Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.373
Filtrar
1.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611156

RESUMO

The growing demand for lightweight and durable materials in industries, such as the automotive, aerospace, and electronics industries, has spurred the development of heterojunction bilayer composites, combining the structural integrity of metals with the versatility of polymers. This study addresses the critical interface between stainless steel (SUS) and polyamide 66 (PA66), focusing on the pivotal role of surface treatments and various silane coupling agents in enhancing the adhesion strength of heterojunction SUS/PA66 bilayer composites. Through systematic surface modifications-highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle analyses-the study assessed the impact of increasing the surface area, roughness, and energy of SUS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evaluations confirmed the strategic selection of specific silane coupling agents. Although some coupling agents barely influenced the mechanics, notably, aminopropyl triethoxysilane (A1S) and 3-glycidyl oxypropyl trimethoxysilane (ES) significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the heterojunction bilayer composites, evidenced by the improved lap shear strength, elongation at break, and toughness. These advancements were attributed to the interfacial interactions at the metal-polymer interface. This research underscored the significance of targeted surface treatment and the judicious selection of coupling agents in optimizing the interfacial adhesion and overall performance of metal-polymer composites, offering valuable insights for the fabrication of materials where reduced weight and enhanced durability are paramount.

2.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 19322968241238146, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usability engineering analyzes the interaction between the intended users and a device. Its implementation is mandatory for manufacturers to obtain regulatory approval for the European market. The aim of this evaluation was assessing the role of usability testing in the development process. For this purpose, a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device under development was investigated to determine whether it could be used safely and effectively by the intended users. METHODS: Conduct of the usability testing was based on the international standard IEC 62366-1. Medical device use of CGM-experienced and non-experienced users (n = 15 each) was observed without initial training in use scenarios containing 18 tasks. The success rate of task completion was determined and the System Usability Scale (SUS) score was calculated from a questionnaire. A prototype of the FiberSense CGM System (EyeSense GmbH, Großostheim, Germany), comprising of a single-use sensor and a reusable detector, was investigated. RESULTS: Most use errors made by both user groups were related to ease of handling of the reusable detectors. The SUS scores achieved in this study were below the pre-defined SUS score acceptance criterion of ≥68. The most frequently mentioned reason for use errors was an incomprehensible and non-chronological instructions for use (IFU). CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation provides valuable insights on how to improve usability of the prototype device and demonstrates the value of conducting structured usability testing prior to product finalization. The results reflected areas for improvement of the user interface, mainly by restructuring the IFU, provision of an additional leaflet, and device training prior to use.

3.
Animal ; 18(4): 101115, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502986

RESUMO

Pig transport drivers' (TDs') handling actions are of great importance as these drivers handle a large number of finishing pigs during stressful situations. Poor handling techniques can have negative consequences for working conditions, pig welfare and meat quality. We studied the effects of a training intervention on Swedish TDs' attitudes towards pigs and their handling actions during loading for transport to slaughter. Twenty TDs working with commercial pig transportation in Sweden were recruited and completed an attitude questionnaire. Ten of them were observed during one loading of pigs before training, and one or two loadings after training (49-265 pigs per loading), and eight of them completed the attitude questionnaire again 50-160 days after training. The cognitive-behavioural training program ProHand Pigs® was adapted and delivered to the ten TDs during a group session, followed by individual meetings. TDs' handling actions were video recorded and summarised as binary variables per 5-s interval. Factor analysis, principal component analysis and paired t-test were conducted to investigate the effects of the training intervention on TDs' attitudes, and mixed-effects logistic models were used to examine effects on negative and positive handling actions. Training tended to decrease TDs' beliefs that it is important to move pigs quickly (P = 0.095). Training decreased the odds of a 'moderately to strongly negative' action by 55% (P = 0.0013) and increased the odds of a 'positive' action by 97% (P < 0.0001). This study provides valuable insights into the possibilities to improve TDs' handling actions, and implications for pig welfare during slaughter transport. The study supports previous findings that the attitudes and behaviour of handlers can be improved by cognitive-behavioural training. While our previous research has shown reciprocal relationships between TDs' actions and pig behaviour, further research on TDs' attitudes towards handling that underlie the nature of their behaviour when handling pigs is necessary to fine-tune the cognitive-behavioural training program applied in the present study.

4.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 18: 1357363, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510830

RESUMO

Pigs can be an important model for preclinical biological research, including neurological diseases such as Alcohol Use Disorder. Such research often involves longitudinal assessment of changes in motor coordination as the disease or disorder progresses. Current motor coordination tests in pigs are derived from behavioral assessments in rodents and lack critical aspects of face and construct validity. While such tests may permit for the comparison of experimental results to rodents, a lack of validation studies of such tests in the pig itself may preclude the drawing of meaningful conclusions. To address this knowledge gap, an apparatus modeled after a horizontally placed ladder and where the height of the rungs could be adjusted was developed. The protocol that was employed within the apparatus mimicked the walk and turn test of the human standardized field sobriety test. Here, five Sinclair miniature pigs were trained to cross the horizontally placed ladder, starting at a rung height of six inches and decreasing to three inches in one-inch increments. It was demonstrated that pigs can reliably learn to cross the ladder, with few errors, under baseline/unimpaired conditions. These animals were then involved in a voluntary consumption of ethanol study where animals were longitudinally evaluated for motor coordination changes at baseline, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% ethanol concentrations subsequently to consuming ethanol. Consistent with our predictions, relative to baseline performance, motor incoordination increased as voluntary consumption of escalating concentrations of ethanol increased. Together these data highlight that the horizontal ladder test (HLT) test protocol is a novel, optimized and reliable test for evaluating motor coordination as well as changes in motor coordination in pigs.

5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1360022, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469309

RESUMO

Worldwide, pigs represent economically important farm animals, also representing a preferred preclinical large animal model for biomedical studies. The need for swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) typing is increasing with the expanded use of pigs in translational research, infection studies, and for veterinary vaccine design. Göttingen Minipigs (GMP) attract increasing attention as valuable model for pharmacological studies and transplantation research. This study represents a first-time assessment of the SLA gene diversity in Göttingen Minipigs in combination with a comparative metadata analysis with commercial pig lines. As Göttingen Minipigs could harbor private as well as potential novel SLA allele combinations, future research projects would benefit from the characterization of their SLA background. In 209 Göttingen Minipigs, SLA class I (SLA-1, SLA-2, SLA-3) and class II (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) genes were characterized by PCR-based low-resolution (Lr) haplotyping. Criteria and nomenclature used for SLA haplotyping were proposed by the ISAG/IUIS-VIC SLA Nomenclature Committee. Haplotypes were assigned based on the comparison with already known breed or farm-specific allele group combinations. In total, 14 SLA class I and five SLA class II haplotypes were identified in the studied cohort, to manifest in 26 SLA class I but only seven SLA class II genotypes. The most common SLA class I haplotypes Lr-24.0 (SLA-1*15XX or Blank-SLA-3*04:04-SLA-2*06:01~02) and Lr-GMP-3.0 (SLA-1*16:02-SLA-3*03:04-SLA-2*17:01) occurred at frequencies of 23.44 and 18.66%, respectively. For SLA class II, the most prevalent haplotypes Lr-0.21 (DRB1*01XX-DQB1*05XX-DQA*04XX) and Lr-0.03 (DRB1*03:02-DQB1*03:01-DQA*01XX) occurred at frequencies of 38.28 and 30.38%. The comparative metadata analysis revealed that Göttingen Minipigs only share six SLA class I and two SLA class II haplotypes with commercial pig lines. More importantly, despite the limited number of SLA class I haplotypes, the high genotype diversity being observed necessitates pre-experimental SLA background assessment of Göttingen Minipigs in regenerative medicine, allo-transplantation, and xenograft research.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Suínos , Humanos , Animais , Porco Miniatura/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Haplótipos
6.
Life (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important chronic disease that occurs worldwide. AIMS: This study aims to investigate how the use of the FreeStyle® Libre system in Unified Health System (SUS) patients impacts diabetes parameters in patients who receive education on proper insulin administration and the use of the continuous monitoring device, as well as how this affects patients without any concomitant multidisciplinary support in Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized study in a diabetes clinic in Sergipe, Brazil, using the flash method FreeStyle® Libre (Abbott). The participants were divided into two groups: one receiving diabetes education on CGM (continuous glucose monitoring), while the other did not. Before the intervention, the patient's treatment motivation and quality of life were assessed using a questionnaire, and baseline levels of glycated hemoglobin were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the point of care AlereTM Afinion with boronate fixation. We compared first- and second-phase data with respect to glycated hemoglobin, mean interstitial blood glucose, time on and above target for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events, and mean hypoglycemic duration. RESULTS: In group A, which received the diabetes education intervention, there was a significant reduction in average HbA1c levels from 8.6% to 7.9% after 3 months (p = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in average glycemic values. Time above target decreased significantly from 50.62% to 29.43% (p = 0.0001), while time below target decreased from 22.90% to 20.21% (p = 0.002). There was no significant change in the number of hypoglycemic events, but the duration of hypoglycemia decreased significantly from 130.35 min to 121.18 min after 3 months (p = 0.0001). In Group B, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c levels before (7.07%) and after (7.28%) sensor installation. This group maintained lower HbA1c levels compared to the other group. Average blood glucose levels also remained similar before (148.37 mg/dL) and after (154.65 mg/dL) the intervention. Although the time above the target glucose level increased significantly from 35.94% to 48.17%, the time at target decreased from 50.40% to 37.97%. No significant changes were observed in the time below target, the number of hypoglycemic events, or the duration of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that utilizing continuous glucose monitoring technology can enhance glycemic control, particularly in motivated, educated, low-income patients dependent on the SUS. To achieve positive results with FreeStyle Libre, it is imperative to allocate resources for multidisciplinary support.

7.
Environ Manage ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483578

RESUMO

Wild ungulates can influence various trophic levels, regulating carnivore abundance and affecting habitat structure. Conservation problems can arise when high ungulate densities threaten species or habitats with conservation concern. Assessing factors influencing the intensity of their impact is important to identify appropriate measures enhancing habitat conservation. We assessed factors influencing wild boar Sus scrofa pressure on EU protected grasslands in three protected areas of central Italy, by modelling the effects of environmental variables and wild boar density on rooting activity. We seasonally estimated rooting in 126 sampling plots from spring 2019 to spring 2021, and we used faeces counts to estimate summer wild boar densities. Estimates of density and rooting varied from 3.5 to 22.2 individuals/km2 and from 1.1 to 19.2%, respectively. We detected a clear seasonal trend in rooting activity, that peaked in autumn and winter. We also found a strongly positive correlation between spring-summer rooting and summer density, across sites. Rooting intensity was negatively related to the local extent of rock cover and increased with the 1 month-cumulative rainfall, the perimeter of the grassland patch, and the forest cover around plots. These results emphasise the tendency of wild boar to exploit feeding sites in ecotonal areas, i.e., at the interface between forest and meadows, which maximises security and ease of finding food resources. Actions aiming at the protection of focal plants in grassland habitats, as well as reducing wild boar presence, are supported (e.g. fencing and/or targeting population control at vulnerable patches).

8.
Res Vet Sci ; 171: 105209, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460205

RESUMO

In the pork production chain, the control at slaughterhouse aims to ensure safe food thanks to proper hygienic conditions during all steps of the slaughtering. Salmonella is one of the main foodborne pathogens in the EU causing a great number of human cases, and pigs also contribute to its spreading. Pig is the main reservoir of the zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) that can be present in liver, bile, feces and even rarely in blood and muscle. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of both Salmonella and HEV in several points of the slaughtering chain, including pig trucks. Other viruses hosted in the gut flora of pigs and shed in feces were also assayed (porcine adenovirus PAdV, rotavirus, norovirus, and mammalian orthoreovirus MRV). Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) present in both feces, liver and blood was also considered. Four Italian pig abattoirs were sampled in 12 critical points, 5 of which were the outer surface of carcasses before processing. HEV and rotavirus (RVA) were not detected. Norovirus was detected once. Salmonella was detected in two of the 4 abattoirs: in the two lairage pens, in the site of evisceration and on one carcass, indicating the presence of Salmonella if carcass is improper handled. The sampling sites positive for Salmonella were also positive for PAdV. MRV was detected in 10 swabs, from only two abattoirs, mainly in outer surface of carcasses. TTSuV was also detected in all abattoirs. Our study has revealed a diverse group of viruses, each serving as indicator of either fecal (NoV, RVA, PAdV, MRV) or blood contamination (TTSuV). TTSuV could be relevant as blood contamination indicators, crucial for viruses with a viremic stage, such as HEV. The simultaneous presence of PAdV with Salmonella is relevant, suggesting PAdV as a promising indicator for fecal contamination for both bacterial and viruses. In conclusion, even in the absence of HEV, the widespread presence of Salmonella at various points in the chain, underscores the need for vigilant monitoring and mitigation strategies which could be achieved by testing not only bacteria indicators as expected by current regulation, but also some viruses (PAdV, TTSuV, MRV) which could represent other sources of fecal contamination.

9.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 15, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317242

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of causative infectious agents in ulceration of the non-glandular part of the porcine stomach (pars oesophagea). In total, 150 stomachs from slaughter pigs were included, 75 from pigs that received a meal feed, 75 from pigs that received an equivalent pelleted feed with a smaller particle size. The pars oesophagea was macroscopically examined after slaughter. (q)PCR assays for H. suis, F. gastrosuis and H. pylori-like organisms were performed, as well as 16S rRNA sequencing for pars oesophagea microbiome analyses. All 150 pig stomachs showed lesions. F. gastrosuis was detected in 115 cases (77%) and H. suis in 117 cases (78%), with 92 cases (61%) of co-infection; H. pylori-like organisms were detected in one case. Higher infectious loads of H. suis increased the odds of severe gastric lesions (OR = 1.14, p = 0.038), while the presence of H. suis infection in the pyloric gland zone increased the probability of pars oesophageal erosions [16.4% (95% CI 0.6-32.2%)]. The causal effect of H. suis was mediated by decreased pars oesophageal microbiome diversity [-1.9% (95% CI - 5.0-1.2%)], increased abundances of Veillonella and Campylobacter spp., and decreased abundances of Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Enterobacteriaceae spp. Higher infectious loads of F. gastrosuis in the pars oesophagea decreased the odds of severe gastric lesions (OR = 0.8, p = 0.0014). Feed pelleting had no significant impact on the prevalence of severe gastric lesions (OR = 1.72, p = 0.28). H. suis infections are a risk factor for ulceration of the porcine pars oesophagea, probably mediated through alterations in pars oesophageal microbiome diversity and composition.


Assuntos
Fusobacterium , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter heilmannii , Microbiota , Úlcera Gástrica , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Úlcera Gástrica/microbiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 921: 171012, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369157

RESUMO

The impacts of contaminants on wildlife are dose dependent, and thus being able to track or predict exposure following contamination events is important for monitoring ecosystem health. However, the ability to track exposure in free-ranging wildlife is often severely limited. Consequently, researchers have predominantly relied on simple methods for estimating contaminant exposures in wildlife with little regard for spatial contaminant heterogeneity or an animal's use of diverse habitats. We evaluated the influence sampling scale (i.e., how finely contaminant distribution and organism's spatial use of the landscape is mapped) has on (1) realism and (2) conservativeness of exposure estimates. To do this, we monitored the actual exposure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Fukushima, Japan to radioactive contamination using GPS-coupled contaminant monitors placed on individual animals. We compared empirical exposures to estimates generated by combining varying amounts of information about an individual boar's location and/or movement, with the distribution of contamination on the landscape. We found that the most realistic exposure estimates were produced when finer-scale contaminant distribution surveys (e.g., airborne surveys) were combined with more accurate estimates of an individual's space use (e.g., home ranges or core areas). Importantly, estimates of exposure based on single point surveys at a trap site (a simple method commonly used in the literature), did not correlate with actual exposure rates, suggesting dose-effects studies using this method may result in spurious conclusions. These results suggest that researchers seeking realistic estimates of exposure, such as in dose-effect studies, should ensure they have adequately accounted for fine-scale contaminant distribution patterns and areas of higher use by study organisms. However, conservative estimates of exposure (i.e., intentionally over-predicting exposure as is done in initial tiers of ecological risk analyses) were not as scale sensitive and could be achieved with a single known location and coarse contaminant distribution maps.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Radioatividade , Animais , Suínos , Ecossistema , Medição de Risco , Japão , Sus scrofa
11.
Vet Res Commun ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315322

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an important infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. In the northeast region of Portugal, infection with Brucella melitensis is endemic in small ruminants, and there are also humans' cases. However, the epidemiological role of the wild boar in the dynamics of this disease in this region is unknown. In this study, a total of 332 blood samples were collected from wild boar hunted in thirty-six hunting areas during the 2022/2023 hunting season. All were taken by the hunters for private consumption, with no evisceration or examination in the field. Serum samples were tested by indirect ELISA (i-ELISA). It was observed that 88 wild boars were exposed to Brucella spp., pointing to a seroprevalence of 26.5% (95% CI: 21.8 - 31.3%). This high prevalence underlines the importance that wild boar may have in the dynamics of this disease in the region and its potential transmission to other animals, and to humans (for example, during the handling of carcasses). Increased awareness and knowledge of brucellosis in wild boar is essential for the implementation of effective practices and habits and, consequently, for the control and prevention of this important zoonosis.

12.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e25329, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356550

RESUMO

The main insect pest of stored paddy is Sitophilus oryzae (rice weevil). Huge amounts of rice are produced by peasant farmers each year, but the bulk of it is wasted due to insufficient storage facilities and insect pest attacks brought on by careless handling. In this study, the insecticidal effects of biochar on S. oryzae were assessed in femurs from Sus scrofa (pig), Gallus gallus (chicken), and Bos taurus (cattle). Adult mortality, adult emergence, weight loss, seed damage, and weevil perforation index are among the indicators evaluated. To apply the biochar, different dosages were used: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 g/20 g of paddy rice. In this work, the population of adult S. oryzae on paddy rice was dramatically reduced by all animal bones biochar tested for insecticidal activity (p < 0.05). The animal bone biochar became more effective with increasing dosage. After 24 h of treatment, pig biochar induced a 36.67 % mortality rate of adult S. oryzae, followed by cow biochar's 20 % mortality rate of rice weevils. The fatal dose of cattle, pig, and chicken biochar at which 50 % (LD50) of the population of adult S. oryzae responded after 24 h of treatment were 0.83g, 0.43g, and 0.90g, respectively. It should be encouraged to utilize biochar made from animal bones to combat the S. oryzae in stored paddy. They could be utilized as a green control measure to lessen the risk brought on by the usage of synthetic chemical insecticides in the environment.

13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3414, 2024 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341478

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious and highly fatal disease affecting wild and domestic swine, which is unstoppably spreading worldwide. In Europe, wild boars are one of the main drivers of spread, transmission, and maintenance of the disease. Landscape connectivity studies are the main discipline to analyze wild-species dispersal networks, and it can be an essential tool to predict dispersal-wild boar movement routes and probabilities and therefore the associated potential ASF spread through the suitable habitat. We aimed to integrate wild boar habitat connectivity predictions with their occurrence, population abundance, and ASF notifications to calculate the impact (i.e., the capacity of a landscape feature to favor ASF spread) and the risk (i.e., the likelihood of a habitat patch becoming infected) of wild boar infection across Europe. Furthermore, we tested the accuracy of the risk of infection by comparing the results with the temporal distribution of ASF cases. Our findings identified the areas with the highest impact and risk factors within Europe's central and Eastern regions where ASF is currently distributed. Additionally, the impact factor was 31 times higher on habitat patches that were infected vs non-infected, proving the utility of the proposed approach and the key role of wild boar movements in ASF-spread. All data and resulting maps are openly accessible and usable.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Suínos , Animais , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive and destructive species throughout many regions of the world. A sodium nitrite (SN) toxic bait is currently used in Australia and being developed for use in the US and other countries to combat the increasing populations of wild pigs. In the US, efforts to modify the Australian SN-toxic bait and baiting strategy have focused on reducing issues with non-target animals accessing the SN-toxic bait spilled outside of bait stations by wild pigs. We tested and compared modifications for efficacy (with wild pigs) and hazards (with non-targets) in north-central Texas, US during summer (July 2021) and winter (March 2023) seasons. RESULTS: During both seasons we found that visitation to the bait sites declined 94-99% after deploying the SN-toxic bait, and we found a total of 106 dead wild pigs, indicating considerable lethality for the local population. Prior to deploying the SN-toxic bait, Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared wild pigs were more likely to cease visiting bait sites during summer when foraging resources were abundant. Farrowing decreased visitation to bait sites during the winter. We observed no dead non-targets during summer; winter results showed an average of 5.2 dead migrating birds per bait site (primarily Dark-eye juncos [Junco hyemalis]) from consuming SN-toxic bait spilled by wild pigs. The presence and winter-foraging behaviors of migrating birds appeared to increase hazards for those species. CONCLUSION: The current formulation of SN-toxic bait was effective at removing wild pigs during both seasons, however it is clear that different baiting strategies may be required in winter when migrating birds are present. Baiting wild pigs prior to farrowing during the winter, and during drier summers, may further improve efficacy of the bait. Reducing hazards to non-targets could be achieved by refining the SN-toxic bait or modifying bait stations to decrease the potential for spillage, decreasing environmental persistence if spilled, or decreasing attractiveness to migrating birds. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170328, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301788

RESUMO

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population within the Fukushima Evacuation Zone (FEZ) increased substantially in size and distribution. This growing population and their potential dispersal from the FEZ, where they are exposed to high levels of radionuclides, into the surrounding landscape underscores the need to better understand boar movement patterns in order to establish policies for managing shipping restrictions for boar meat and develop management strategies. In this study, we quantified the genetic population structure of boar in and around Fukushima prefecture using sequence data of the mitochondrial DNA control region and MIG-seq analysis using 348 boar samples to clarify boar dispersal patterns. Among boar samples, seven Asian haplotypes and one European haplotype were detected. The European haplotype originated from hybridization between domestic pigs and native boar in the evacuation zone after the accident and was detected in 15 samples across a broad geographic area. Our MIG-seq analysis revealed genetic structure of boar was significantly different between boar inhabiting the eastern (including FEZ. i.e., East clade) and western (i.e., West clade) regions in Fukushima prefecture. In addition, we investigated the relationships between boar dispersal and Cesium (Cs)-137 activity concentrations in boar muscle using MIG-seq genetic data in Nihonmatsu city, located in the central-northern region of Fukushima. High Cs-137 activity concentrations, exceeding 1000 Bq/kg, in boar muscle had a significantly high probability of belonging to the East clade within localized regions. Thus, our results provide evidence of the spatial scale of dispersal of individuals or offspring of boar from the FEZ. Results of this research also indicate that dispersal of individuals between areas with different Cs-137 contamination levels is one of the biggest factors contributing to variation in Cs-137 activity concentration in boar muscle within localized regions.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Centrais Nucleares , Músculos/química , Sus scrofa , Japão
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 64, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The critically low hepatic iron stores of newborn piglets are considered to be a major cause of neonatal iron deficiency in modern breeds of domestic pig (Sus domestica). The main factor believed to contribute to this phenomenon is large litter size, which has been an objective of selective breeding of pigs for decades. As consequence, iron transferred from the pregnant sow has to be distributed among a greater number of fetuses. RESULTS: Here, we investigated whether litter size influences red blood cell (RBC) indices and iron parameters in Polish Large White (PLW) piglets and gilts. Small and large litters were produced by the transfer of different numbers of embryos, derived from the same superovulated donor females, to recipient gilts. Piglets from large litters obtained following routine artificial insemination were also examined. Our results clearly demonstrated that varying the number of piglets in a litter did not affect the RBC and iron status of 1-day-old piglets, with all showing iron deficiency anemia. In contrast, gilts with small litters displayed higher RBC and iron parameters compared to mothers with large litters. A comparative analysis of the RBC status of wild boars (having less than half as many piglets per litter as domestic pigs) and PLW pigs, demonstrated higher RBC count, hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of both wild boar sows and piglets, even compared to small-litter PLW animals. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that RBC and iron status in newborn PLW piglets are not primarily determined by litter size, and indicate the need to study the efficiency of iron transport across the placenta in domestic pig and wild boar females.


Assuntos
Ferro , Sus scrofa , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Placenta
17.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 14, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in skeletal muscle tissue in pigs is crucial for understanding the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic expression of carcass traits in meat animals. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including scenarios removing SNPs pruned for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and SNPs derived from SNP chip arrays and RNA-seq data from liver, brain, and skeletal muscle tissues, on the identification of eQTLs in the Longissimus lumborum tissue, associated with carcass and body composition traits in Large White pigs. The SNPs identified from muscle mRNA were combined with SNPs identified in the brain and liver tissue transcriptomes, as well as SNPs from the GGP Porcine 50 K SNP chip array. Cis- and trans-eQTLs were identified based on the skeletal muscle gene expression level, followed by functional genomic analyses and statistical associations with carcass and body composition traits in Large White pigs. RESULTS: The number of cis- and trans-eQTLs identified across different sets of SNPs (scenarios) ranged from 261 to 2,539 and from 29 to 13,721, respectively. Furthermore, 6,180 genes were modulated by eQTLs in at least one of the scenarios evaluated. The eQTLs identified were not significantly associated with carcass and body composition traits but were significantly enriched for many traits in the "Meat and Carcass" type QTL. The scenarios with the highest number of cis- (n = 304) and trans- (n = 5,993) modulated genes were the unpruned and LD-pruned SNP set scenarios identified from the muscle transcriptome. These genes include 84 transcription factor coding genes. CONCLUSIONS: After LD pruning, the set of SNPs identified based on the transcriptome of the skeletal muscle tissue of pigs resulted in the highest number of genes modulated by eQTLs. Most eQTLs are of the trans type and are associated with genes influencing complex traits in pigs, such as transcription factors and enhancers. Furthermore, the incorporation of SNPs from other genomic regions to the set of SNPs identified in the porcine skeletal muscle transcriptome contributed to the identification of eQTLs that had not been identified based on the porcine skeletal muscle transcriptome alone.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Suínos/genética , Animais , Fenótipo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Composição Corporal/genética
18.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200901

RESUMO

The movement of wild boars is a complex process influenced by both internal conditions and external factors. Despite their typically sedentary lifestyle, dispersion constitutes an integral element of the wild boar's behavior. This report documents the longest observed wild boar dispersal, involving a collared two-year-old male near Warsaw, Poland. The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of movement during the "nomadic phase", drawing comparisons with the "sedentary phase". The other aim was to evaluate the influence of meteorological factors on the minimum daily travel distance of the wild boar. We collected data from two-year-old males. The first exhibited long-distance dispersal and the second only demonstrated local movements. We calculated the minimum daily distance of both wild boars based on collar locations and calculated basic statistics of movement. We used a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and log link function to assess the potential impact of weather conditions on the minimum daily distance of wild boars. We tested maximum daily temperature, average daily temperature, and the sum of daily precipitation. The wild boar during a "nomadic phase" covered a total of 922 km with a mean minimum daily movement of 6 km. The dispersion distance was 307 km. The highest value of the minimum daily distance reached 31.8 km/day. The second wild boar (near Warsaw) covered a mean minimum daily distance of 1.4 km; the highest value of the minimum daily distance was 3.9 km. Both wild boars exhibited no dependence of minimum daily distance on weather conditions. However, when intensive and non-intensive dispersion were analyzed separately, it was demonstrated that the maximum daily temperature positively influenced the minimum daily distance. We speculate that the wild boar was forced to search for water sources after dark on hot days, which induced a longer traveling distance in an unfamiliar environment. This study highlights the significant spatial capabilities of wild boar in the transmission of genes or pathogens. We speculate that extended daily distances during the initial "nomadic phase" might suggest a panicked escape from a perceived threat. It is plausible that the wild boar found improved shelter within tall cereal crops in July and August, which resulted in lower daily distances.

19.
Anim Genet ; 55(2): 193-205, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191264

RESUMO

Large genotyping datasets, obtained from high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, developed for different livestock species, can be used to describe and differentiate breeds or populations. To identify the most discriminating genetic markers among thousands of genotyped SNPs, a few statistical approaches have been proposed. In this study, we applied the Boruta algorithm, a wrapper of the machine learning random forest algorithm, on a database of 23 European pig breeds (20 autochthonous and three cosmopolitan breeds) genotyped with a 70k SNP chip, to pre-select informative SNPs. To identify different sets of SNPs, these pre-selected markers were then ranked with random forest based on their mean decrease accuracy and mean decrease gene indexes. We evaluated the efficiency of these subsets for breed classification and the usefulness of this approach to detect candidate genes affecting breed-specific phenotypes and relevant production traits that might differ among breeds. The lowest overall classification error (2.3%) was reached with a subpanel including only 398 SNPs (ranked based on their mean decrease accuracy), with no classification error in seven breeds using up to 49 SNPs. Several SNPs of these selected subpanels were in genomic regions in which previous studies had identified signatures of selection or genes associated with morphological or production traits that distinguish the analysed breeds. Therefore, even if these approaches have not been originally designed to identify signatures of selection, the obtained results showed that they could potentially be useful for this purpose.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Genoma , Suínos/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Aprendizado de Máquina
20.
Viruses ; 16(1)2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275963

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe suid diseases, impacting the pig industry and wild suid populations. Once an ASF vaccine is available, identifying a sufficient density of vaccination fields will be crucial to achieve eradication success. In 2020-2023, we live-trapped and monitored 27 wild boars in different areas of Lithuania, in which the wild boars were fed at artificial stations. We built a simulation study to estimate the probability of a successful ASF vaccination as a function of different eco-epidemiological factors. The average 32-day home range size across all individuals was 16.2 km2 (SD = 16.9). The wild boars made frequent visits of short durations to the feeding sites rather than long visits interposed by long periods of absence. A feeding site density of 0.5/km2 corresponded to an expected vaccination rate of only 20%. The vaccination probability increased to about 75% when the feeding site density was 1.0/km2. Our results suggest that at least one vaccination field/km2 should be used when planning an ASF vaccination campaign to ensure that everyone in the population has at least 5-10 vaccination sites available inside the home range. Similar studies should be conducted in the other ecological contexts in which ASF is present today or will be present in the future, with the objective being to estimate a context-specific relationship between wild boar movement patterns and an optimal vaccination strategy.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Sus scrofa , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...