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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 683-688, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018194

RESUMO

Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of an injured nerve can promote and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration and improve function. When performing acupuncture and moxibustion, locating the injured nerve using ultrasound before percutaneous nerve stimulation can help prevent further injury to an already injured nerve. However, stimulation parameters have not been standardized. In this study, we constructed a multi-layer human forearm model using finite element modeling. Taking current density and activated function as optimization indicators, the optimal percutaneous nerve stimulation parameters were established. The optimal parameters were parallel placement located 3 cm apart with the injury site at the midpoint between the needles. To validate the efficacy of this regimen, we performed a randomized controlled trial in 23 patients with median nerve transection who underwent neurorrhaphy. Patients who received conventional rehabilitation combined with percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation experienced greater improvement in sensory function, motor function, and grip strength than those who received conventional rehabilitation combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. These findings suggest that the percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation regimen established in this study can improve global median nerve function in patients with median nerve transection.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154514, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant rapidly resulted in a steep increase in the infected population and an overloaded healthcare system. Effective medications for Omicron are currently limited. The previous observational study supports the efficacy and safety of Reyanning (RYN) mixture in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of RYN in asymptomatic and mildly infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial. We consecutively recruited 2830 patients from Shanghai New International Expo Center mobile cabin hospital and randomized them in a 1:1 ratio to receive RYN plus standard care or receive standard care alone. The primary outcomes were the negative conversion of nucleic acid. Secondary outcomes included the hospital duration, new-onset symptoms, proportion of disease progression, and the viral load measured by the cycle threshold (Ct) value. RESULTS: A total of 1393 patients in the intervention group and 1407 patients in the control group completed the study. The negative conversion time of nucleic acid was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 6 d vs. 7 d, Hazard ratio: 0.768, 95CI %: 0.713-0.828, p < 0.0001). The negative conversion rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in the intervention group (Day 3: 32.4% vs. 18.3%; Day7: 65.3% vs. 55.2%, p < 0.001). The hospitalization duration was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 8 d vs. 9 d, Hazard ratio: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.704-0.818, p < 0.0001). The proportion of new-onset fever (2.4% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.012), coughing (12.2% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.046), and expectoration (6.0% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.032) in the intervention group was significantly lower. RYN treatment increased Ct values and reduced the viral load. No disease progression and serious adverse events were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: RYN is a safe and effective treatment that can accelerate virus clearance and promote disease recovery in asymptomatic and mild Omicron infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , China , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14154, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894226

RESUMO

Both forward and backward working memory span tasks have been used in cognitive training, but no study has been conducted to test whether the two types of trainings are equally effective. Based on data from a randomized controlled trial, this study (N = 60 healthy college students) tested the effects of backward span training, forward span training, and no intervention. Event-related potential (ERP) signals were recorded at the pre-, mid-, and post-tests while the subjects were performing a distractor version of the change detection task, which included three conditions (2 targets and 0 distractor [2T0D]; 4 targets and 0 distractor [4T0D]; and 2 targets and 2 distractors [2T2D]). Behavioral data were collected from two additional tasks: a multi-object version of the change detection task, and a suppress task. Compared to no intervention, both forward and backward span trainings led to significantly greater improvement in working memory maintenance, based on indices from both behavioral (Kmax) and ERP data (CDA_2T0D and CDA_4T0D). Backward span training also improved interference control based on the ERP data (CDA_filtering efficiency) to a greater extent than did forward span training and no intervention, but the three groups did not differ in terms of behavioral indices of interference control. These results have potential implications for optimizing the current cognitive training on working memory.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos
4.
Heart Lung ; 57: 45-53, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are ubiquitous in acute care settings however failure rates are unacceptably high, with around half failing before prescribed treatment is complete. The most effective dressing and securement option to prolong PIVC longevity is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine feasibility of conducting a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating evidence-based securement bundles (medical adhesive tapes and supplementary securement products) to reduce PIVC failure. METHODS: In this pilot non-masked 3-group RCT, adults requiring a PIVC for >24 hrs were randomized to Standard care (bordered polyurethane dressing plus non-sterile tape over extension tubing), Securement Bundle 1 (two sterile tape strips over PIVC hub plus Standard care) or Securement Bundle 2 (Bundle 1 plus tubular bandage) with allocation concealed until study entry. EXCLUSIONS: laboratory-confirmed positive blood culture, current/high-risk of skin tear, or study product allergy. PRIMARY OUTCOME: feasibility (eligibility, recruitment, retention, protocol fidelity, participant/staff satisfaction). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: PIVC failure, PIVC dwell time, adverse skin events, PIVC colonization and cost. RESULTS: Of 109 randomized participants, 104 were included in final analyses. Feasibility outcomes were met, except eligibility criterion (79%). Absolute PIVC failure was 38.2% (13/34) for Bundle 2, 25% (9/36) for Bundle 1 and 23.5% (8/34) for Standard care. Incidence rate ratio for PIVC failure/1000 catheter days, compared to Standard care, was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-2.7) and 2.1 (95% CI 0.9-5.1) for Bundles 1 and 2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A large RCT testing securement bundles is feasible, with adjustment to screening processes. Innovative dressing and securement solutions are needed to reduce unacceptable PIVC failure rates. Trial registration ACTRN12619000026123.

5.
J Atten Disord ; 27(1): 98-107, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether neuropsychological function in ADHD can be improved by the New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP), that combines standard parenting strategies with self-regulatory skills training, or predict ADHD and quality of life (QoL) treatment effects. METHOD: Participants were 93 medication-naive preschool children with ADHD (3-7 years) randomized to either NFPP (n = 49) or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 44) in a recent randomized trial. Laboratory measures of executive function, reaction time variability, and delay of gratification were collected along with parent ratings of ADHD and QoL at baseline and post treatment. Ratings were collected again at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: NFPP did not improve neuropsychological function (compared to TAU), and baseline neuropsychological function did not predict treatment-related ADHD or QoL effects. CONCLUSION: Although NFPP includes a neuropsychological training element and has been shown to improve several clinical outcomes, it did not improve the neuropsychological functions it targets.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Prazer , Função Executiva
6.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 32(1): 119-141, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410912

RESUMO

Despite a steady decline in incidence and mortality rates, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second most common cancer diagnosis in women and the third most common in men worldwide. Notably, the liver is recognized as the most common site of CRC metastasis, and metastases to the liver remain the primary driver of disease-specific mortality for patients with CRC. Although hepatic resection is the backbone of curative-intent treatment, management of CRLM has become increasingly multimodal during the last decade and includes the use of downstaging chemotherapy, ablation techniques, and locoregional therapy, each of which are reviewed herein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia
7.
J Clin Anesth ; 84: 110991, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347196

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare a low-tidal-volume with positive end-expiratory pressure strategy (VENT strategy) to a resting-lung-strategy (i.e., no-ventilation (noV) strategy) during cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass graft surgery on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of the MECANO trial which was a prospective single-center, blind, randomized, parallel-group controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary care cardiac surgery center. PATIENTS: Patients who underwent isolated on-pump coronary bypass surgery were randomized either to VENT or noV group. INTERVENTION: During the cardiopulmonary bypass phase of the cardiac surgery procedure, mechanical ventilation in the VENT group consisted of a tidal volume of 3 mL/kg, a respiratory rate of 5 per minute and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Patients in the noV group received no ventilation during this phase. MEASUREMENTS: Primary composite outcome combining death, early respiratory failure, ventilation support beyond day 2 and reintubation. MAIN RESULTS: In this post-hoc analysis, we retained 725 patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery, from the 1501 patients included in the original study. There were 352 in the VENT group and 373 patients in the noV group. Post-hoc comparison yielded no differences in baseline characteristics between these two groups. The primary outcome occurred less frequently in the VENT group than in the noV group, with 44 (12.5%) and 76 (20.4%) respectively (odds-ratio (OR) = 0.56 (0.37-0.84), p = 0.004). There were fewer early respiratory dysfunctions and prolonged respiratory support in the VENT group (respectively, OR = 0.34 (0.12-0.96) p = 0.033 and OR = 0.51 (0.27-0.94) p = 0.029). Complications related to mechanical ventilation were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis, maintaining low-tidal ventilation compared to a resting-lung strategy was associated with fewer pulmonary postoperative complications in patients who underwent isolated CABG procedures.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Respiração Artificial , Humanos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pulmão , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
8.
World Neurosurg X ; 17: 100140, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237830

RESUMO

Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) allows for direct electrical stimulation of neural circuitry and recording of local field potentials (LFPs). A bibliometric analysis can be implemented to identify studies that have shaped a research field and influenced future study; however, no such analysis investigating the implementation of LFPs in DBS has been performed. The objective of the present study was to identify the most highly cited articles pertaining to DBS LFPs to identify and evaluate the research that has contributed the most to this growing field. Methods: The Science Citation Index of the Web of Science was implemented to identify the top 84 most cited articles pertaining to DBS LFPs. Information regarding the publication, including author information and study aims, was extracted. Results: The most highly cited articles had had a mean of 109 citations and had been published between 2002 and 2019, with a mode in 2016. The articles had predominantly investigated the subthalamic nucleus (68% of clinical studies) in humans (83.8% of clinical studies). The studies of humans had recruited a mean of 12.5 subjects. Most of the identified articles (56.0%) had reported class III clinical evidence. Conclusions: The implementation of DBS LFPs is a novel field that is rapidly growing. However, a need exists for more studies with larger patient cohorts and more randomized controlled trials to further elucidate the benefits of this technology. These results will allow for the identification and recognition of the most influential studies pertaining to DBS LFPs, appreciation of the current and future research trends, and inform us regarding areas warranting further investigation.

9.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(4): 819-824, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36204849

RESUMO

Epidural electrical stimulation is a new treatment method for spinal cord injury (SCI). Its efficacy and safety have previously been reported. Rehabilitation treatment after epidural electrical stimulation is important to ensure and improve the postoperative efficacy of epidural electrical stimulation in patients with SCI. Considering that electromyography (EMG)-induced rehabilitation treatment can accurately match the muscle contraction of patients with SCI, we designed a study protocol for a prospective, randomized controlled trial. In this trial, on the premise of adjusting the spinal cord electrical stimulator to obtain the maximum EMG signal of the target muscle, patients with SCI receiving epidural electrical stimulation will undergo EMG-induced rehabilitation treatment. Recovery of muscle strength of key muscles, quality of life, safety and therapeutic effects will be monitored. Twenty patients with SCI who are scheduled to undergo epidural electrical stimulation in Shanghai Ruijin Rehabilitation Hospital will be randomly divided into two groups with 10 patients per group. The control group will receive conventional rehabilitation treatment. The EMG-induced rehabilitation group will receive EMG-induced rehabilitation treatment of the target muscles of the upper and lower limbs based on conventional rehabilitation treatment. After rehabilitation treatment, follow up for all patients will occur at 2 weeks and 1, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure of this trial will be evaluation of target muscle recovery using the Manual Muscle Testing grading scale. Secondary outcome measures will include modified Barthel Index scores, integrated EMG values, the visual analogue scale, Spinal Cord Independence Measure scores, and modified Ashworth scale scores. The safety indicator will be the incidence of adverse events. This trial will collect data regarding the therapeutic effects of EMG-induced rehabilitation in patients with SCI receiving epidural electrical stimulation for 6 months after rehabilitation treatment. Findings from this trial will help develop rehabilitation methods in patients with SCI after epidural electrical stimulation. This study protocol was approved by Ethics Committee of Shanghai Ruijin Rehabilitation Hospital (Approval No. RKIRB2022-12) on February 15, 2022 and was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR2200061674; date: June 30, 2022). Study protocol version: 1.0.

10.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 31-39, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372460

RESUMO

During the past 30 years, fractional flow reserve (FFR) has moved from animal models to class IA recommendations in guidelines. However, the FLOWER-MI, RIPCORD-2, FUTURE, and FAME 3 trials in 2021 were "negative"-has FFR exceeded its expiration date? We critically examine these randomized trials in order to draw insights not just about FFR but also about study design and interpretation. Are all randomized trials created equal? No, rather we must focus on discordant decisions between angiography and FFR and highlight clinical endpoints that can be improved by percutaneous coronary intervention instead of medical therapy.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia
11.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465221138562, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, the retear rate remains high. New methods to optimize healing rates must be sought. Bone channeling may create a quicker and more vigorous healing response by attracting autologous mesenchymal stem cells, cytokines, and growth factors to the repair site. HYPOTHESIS: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with bone channeling would result in a higher healing rate compared with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair without adjuvant channeling. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: Our primary objective was to compare healing rates in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for degenerative tears, with and without bone channeling. Secondary objectives included comparisons of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, Constant strength subscore, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain score between groups. Patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were recruited at 3 sites and were randomized to receive either bone channeling augmentation or standard repair. Healing was determined via ultrasound at 24 months postoperatively. WORC, ASES, and Constant scores were compared between groups at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients were enrolled between 2013 and 2018. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistical differences in healing rates between the 2 interventions at 24 months postoperatively. Statistically significant improvements occurred in both groups from preoperatively to all time points for the WORC, the ASES score, the Constant score or Constant strength subscore, and the VAS for pain (P < .0001). No differences were observed between the bone channeling and control groups in WORC, ASES, Constant, and VAS pain scores at any time point. CONCLUSION: This trial did not demonstrate the superiority of intraoperative bone channeling in rotator cuff repair over standard rotator cuff repair at 24 months postoperatively. Healing rates, patient-reported function, and quality-of-life outcomes were similar between groups. REGISTRATION: NCT01877772 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

12.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of the supplementary use of the XP-endo Finisher on postoperative endodontic pain. METHODS: This study was a randomized clinical trial with a parallel design. Ninety-two posterior teeth with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis were instrumented with a single file (Reciproc) in a reciprocating movement followed or not (control) by additional instrumentation with XP-endo Finisher. Postoperative pain was assessed 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after the endodontic treatment (single session) using a universal pain assessment tool. The pain level was scored as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. The occurrence of sealer extrusion and flare-up was also recorded. Data on postoperative pain were analyzed through chi-square analysis, and the odds ratio was adjusted using a logistic regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Similar levels and risks of postoperative pain were observed for both interventions, regardless of the assessment time. Approximately half of the participants presented any postoperative pain in the first 24 h after the endodontic treatment, and this occurrence reduced by less than 20% after 72 h. The extrusion of root filling material was observed in 36% of cases, and no participant presented flared-up. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementary use of the XP-endo Finisher file did not affect the incidence or level of postoperative pain reported after the endodontic treatment of posterior teeth with periapical lesions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The supplementary use of the XP-endo Finisher did not affect postoperative pain following the endodontic treatment of posterior teeth using a single-file reciprocating system. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry under identification number RBR-76w7cj (June 19, 2018).

13.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 38(1): e5847, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation reduces depressive symptoms and incidence of antidepressant use. METHODS: We used data from the D-Health Trial (N = 21,315), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of monthly vitamin D3 for the prevention of all-cause mortality. Participants were Australians aged 60-84 years. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 1, 2 and 5 years after randomization to measure depressive symptoms; national prescribing records were used to capture antidepressant use. We used mixed models and survival models. RESULTS: Analyses of PHQ-9 scores included 20,487 participants (mean age 69·3 years, 46% women); the mean difference (MD) in PHQ-9 score (vitamin D vs. placebo) was 0·02 (95% CI -0·06, 0·11). There was negligible difference in the prevalence of clinically relevant depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) (odds ratio 0·99; 95% CI 0·90, 1·08). We included 16,670 participants in the analyses of incident antidepressant use (mean age 69·4 years, 43% women). Incidence of antidepressant use was similar between the groups (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04; 95% CI 0·96, 1·12). In subgroup analyses, vitamin D improved PHQ-9 scores in those taking antidepressants at baseline (MD -0·25; 95% CI -0·49, -0·01; p-interaction = 0·02). It decreased risk of antidepressant use in participants with predicted 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L (HR 0·88; 95% CI 0·75, 1·02; p-interaction = 0·01) and increased risk in those with predicted 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L (HR 1·10; 95% CI 1·01, 1·20). CONCLUSION: Monthly supplementation with high-dose vitamin D3 was not of benefit for measures of depression overall, but there was some evidence of benefit in subgroup analyses. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000743763. https://www.anzctr.org.au/.

14.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 27(6): 101406, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456433

RESUMO

Recently, two randomized controlled, prospective trials, the Tracheal Occlusion to Accelerate Lung Growth (TOTAL) trials, reported the outcomes on fetal endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) for isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). FETO significantly improved outcomes for severe hypoplasia. The effect in moderate cases, where the balloon was inserted later in pregnancy, did not reach significance. In a pooled analysis investigating the effect of the heterogeneity of the treatment effect by the time point of occlusion and severity, the difference may be explained by a difference in the duration of occlusion. Nevertheless, FETO carries a significant risk of preterm birth. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview of the rationale for fetal intervention in CDH and the results of the randomized trials. The secondary objective is to discuss the technical aspects of FETO. Finally, recent developments of potential alternative fetal approaches will be highlighted.

15.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12374, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multicomponent interventions reduce falls among community-dwelling older adults. However, whether this strategy helps reduce occupational falls among older workers is unclear. This pilot trial tested the safety, adherence, and potential effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for older workers. METHODS: An assessor-blind, parallel-designed randomized controlled trial was conducted in five public employment agencies for seniors in Saitama, Japan. In total, 69 older adults who worked ≥4 days/month were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 35) or control (n = 34) groups. The intervention group was provided a multicomponent intervention consisting of exercise, nutrition, and psychosocial programs once a week for 8 weeks. Safety was evaluated for all adverse events reported by participants. Adherence was assessed by rates for withdrawal/dropout, exercise practice, and nutritional diary completion. The primary outcome was a change in functional strength related to occupational falls. Secondary outcomes included changes in agility, balance, executive function, visuospatial ability, exercise self-efficiency, dietary variety, social network, and functional capacity. RESULTS: No adverse events were reported by participants. The median withdrawal/dropout, exercise practice, and nutritional diary completion rates were 0%, 80.4%-93.7%, and 100%, respectively. In the adjusted general linear model, the intervention group showed a non-significant but clinically important improvement in functional strength (P value: .081, Cohen's d: 0.57) and significant improvements in agility, balance, and dietary variety compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: A multicomponent intervention for older workers would be a safe, acceptable, and effective strategy for improving risk factors for occupational falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Vida Independente , Humanos , Idoso , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Exercício Físico , Emprego
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 120: 105658, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been little research on education for clinical educators and particularly on education to promote clinical judgment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational program for clinical educators to promote the clinical judgment of novice midwives during delivery. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which a facility was considered a cluster. Eleven facilities (44 participants) were randomly assigned to the intervention group with the educational intervention and 10 facilities (33 participants) to the control group without the educational intervention. Inclusion criteria were midwives who had become clinical educators within five years. The educational program consisted of e-learning and a seminar. The primary outcome was educational skills. The secondary outcomes were attitude, knowledge, and satisfaction. Data on the satisfaction was collected only for the intervention group. Intention-to-treat and multi-model analyses using a random intercept model were used to analyze data. St. Luke's International University ethics review committee approved the study (20-A016). RESULTS: No differences in baseline characteristics of participants and facilities were noted. There was no significant difference in educational skills scores at post-test between the intervention and control group (MD 1.88, 95 % CI [-0.55-4.31]). There was no significant difference in attitude scores at post-test between the two groups (MD 2.38, 95 % CI [-0.76, 5.51]). The knowledge scores at post-test were significantly higher in the intervention group (intervention group 2.68 ± 0.26, control group 1.57 ± 0.25; MD 1.10, 95 % CI [0.41-1.80], p = .002). CONCLUSION: The intervention group improved only in knowledge scores, with no effect on educational skills or attitudes compared to the control group. It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the program by conducting long-term follow-up and evaluation.

17.
Explore (NY) ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental illness that can place a significant burden on individuals, their families, and society. East Asian Herbal Medicine (EAHM) has long been used in East Asian nations to treat mental illness in children. Nevertheless, the evidence for the effectiveness of EAHM for the treatment of ADHD is insufficient. A systematic review was performed to examine the effectiveness and safety. In addition, research on core herbal combinations was also conducted to help clinicians in their prescription selection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis were prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The following databases were searched: 4 English databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE), 4 Korean databases (Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), Research Information Service System (RISS), Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), Korea Citation Index (KCI)), 2 Chinese databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Wanfang Data), and 1 Japanese database (CiNii) database. The publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots. GRADE pro was used to evaluate the evidence of the study. The core herb combination of EAHM used in this study was revealed using apriori algorithm-based association rule mining. RESULTS: This review assessed 42 studies that evaluated 3484 children and adolescents. In meta-analysis, EAHM monotherapy had a similar clinical efficacy rate to conventional medicine (CM) (n = 2166; random effects RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13; heterogeneity χ2= 25.08, df = 23, p = 0.35, I2=8%). EAHM-combined therapy showed a better clinical efficacy rate than when conventional therapy was used alone (n = 746; fixed effects RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.26; heterogeneity χ2= 11.80, df = 9, p = 0.22, I2=24%). For adverse events, EAHM had a lower incidence than conventional therapy. In GRADE pro, each outcome varied from moderate to very low quality. The constituents of the herb combinations with consistent association rules were Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, Polygalae Radix, and Acori Graminei Rhizoma. CONCLUSION: EAHM monotherapy has similar effects to CM but with fewer side effects. Hence, it will be helpful for children with ADHD suffering from the side effects of CM. EAHM-combined therapy has a better effect than conventional therapy. Accordingly, it will be useful for children with ADHD who do not respond to treatment with conventional therapy. Nevertheless, more well-designed studies will be needed to confirm this in the future.

18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 457, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma education programs (AEPs) have been shown to increase quality of life and reduce emergency treatments and hospital admissions. Despite the proven benefits, only a minority of asthma patients attend such programs. To increase the number of educated patients, an online education program (electronic AEP, eAEP) for asthma patients has been developed. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the eAEP in terms of asthma knowledge, asthma control and emergency treatments in general practice settings. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized controlled trial including 100 patients with bronchial asthma from 20 general practices in Bavaria, Germany. General practices will be randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. Patients in the intervention group will receive access to the eAEP and instructions to complete this program within two weeks. Patients in the control group will receive usual care including a referral to face-to-face AEP (fAEP) by a certified primary care physician or a pulmonologist according to guideline recommendations. Furthermore, patients of both the intervention and control groups will be invited to a follow-up consultation in their general practice after completion of the eAEP and fAEP (three weeks and twelve weeks after study inclusion, respectively) to discuss any open issues. Outcomes for both groups will be assessed at baseline (t0), after two weeks (t1), three months (t2) and six months (t3). The primary outcome is the comparison of asthma knowledge gain between intervention and control groups after completion of the eAEP (two weeks after study inclusion) and fAEP (twelve weeks after study inclusion), respectively. Secondary outcomes include asthma control, frequency of emergency treatments, patient autonomy as well as attitudes towards asthma medication. DISCUSSION: The results of the present trial will provide knowledge about the effectiveness of an online education program for asthma patients compared to usual care in primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), DRKS00028805 . Registered 22 April 2022.


Assuntos
Asma , Educação à Distância , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Asma/terapia , Pneumologistas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1465, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A task-sharing collaborative care model for integrated depression care for South Africa's burgeoning primary health care population with chronic conditions was developed and tested through two pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trials. One trial focused on patients with hypertension and was located in one district where a collaborative care model was co-designed with district stakeholders. The other trial, focused on patients on antiretroviral treatment, was located in the same district site, with the addition of a second neighbouring district, without adaptation of the original model. This paper describes the package used to implement this model, and implementation outcomes across the two sites, and summarises lessons and challenges. METHODS: The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) framework, adapted for complex health systems interventions, was used to describe components of the package. Additional elements of 'modifications made' and 'actual implementation' introduced in the 'Getting messier with TIDieR' framework, were used to describe implementation outcomes in terms of reach, adoption and implementation across the two trial districts. RESULTS: In the absence of a co-design process to adapt the model to the context of the second site, there was less system level support for the model. Consequently, more project employed human resources were deployed to support training of primary care nurses in identification and referral of patients with depression; and supervise co-located lay counsellors. Referrals to co-located lay counselling services were more than double in the second site. However, uptake of counselling sessions was greater in the first site. This was attributed to greater in-vivo supervision and support from existing mental health specialists in the system. There was greater reliance on online supervision and support in the second site where geographical distances between clinics were larger. CONCLUSION: The need for in-country co-designed collaborative care models, and 'implementation heavy' implementation research to understand adaptations required to accommodate varying in-country health system contexts is highlighted.


Assuntos
Depressão , Exame Físico , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Comorbidade , Doença Crônica
20.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1021661, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467038

RESUMO

Background: Pneumonia, caused by infection or other factors, seriously endangers the health of children. Meropenem is an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic using in the treatment of infectious diseases. In the therapy of pneumonia, meropenem is mostly employed for the treatment of moderate to severe pneumonia. Previously, we established a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model for meropenem in pediatric severe infection and simulated the control rate of the time during which the free plasma concentration of meropenem exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 70% of the dosing interval (70% fT > MIC). Therefore, we plan to conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy and safety between conventional regimen and model regimen for meropenem in pediatric severe pneumonia. Methods: One hundred patients (aged 3 months to 15 years) will be recruited in this RCT. They will be assigned randomly (at a 1:1 ratio) to a conventional treatment group (20 mg/kg, q8h, with 0.5-1 h infusion) and a model treatment group (20 mg/kg, q8 h, with 4 h infusion). The primary outcome will be 70% fT > MIC. Secondary outcomes will be the prevalence of meropenem therapy failure, duration of antibiotic therapy, changes in levels of inflammatory indicators, changes in imaging examination results, and prevalence of adverse events. Ethical approval of our clinical trial has been granted by the ethics committee of Beijing Children's Hospital ([2022]-E-133-Y). This trial has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2200061207). Discussion: Based on our previous PPK data, we have designed this RCT. It is hoped that it will promote rational use of antibacterial drugs in children suffering from severe pneumonia. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn identifier, ChiCTR2200061207.

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