al nacer, no utilización de chupete, no existencia de problemas en pezones, y momento de decisión tipo lactancia. Variables relacionadas con mayor duración LMT son: la relación mayor de 5años de los padres, no usar de chupete, colecho al mes de vida, decidir lactancia materna antes del embarazo, recibir información sobre lactancia durante el embarazo y utilizar apoyo de asociaciones. Conclusiones: El abandono temprano de la lactancia materna es un problema importante en las sociedades occidentales. Existen factores sobre los que se puede actuar para mejorar resultados.(AU)


Objective: To find out actual statistics on breastfeeding in Spain, as well as sociocultural and perinatal factors that affect its initiation and maintenance. Design: Prospective, multicentre, longitudinal, nationwide study (XXX study). Site: Primary care paediatricians’ office. Participants: Cohort of newborns born between April 2017 and March 2018 in Spain who were followed up to two years of age in 8 visits. Main measures: Rates of different types of breastfeeding were analysed at each visit and variables related to gestation, delivery, neonatal period, social, economic and biological variables were also analysed. Results: Initial sample of 1946 (50.1% male). 90.7% decided to initiate breastfeeding at birth. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) was 66.4% at 15days and 35.2% at 6months. Any type of breastfeeding (total breastfeeding [TBF]) at 6months was 61.7%. Median survival from TBF was 6.0months (95%CI: 6.0-6.1). Variables related to EBF at 15days: previous children, mother's level of education, absence of illness during pregnancy, no separation of mother and child at birth, no dummy use, no nipple problems, and time of decision to breastfeed. Variables related to longer duration of TBF: relationship of parents older than 5years, no dummy use, co-sleeping at one month of life, deciding to breastfeed before pregnancy, receiving information on breastfeeding during pregnancy and using support from associations. Conclusions: Early abandonment of breastfeeding is a major problem in Western societies. There are factors that can be worked on to improve outcomes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Características Culturais , Fatores Culturais , Lactação , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Espanha , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco
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