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1.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 35-48, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637023

RESUMO

Sixty-nine million people have a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, and TBI is the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Traumatic SAH (TSAH) has been described as an adverse prognostic factor leading to progressive neurological deterioration and increased morbidity and mortality. A limited number of studies, however, evaluate recent trends in the diagnosis and management of SAH in the context of trauma. The objective of this scoping review was to understand the extent and type of evidence concerning the diagnostic criteria and management of TSAH. This scoping review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The review included adults with SAH secondary to trauma, where isolated TSAH (iTSAH) refers to the presence of SAH in the absence of any other traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology, and TSAH refers to the presence of SAH with the possibility or presence of additional traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology. Data extracted from each study included study aim, country, methodology, population characteristics, outcome measures, a summary of findings, and future directives. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped into five categories by topic: TSAH associated with mild TBI (mTBI), n = 13), and severe TBI (n = 3); clinical management and diagnosis (n = 9); imaging (n = 3); and aneurysmal TSAH (n = 1). Of the 30 studies, two came from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC), excluding China, nearly a high-income country. Patients with TSAH associated with mTBI have a very low risk of clinical deterioration and surgical intervention and should be treated conservatively when considering intensive care unit admission. The Helsinki and Stockholm computed tomography scoring systems, in addition to the American Injury Scale, creatinine level, age decision tree, may be valuable tools to use when predicting outcome and death.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/terapia
2.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22629, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371834

RESUMO

Healthcare simulation is a technique that creates a situation or environment that allows persons to experience a representation of a real health care event for the purpose of practice, learning, evaluation, or gaining an understanding of systems or human actions. The use of healthcare simulation has grown rapidly over the last decade. In this review, we describe the global healthcare simulation economy. We reviewed the literature describing the global healthcare simulation economy using four research databases (Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Embase, and EconLit) as well as alternative sources. The specific aims were to examine the major economic themes facing the healthcare simulation economy. We found that the global healthcare simulation market is segmented based on product & services, fidelity, end-user, and geography. The market has experienced new player entry over the last few years, with most businesses focused in North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. The global healthcare simulation market is expected to reach between $3.19 and $7.7 billion by 2027, with a compound annual growth rate of 14.6% to 17.8%. Political and trade issues between America and China may increase the cost of goods in the short term. There are no global regulations on the use of healthcare simulation for training, licensing, or certification. Therefore, individual countries, states, and healthcare specialties establish individual regulations. We conclude that the major economic issues facing the global healthcare simulation economy include market segmentation, the entry of new players, and differential global growth. These factors, plus recent political and trade issues, and lack of regulations, could impact decision-making.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 833865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370861

RESUMO

Objective: This paper used meta-regression to analyze the heterogenous factors contributing to the prevalence rate of mental health symptoms of the general and frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) in China under the COVID-19 crisis. Method: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medrxiv and pooled data using random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence rates, and ran meta-regression to tease out the key sources of the heterogeneity. Results: The meta-regression results uncovered several predictors of the heterogeneity in prevalence rates among published studies, including severity (e.g., above severe vs. above moderate, p < 0.01; above moderate vs. above mild, p < 0.01), type of mental symptoms (PTSD vs. anxiety, p = 0.04), population (frontline vs. general HCWs, p < 0.01), sampling location (Wuhan vs. Non-Wuhan, p = 0.04), and study quality (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The meta-regression findings provide evidence on the factors contributing to the prevalence rate of mental health symptoms of the general and frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) to guide future research and evidence-based medicine in several specific directions. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=220592, identifier: CRD42020220592.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 860109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35496294

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to systematically review the economic evaluations of dapagliflozin in the treatment of patients with heart failure (HF) and describe their general and methodological features. Methods: This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE/PubMed, Website Of Science, Embase, The Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, CNKI, and Wanfang databases were searched to collect relevant studies, and the retrieval time ended on 31 October 2021. Articles on the economic evaluation of dapagliflozin in the treatment of heart failure were included. Secondary studies, incomplete economic indicators, and non-English-language and non-Chinese-language studies were excluded. Standard drug treatment was selected as the comparison. Basic characteristics, methods, and main results were extracted and analyzed systematically. Result: A total of eight studies were identified, and the overall quality was accepted, which were performed in nine developed countries (Austria, United States, Korea, Japan, Singapore, Spanish, Germany, and United Kingdom) and three developing countries (the Philippines, Thailand, and China). With the exception of the Philippines, the remaining countries considered that dapagliflozin was cost effective. In the analyses of all included studies, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were most sensitive to the cost of dapagliflozin, cardiovascular mortality, the duration of dapagliflozin effectiveness, and the probability of HF hospitalization. Conclusion: Dapagliflozin in the treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was considered cost effective. Further studies are needed to evaluate the comprehensive value of dapagliflozin on HF.

5.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(3): 213-219, Jun. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203725

RESUMO

La investigación permite mejorar el conocimiento científico y su aplicación a la práctica profesional. En la asistencia extrahospitalaria, muchos de los avances provienen de entornos hospitalarios, quizás debido a dificultades inherentes al entorno extrahospitalario (heterogeneidad, dificultad en la recogida de datos, sesgos no controlados). Las redes de investigación permiten, entre otras cosas, la interconexión de distintos investigadores y la homogenización en la recogida de datos. En este artículo presentamos la Red de Investigación en Emergencias Prehospitalarias (RINVEMER) y los resultados de un análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica en emergencias prehospitalarias en España. Desde 1975 se han publicado 512 trabajos en revistas indexadas en la Web of Science (el primero en 1999), realizados por 381 investigadores españoles del ámbito de las emergencias prehospitalarias [máximo en Empresa Pública de Emergencias Sanitarias (EPES) de Andalucía, con 61 autores], con un claro incremento en los últimos 2 años. Además, se han realizado 63 tesis doctorales (máximo en Universidad de Oviedo, con 8). La producción científica en emergen- cias extrahospitalarias en España ha crecido sustancialmente en los últimos años, y la creación de RINVEMER permitirá mejorar las interconexiones entre los investigadores.


Through research we advance scientific understanding and its application in medical practice. Many of the advances in out-of-hospital emergency care are extracted from hospital settings, perhaps because of the difficulties inherent to our prehospital environments: heterogeneity, obstacles to data collection, biases not controlled for, among other limitations. Research networks offer opportunities to create connections among researchers and facilitate homogeneous data collection. We introduce the Prehospital Emergency Research Network (whose Spanish acronym is RINVEMER) and analyze bibliometric indicators of Spanish productivity in this specialty. Since 1975, a total of 512 articles have been published in journals with impact factors by 381 authors working in Spanish prehospital settings. The first such article published after the creation of the Web of Science appeared in 1999. The 61 authors affiliated with the emergency health services of Andalusia, a public company, made up the largest single author group. Publication productivity increased substantially in the last 2 years. A total of 63 PhD theses have been registered in this specialty — 8 of them at the University of Oviedo. With the growth of Spanish out-of-hospital research in recent years, we expect the creation of the RINVEMER network to improve collaboration among our researchers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Pesquisa , Redes de Informação de Ciência e Tecnologia , Indicadores de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação , Espanha
6.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 176: 103727, 2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644326

RESUMO

Taxanes are the backbone cytotoxic agents that have been prescribed in most solid malignant treatments for decades. Taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) and drug resistance are inevitable. Novel taxanes include semisynthetic taxanes, taxane analogs, taxanes with a different drug-delivery method, taxanes without lipid carries, oral taxanes, taxanes with resistance to permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), and taxanes with easy penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some taxanes have already shown promising activity in the clinic and have shown abilities to overcome the drug resistance commonly occurring with traditional taxane treatment. Predictive b for response to taxanes are being explored in order to offer precision medicine in cancer therapy. This review will focus on the history, current, and future directions of taxane development in breast cancer, especially that of novel taxanes such as oral taxanes. Clinical trials on novel taxanes, including the mature phase III trials of oral taxane and the recent setback, as well as the future direction of taxane research, will be discussed.

7.
Epilepsy Res ; 184: 106954, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian nucleus (CM) is an effective therapeutic option for select patients with generalized epilepsy. However, several studies suggest that success varies with active contact location within the CM and the exact target remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between active contact location and outcomes across all published series of CM DBS. METHODS: A literature search using PRISMA criteria was performed to identify all studies that reported active contact locations PLUS outcomes following DBS of the CM for epilepsy. Patient, disease, treatment, and outcome data were extracted for statistical analysis. Active contact locations were analyzed on a common reference frame and weighted by percent seizure reduction at last follow-up. RESULTS: From 184 studies that were screened for review, 3 studies comprising 47 patients met criteria for inclusion and were analyzed. At time of surgery, mean duration of epilepsy was 18 years. Pooled rates of atonic, atypical absence, generalized tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and tonic epilepsies were 38%, 74%, 68%, 14%, and 60%, respectively. Indirect targeting was used in all these studies. After a mean follow-up duration of 2.3 years, 87% of patients were deemed to be responders with mean seizure reduction of 73% (95% CI: [64%-81%]). Optimal location of the active contact was found to be at the dorsal border of the CM. CONCLUSIONS: Success following DBS of the CM for epilepsy varies by active contact location, even within the CM. Our findings suggest that stimulation within the dorsal region of the CM improves outcomes. Additional studies are needed to further refine these findings.

8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103932, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has reportedly increased over time; however, change in MS incidence has not been rigorously assessed globally. METHODS: We followed the guidelines for the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Two independent reviewers systematically searched Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science for peer-reviewed publications in English from 1 January 1985 to 24 September 2020 reporting MS incidence for at least two contiguous five-year periods with clearly-defined case ascertainment. The outcome was change in MS incidence rate according to geographical region. RESULTS: We identified 64 papers providing 65 regional estimates (including three paediatric-onset MS) across 24 countries covering ∼3% of the world's population (in 2000/1 or closest available total population for the entire country), with quality (adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) ranging from sufficient to good. Studies were mainly from Italy (n=14 including San Marino), Norway (n=10) or Canada (n=9), with no studies in the Africa or South-East Asia regions. Of the 62 whole-of-population estimates, MS incidence rates: significantly increased in 38 (61%), significantly decreased in 13 (21%) and remained stable in 11 (18%). In the paediatric-onset studies, MS incidence was stable in two (67%) and increased in one (33%). Many estimates derived from only selected (often small) regions of a country. For 42 (68%) of the whole-of-population estimates (and two of the paediatric-onset estimates) a consistent case definition or diagnostic criteria over the entire study period was explicitly reported. Across the n=9 whole-of-population estimates based on a consistent case definition for the duration of the study period, and including a substantial proportion of the population of a country (≥one-third), incidence rates were stable in n=3, increased in n=3 and decreased in n=3. Studies using a consistent case definition covered ∼2.7% of the global population; incidence rates were stable in 0.9% of the global population, decreased in studies covering 1%, and increased in those covering 0.8% of the global population. CONCLUSION: The studies reporting change in MS incidence rate over time were limited by world region and the proportion of the global population covered. Although by number of studies, the predominant pattern was increasing MS incidence, in studies where a consistent case definition was used across the duration of the study and with high population coverage, no predominant pattern of MS incidence was evident.

9.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 202: 115115, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671790

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes and obesity have reached pandemic proportions throughout the world, so much so that the World Health Organisation coined the term "Globesity" to help encapsulate the magnitude of the problem. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are highly tractable drug targets due to their wide involvement in all aspects of physiology and pathophysiology, indeed, GPCRs are the targets of approximately 30% of the currently approved drugs. GPCRs are also broadly involved in key physiologies that underlie type 2 diabetes and obesity including feeding reward, appetite and satiety, regulation of blood glucose levels, energy homeostasis and adipose function. Despite this, only two GPCRs are the target of approved pharmaceuticals for treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this review we discuss the role of these, and select other candidate GPCRs, involved in various facets of type 2 diabetic or obese pathophysiology, how they might be targeted and the potential reasons why pharmaceuticals against these targets have not progressed to clinical use. Finally, we provide a perspective on the current development pipeline of anti-obesity drugs that target GPCRs.

10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on incidence and predictive factors of functional decline (FD) in nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal studies involving individuals age 60 years and older living in a NH and with at least 2 functional capacity assessments were eligible. METHODS: The search was carried out up to June 2021 and was conducted in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies met the eligibility criteria, most of which were prospective, recruiting participants in more than 1 NH, and conducted in a single country. Studies reported a high rate of functional dependency at baseline and FD at follow-up; in 1 year, 38.9% to 50.6% of residents experienced FD. Predictive factors of FD that were significant in at least 2 of the included studies were cognitive impairment, functional status at baseline, urinary incontinence, length of institutionalization, age, depression, being married, being male, and stroke disease. Protective factors were licensed nursing hours and presence of a geriatrician within the NH staff. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This review highlights the high incidence of FD in NH residents and identifies risk and protective factors of FD that may support the design of preventative strategies for this vulnerable and frail population.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682448

RESUMO

We aimed to review the data available to evaluate the long-term consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 6 months and above. We searched relevant observational cohort studies up to 9 February 2022 in Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science. Random-effects inverse-variance models were used to evaluate the Pooled Prevalence (PP) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of long-term consequences. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to assess the quality of the included cohort studies. A total of 40 studies involving 10,945 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were included. Of the patients, 63.87% had at least one consequence at the 6 month follow-up, which decreased to 58.89% at 12 months. The most common symptoms were fatigue or muscle weakness (PP 6-12 m = 54.21%, PP ≥ 12 m = 34.22%) and mild dyspnea (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, mMRC = 0, PP 6-12 m = 74.60%, PP ≥ 12 m = 80.64%). Abnormal computerized tomography (CT; PP 6-12 m = 55.68%, PP ≥ 12 m = 43.76%) and lung diffuse function impairment, i.e., a carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) of < 80% were common (PP 6-12 m = 49.10%, PP ≥ 12 m = 31.80%). Anxiety and depression (PP 6-12 m = 33.49%, PP ≥ 12 m = 35.40%) and pain or discomfort (PP 6-12 m = 33.26%, PP ≥ 12 m = 35.31%) were the most common problems that affected patients' quality of life. Our findings suggest a significant long-term impact on health and quality of life due to COVID-19, and as waves of ASRS-CoV-2 infections emerge, the long-term effects of COVID-19 will not only increase the difficulty of care for COVID-19 survivors and the setting of public health policy but also might lead to another public health crisis following the current pandemic, which would also increase the global long-term burden of disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682457

RESUMO

The urban-rural gap in cervical cancer screening uptake is a significant public health consideration. Educational interventions are commonly adopted to promote cervical cancer screening among females in rural areas; however, the characteristics and effectiveness of these educational interventions remain unclear. In this review, we aimed to identify the characteristics of educational interventions used in rural populations and to evaluate the effects of these interventions on cervical cancer screening-related outcomes. Seven English databases were searched in January 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies were included. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Randomized Controlled Trials and the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies were used for quality appraisal. RevMan 5.4 software was used for the meta-analysis. A narrative synthesis was conducted in instances where a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Three RCTs and seven quasi-experimental studies conducted in six countries were included. A social cognitive theory-based framework, the community setting, group sessions, healthcare professional-led approaches, and culture-tailored materials were implemented in the educational interventions for cervical cancer screening. The educational content mainly included basic information on cervical cancer screening, psychological issues, barriers and strategies to overcome them, and locally available resources. Educational interventions increased the knowledge and uptake of cervical cancer screening in the rural population. However, the studies only evaluated the short-term effects of these educational interventions, with the cervical screening behavior only being assessed in one instance for each participant. Educational interventions promote cervical cancer screening among females in rural areas. Theory-driven, community-involved, group-based, and healthcare professional-led approaches should be prioritized in the application of educational interventions in rural populations. Both the short- and long-term, influences of educational interventions on the cervical cancer screening behavior of females in rural areas need to be recognized.


Assuntos
População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Civil-military cooperation (CMC) in infectious disease outbreak responses has become more common, and has its own cooperation dynamics. These collaborations fit WHO's call for multisectoral cooperation in managing health emergencies according to the emergency management cycle (EMC). However, the literature on CMC on this topic is fragmented. The core aim of this review is to understand the breadth and dynamics of this cooperation by using the EMC as a framework and by identifying challenges and opportunities in the management of outbreaks. METHODS: A scoping review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews guideline was conducted. A systematic search for peer-reviewed journals was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus. Eligible papers addressed substantive contributions to the understanding of CMC. Papers were categorised by EMC phase and relevant information on study characteristics and areas of cooperation were extracted from the data. Recurring themes on challenges and opportunities in cooperation were identified by means of qualitative interpretation analysis. RESULTS: The search resulted in 8360 papers; 54 were included for analysis. Most papers provided a review of activities or expert opinions. CMC was described in all EMC phases, with the fewest references in the recovery phase (n=1). In total, eight areas of CMC were explored. Regarding the better understanding of cooperative dynamics, the qualitative analysis of the papers yielded five recurring themes covering challenges and opportunities in CMC: managing relations, framework conditions, integrating collective activities, governance and civil-military differences. CONCLUSION: Guided by these five themes, successful CMC requires sustainable relations, binding agreements, transparency, a clear operational perspective and acknowledgement of organisational cultural differences. Early and continuous engagement proves crucial to avoid distrust and tension among stakeholders, frequently caused by differences in strategical goals. Original research on this topic is limited.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Colaboração Intersetorial , Militares , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos
15.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(6): 334-338, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749597

RESUMO

The human body consists of various systems (blood, tissues, extracellular fluid, intracellular contents) separated by biological membranes. Physiological barriers ensure the physico-chemical composition of the internal environment remains constant and protects the body from environmental changes. The permeability of the histohematic barrier depends on the concentration of substances in the blood, the body's condition, external influences, and a number of other reasons caused by stimuli coming from the external or internal environment. Information about the state of the regulatory systems of the body has its effect on specific chemoreceptors, which leads to the emergence of local and general physiological and biochemical processes. According to their localization, they distinguish between the hematoencephalic, hemato-placental, hemato-ophthalmic, and hemato-salivary barriers. Recently, the hematosalivary barrier, through which the selective entry of substances from the blood into the oral fluid is carried out, has taken a special place in the study. Its functioning depends on the processes occurring in the body, which is carried out by selective permeability for substances that determine the composition of the main internal environment of the body - blood. Hematosalivary barrier is an important link in maintaining homeostasis, which is reflected in the metabolic parameters of oral fluid.

16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 58: 255-264, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ileocolic intussusception can be challenging to diagnose due to vague complaints, but rapid diagnosis and treatment can help prevent morbidity and mortality. Prior research has focused on radiologic ultrasound, with more recent studies focusing on point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS). This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the diagnostic accuracy of POCUS for children with suspected ileocolic intussusception. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, the Cochrane databases, Google Scholar, conference abstracts, and bibliographies of selected articles were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of POCUS for the diagnosis of intussusception in children. Data were dual extracted into a predefined worksheet, and quality analysis was performed with the QUADAS-2 tool. Data were summarized, and a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Eleven studies (n = 2400 children) met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 14.4% of children had intussusception. POCUS was 95.1% (95% CI: 90.3% to 97.2%) sensitive and 98.1% (95% CI: 95.8% to 99.2%) specific with a positive likelihood ratio of 50 (95% CI: 23 to 113) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: POCUS has excellent diagnostic accuracy for intussusception in children presenting to the emergency department.

17.
Geriatr Nurs ; 46: 191-198, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749863

RESUMO

Mental health conditions ranging from minor depressive symptoms to major depression, loneliness and poor quality of life are significant concerns in long-term care communities. Reminiscence is one intervention that has shown to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life. The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the extent of reminiscence research undertaken in long-term care communities. Arksley and O'Malley's six stage method provided the framework for the review. Studies published in peer reviewed literature were identified based on searches in three databases (CINAHL, PUBMED, PsycINFO). Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. Of the 32 articles examined, 2 studies were conducted in the United States. Twenty-five health outcomes were examined, including twenty-three psychological outcomes and two physiological outcomes. Depression and cognitive functions were the most frequently measured outcomes. Lack of theoretical frameworks underpinning the studies, inadequate sample sizes, and weak methodology were noted in this review. Recommendations for future reminiscence research in long-term care communities are discussed.

18.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 62: 103375, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749962

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate game-based learning in nursing education and summarize findings of its impact on nursing students' learning outcomes. BACKGROUND: Nurses are the first point of contact for care and make up the largest proportion of the global health workforce. To respond effectively to the care needs of the population, nurses need to be adequately trained during their professional education. Game-based learning is increasingly becoming a strategy to complement simulation strategies in nursing education. DESIGN: A systematic review of mixed-methods studies. METHODS: A search was conducted in the electronic databases Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies on nurse education published in English between 2000 and 2020 were considered. The Mixed Methods Assessment Tool was used for quality assessment. Data abstraction and synthesis was performed using a data extraction form. RESULTS: A total of 46 studies from the 15 countries were included. The included studies were eight quantitative randomized controlled trials, 12 quantitative non-randomized controlled trials, 15 quantitative descriptive, five qualitative and six mixed methods studies. The results showed that game-based learning was used for many different courses or content in nursing education. Simulation games were the most used game type. Game-based learning facilitated the achievement of learning outcomes primarily in the cognitive domain. Some gamification elements and design-related aspects of game-based environments were evaluated as positive and negative. Game-based learning is a useful approach to assessing learning outcomes in only three studies. CONCLUSION: Game-based learning is a useful method to achieve learning outcomes mainly in the cognitive domain, with some positive and negative aspects. Further research should investigate the effects of games on affective and behavioral learning outcomes, as well as the use of games to assess learning outcomes. Potential limitations of this review are that some studies could not be identified because of access issues and that some studies included participants other than nursing students.

19.
Am J Hypertens ; 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effect of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption on health has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, the relationship between UPFs consumption and hypertension is unclear. This meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the above association. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library for all relevant studies published up to 31 January 2022 without language limitation. The random effects model was selected to pool the effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Nine observational studies involving 111,594 participants were included. Results from this meta-analysis showed that higher UPFs consumption significantly increased the risk of hypertension (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.37; P =0.034). Further analyses were performed based on gender, study design, exposure assessment, outcome assessment, BMI, energy intake, and physical activity, which suggested that the results remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that UPFs might have detrimental effects on the incidence of hypertension in general population. Although current evidence is limited, it cannot be denied that reducing consumption of UPFs may contribute to decrease the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

20.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common reasons for Institutional Review Boards deferral of biomedical research proposals. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study administered to chairs, vice-chairs, and co-chairs of IRBs at NIH-funded institutions. RESULTS: Data forms were distributed to IRB chairs at 21 of 25 NIH-funded institutions (4 declined to participate), with an institutional response rate of 86% (18/21). Overall, ethical considerations were more likely than scientific merit to be a reason for protocol deferral. Common ethical considerations for deferral were inadequate informed consent, inadequate detail for risk assessment, insufficient protection of participant safety, and inadequate minimization of risks. Important elements of scientific merit were appropriate research design, adequate adverse event reporting, and the importance of knowledge to be gained. Non-sponsored, investigator-initiated proposals (including those receiving internal funding) were more likely to be deferred (66%), usually due to inadequate protocol development (43%), less external vetting and oversight (20%), and submissions from inexperienced faculty (16%). CONCLUSION: Deferrals may be avoided by careful compliance with ethical considerations, and by ensuring sufficient scientific merit of the proposal, with research design optimized for participant safety. Those submitting investigator-initiated proposals may consider obtaining at least partial funding to decrease the risk of deferral.

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