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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1145, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531447

RESUMO

A higienização é um procedimento importante na indústria de alimentos e sua realização deve ocorrer rotineiramente para evitar que os alimentos sejam contaminados. Além disso, todos os manipuladores de alimentos devem receber treinamentos de modo a entender como ocorrem as contaminações e como evitá-las, para que não ocorra deterioração antecipada dos alimentos e para que não exponham os consumidores ao risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos em caso de contaminação. Esta pesquisa avaliou o processo de higienização e sua eficiência em superfícies presentes em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de embutidos cárneos. Apesar de ter instalações adequadas a agroindústria apresentava inadequações quanto aos produtos utilizados e a frequência inadequada para uma higienização eficiente. Foi realizada análise microbiológica das superfícies dos equipamentos para contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e notou-se uma elevada carga microbiana que indicou uma baixa eficiência no processo de higienização. Sugeriu-se melhorias na higiene ambiental associado à instrução dos colaboradores, para contribuir na promoção da qualidade dos produtos, aumento dos lucros e salvaguardando a saúde do consumidor.


Hygiene is an important procedure in the food industry, and its performance must occur routinely to prevent food from being contaminated. In addition, all food handlers must receive training in order to understand how contamination occurs and how to avoid it, so that there is no anticipated deterioration of food and that consumers are not exposed to the risk of foodborne diseases. in case of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, this research evaluated the cleaning process and its efficiency on surfaces present in a family farming agroindustry that produces meat products, which despite having adequate facilities, had some difficulties such as product use and inadequate frequency for eficiente cleaning. After performing a microbiological analysis to count surface mesophilic aerobes, a high level of contamination was noted, relating to low efficiency in the cleaning process. Improvements in environmental hygiene are suggested, associated with the instruction of employees for the implementation of the Standard Operating Hygiene Procedure, promoting improvements in product quality, increasing profits and safeguarding consumer health.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Higiene dos Alimentos , Indústria da Carne/normas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne
2.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 77(5)2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653726

RESUMO

Citrus canker is a disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subp. citri (X. citri), which affects all commercially important varieties of citrus and can lead to significant losses. Fruit sanitization with products such as chlorine-based ones can reduce the spread of the disease. While effective, their use raises concerns about safety of the workers. This work proposes essential oils (EOs) as viable alternatives for fruit sanitization. EOs from Cymbopogon species were evaluated as to their antibacterial activity, their effect on the bacterial membrane, and their ability to sanitize citrus fruit. The in vitro assays revealed that the EOs from C. schoenanthus and C. citratus had a lower bactericidal concentration at 312 mg L-1, followed by 625 mg L-1 for C. martini and C. winterianus. Microscopy assay revealed that the bacterial cell membranes were disrupted after 15 min of contact with all EOs tested. Regarding the sanitizing potential, the EOs with higher proportions of geraniol were more effective in sanitizing acid limes. Fruit treated with C. shoenanthus and C. martini showed a reduction of ∼68% in the recovery of viable bacterial cells. Therefore, these EOs can be used as viable natural alternatives in citrus fruit disinfection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Citrus , Cymbopogon , Óleos Voláteis , Doenças das Plantas , Xanthomonas , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573833

RESUMO

In the 1940s and 1950s, researchers seeking safe and novel ways to eliminate airborne pathogens from enclosed spaces, investigated glycol vapours as a method of disinfection. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for a non-toxic aerial disinfectant that can be used in the presence of people. This scoping review is intended to analyse the early and more recent literature on glycol disinfection, scrutinizing the methodologies used, and to determine if the use of glycols as modern-day disinfectants is justified PRISMA-ScR guidelines were used to assess the 749 articles retrieved from the Web of Science platform, with 46 articles retained after the search strategy was applied. Early studies generally demonstrated good disinfection capabilities against airborne bacteria and viruses, particularly with propylene glycol (PG) vapour. Vapour pressure, relative humidity, and glycol concentration were found to be important factors affecting the efficacy of glycol vapours. Contact times depended mainly on the glycol application method (i.e. aerosolization or liquid formulation), although information on how glycol efficacy is impacted by contact time is limited. Triethylene glycol (TEG) is deemed to have low toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity and is registered for use in air sanitization and deodorization by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Glycols are also used in liquid formulations for their antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, although when used as a non-active excipient in products, their contribution to antimicrobial efficacy is rarely assessed. The appropriate use of liquid glycol-containing formulations was found to positively impact the antimicrobial capabilities of disinfectants when used at temperatures <0, food preservatives, and dental medicaments. Providing modern delivery technology can accurately control environmental conditions, the use of aerosolized glycol formulations should lead to successful disinfection, aiding infection prevention, and control regimens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Desinfetantes , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Propilenoglicol/farmacologia , Gases
4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449342

RESUMO

Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, is a severe diarrheal disease that necessitates prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. This review comprehensively examines various diagnostic methods, from traditional microscopy and culture to advanced nucleic acid testing like polymerase spiral reaction and rapid diagnostic tests, highlighting their advantages and limitations. Additionally, we explore evolving treatment strategies, with a focus on the challenges posed by antibiotic resistance due to the activation of the SOS response pathway in V. cholerae. We discuss promising alternative treatments, including low-pressure plasma sterilization, bacteriophages, and selenium nanoparticles. The paper emphasizes the importance of multidisciplinary approaches combining novel diagnostics and treatments in managing and preventing cholera, a persistent global health challenge. The current re-emergent 7th pandemic of cholera commenced in 1961 and shows no signs of abeyance. This is probably due to the changing genetic profile of V. cholerae concerning bacterial pathogenic toxins. Given this factor, we argue that the disease is effectively re-emergent, particularly in Eastern Mediterranean countries such as Lebanon, Syria, etc. This review considers the history of the current pandemic, the genetics of the causal agent, and current treatment regimes. In conclusion, cholera remains a significant global health challenge that requires prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Understanding the history, genetics, and current treatments is crucial in effectively addressing this persistent and re-emergent disease.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Cólera , Vibrio cholerae , Humanos , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Toxina da Cólera/genética , Toxina da Cólera/metabolismo
5.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1338600, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435686

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. In the meat industry, one action taken to address pathogen contamination incidence is an intense sanitization (IS) of the entire processing plant that many large processors perform annually or semiannually. However, this procedure's immediate and long-term impact on environment microbial community and pathogen colonization are unknown. Here we investigated the impact of IS procedure on environmental biofilms and the subsequent S. enterica colonization and stress tolerance. Environmental samples were collected from floor drains at various areas 1 week before, 1 week, and 4 weeks after the IS procedure at a beef plant with sporadic S. enterica prevalence. Biofilm formation by microorganisms in the drain samples without S. enterica presence was tested under processing temperature. The ability of the biofilms to recruit and/or protect a co-inoculated S. enterica strain from quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) treatment was determined. The community structure of each drain sample was elucidated through 16S rRNA amplicon community sequencing. Post-IS samples collected from 8 drains formed significantly stronger biofilms than the respective pre-IS samples. S. enterica colonization was not different between the pre- and post-IS biofilms at all drain locations. S. enterica survival in QAC-treated pre- and post-IS mixed biofilms varied depending upon the drain location but a higher survival was associated with a stronger biofilm matrix. The 16S rRNA amplicon gene community sequencing results exhibited a decrease in community diversity 1 week after IS treatment but followed by a significant increase 4 weeks after the treatment. The IS procedure also significantly altered the community composition and the higher presence of certain species in the post-IS community may be associated with the stronger mixed biofilm formation and Salmonella tolerance. Our study suggested that the IS procedure might disrupt the existing environmental microbial community and alter the natural population composition, which might lead to unintended consequences as a result of a lack of competition within the multispecies mixture. The survival and recruitment of species with high colonizing capability to the post-IS community may play crucial roles in shaping the ensuing ecological dynamics.

6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335953, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384871

RESUMO

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to wearing face mask and washing hands procedures and achieving high COVID-19 vaccine coverage among healthcare workers (HCWs) were essential to minimize morbidity and possible death and limit the transmission of the virus. The objectives of the cross-sectional survey were to explore the influence of COVID-19 on the use of preventive measures and vaccination willingness among HCWs in the southern part of Italy and the associated factors. Methods: The survey was carried out from 15 June 2023 to 15 July 2023 among 521 HCWs who worked in three randomly selected public hospitals. All data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: HCWs had a positive change in the use of preventive measures if they did not often/always use them before the pandemic, but they are using in the current epidemiologic context and they were willing to use in a future epidemic situation. A positive change in the adherence to face mask-wearing (24.6%) was more likely among those with at least 5 years of university degree, nurses/midwives, and who had worked in COVID-19 wards. A positive change in alcohol-based hand rubbing (3.1%) was more likely in HCWs in Emergency/Critical/Infectious Diseases wards compared with medical wards. HCWs who were more likely to believe that the COVID-19 vaccine should be mandatory for them (58.1%) had at least 5 years of university degree, in Emergency/Critical/Infectious Diseases wards compared with surgical and medical wards, had received more than three doses of this vaccine, were more concerned to get infected during their activity, and had received information from scientific journals. HCWs more willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine every year (39.8%) were males, physicians, those in Emergency/Critical/Infectious Diseases wards compared with medical wards, who had received more than three doses of this vaccine, who believed that this vaccine should be mandatory for HCWs, and who needed additional information. Discussion: The survey showed that the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the use of preventive measures among HCWs, not necessarily for the improvement or increase. Educational messages on the importance of these measures regarding the promotion and recommendation of the vaccine need to be investigated and applied among HCWs in order to reduce vaccination gaps and the spread of the infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Itália/epidemiologia , Hospitais Públicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
7.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e25580, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356582

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) are characterized by novel properties which have been attracting the attention of different lines of research due to their wide applicability. Obtaining this nanomaterial is strongly linked to biogenic synthesis methods, which have also been developed in this research, using Coriandrum sativum extract as a reducing agent. ZnO NPs have been properly characterized by techniques to evaluate their morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and elemental analysis by EDX. The evaluation of the antimicrobial and antifungal effects is linked to the use of a system provided by "locker sanitizer" equipment, which has been designed and built as part of this research, and is intended to treat textile garments by nebulizing the ZnO NP colloid (99.08 µg/mL) + UV-B, water + UV-B, and UV-B only, and also to evaluate the influence of the treatment time for 1, 2 and 3 min. In this sense, it is known that the nanomaterial used shows a better response to UV light because more hydroxyl radicals are produced, leading to a higher reaction rate, which results in greater efficiency in inhibitory processes. The results show that the use of the locker sanitizer is more efficient when using ZnO NP + UV-B light since it achieved 100 % growth inhibition against E. coli, C. albicans, and A. brasiliensis, and >99 % against S. aureus, after 3 min of treatment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397700

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increased reported use of chemical cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting products (CSDPs), which created public concerns about negative health consequences for both children and adults in public schools. A subset of newer teachers shared experiences regarding safety and health (S&H) while working in school-based settings through a series of online surveys. Surveys were provided to teachers who completed work-based learning supervisory trainings provided by the New Jersey Safe Schools Program between October 2021 and June 2023. The participants answered questions focusing on CSDPs purchased for school use, their attitudes towards CSDPs, their use of personal protective equipment, and symptoms employees may have had due to CSDPs. A total of 205 teacher participants successfully completed the surveys. Over 25% of the teachers did not know where their CSDPs originated from, as they were provided by the school. Most participants "sometimes", "not often", or "never" read labels for CSDP ingredients or looked them up on healthy product apps. The participants (60%) tended to wear gloves while cleaning/disinfecting but did not wear masks. A third of the participants experienced respiratory health problems after working at school. Overall, the data suggest that more education on S&H regarding CSDPs needs to be provided to New Jersey teachers.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Professores Escolares , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , New Jersey , Instituições Acadêmicas , Atitude
9.
J Acute Med ; 13(3): 104-113, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37841823

RESUMO

Background: A sampling platform (or table) set at the patient's side in a zero-exposure screening center (booth) might be used for specimen collection during public health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. However, repeated sanitization causes moisture problems. Such moisture problems would not only be noted by patients but also interrupt the sampling process. In this study, we aimed to develop 3D-printed mesh-covered fluid collecting racks (MFCRs) to address surface moisture problems to determine whether MFCRs can shorten the sampling time. Methods: This was an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. We observed the reasons for sampling interruptions related to surface moisture problems among patients who used MFCRs or did not (April 28-30, 2022). We used a 3D printer to make an MFCR, which measured 14.5 cm in width and length and 1.0 cm in height. The MFCR allows the ethanol to drain through the mesh into the fluid collection rack below to leave a relatively dry surface on the mesh. Finally, we calculated the median time to finish sampling between MFCRs and non-MFCRs. Results: A total of 400 patients were randomly observed (using MFCRs, n = 200; non-MFCRs, n = 200). Patients in the non-MFCR group were more likely to interrupt the sampling process (n = 39, 19.5%) by noting surface moisture problems than those in the MFCR group (n = 3, 1.5%). Two of the major interruptions, "asking questions about the moist surface" (from 12% to 1%) and "slowing down their actions" (from 4.5% to 0.5%), were obviously improved by using MFCRs. Overall, the median sampling time was significantly shorter (p < 0.001) in the group using MFCRs (0.6 min) than in the group using non-MFCRs (1.5 min). The MFCRs shortened the sampling time by 60%, which might be associated with decreasing interruptions caused by surface moisture problems. Conclusions: The 3D printed MFCRs are suitable for handling surface moisture problems caused by repeated sanitizations. More importantly, the MFCRs might be associated with decreasing interruptions caused by moisture problems.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37754572

RESUMO

Recently, the use of disinfectants has been becoming a diffused and sometimes indiscriminate practice of paramount importance to limit the spreading of infections. The control of microbial contamination has now been concentrated on the use of traditional agents (i.e., hypochlorite, ozone). However, their prolonged use can cause potential treats, for both human health and environment. Currently, low-impact but effective biocides that are prepared in a way that avoids waste, with a very low toxicity, and safe and easy to handle and store are strongly needed. In this study, produced electrochemically activated hypochlorous (HOCl) acid solutions are investigated and proposed, integrated in a scrubbing machine for floor cleaning treatment. Such an innovative machine has been used for floor cleaning and sanitation in order to evaluate the microbial charge and organic dirt removal capacity of HOCl in comparison with a machine charged with traditional Ecolabel standard detergent. The potential damage on floor materials has also been investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis has been carried out for evaluating the sustainability of the use of the HOCl-based and detergent-based machine.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Saneamento , Humanos , Detergentes , Ácido Hipocloroso , Difusão
11.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 67(10): e0053423, 2023 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681981

RESUMO

The emergence of disinfectant-resistant microorganisms poses a significant threat to public health. These resilient pathogens can survive and thrive in hospital settings despite routine disinfection practices, leading to persistent infections and the potential for outbreaks. In this study, we investigated the impact of 11 different commercial sanitizers at various concentrations and exposure times on biofilms consisting of clinical and nosocomial environmental isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the sanitizers tested, 0.5% and 2.0% chlorhexidine (CLX), 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP-I), a disinfectant based on quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), 2% glutaraldehyde, and 0.55% orthophthalaldehyde (OPA) demonstrated efficacy against both C. parapsilosis and S. aureus in monospecies and mixed biofilms. Analysis showed that 0.5% CLX and 10% PVP-I had fungicidal and bactericidal activity against all biofilms. However, the sanitizer based on QAC and 0.55% OPA proved to be bacteriostatic and fungicidal against both monospecies and mixed biofilms. In mixed biofilms, despite the last four sanitizers exerting fungicidal action, the reduction of fungal cells was approximately 4 log10 CFU/mL compared to monospecies biofilms, showing that the interaction provided more resistance of the yeast to the sanitizer. Formation of mixed biofilms in hospital settings can create an ecological niche that enhances the survival of pathogens against routine sanitization procedures. Therefore, effective sanitization practices, including regular cleaning with effective sanitizers, should be implemented to prevent C. parapsilosis/S. aureus biofilm formation in healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Candida parapsilosis , Staphylococcus aureus , Povidona-Iodo , Biofilmes , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia
12.
Food Res Int ; 172: 113162, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689917

RESUMO

Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic bacterium, has raised a serious outbreak in powdered infant formula recent years. In this work, four sanitizing strategies used during infant formula processing, including chlorine, quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC), 60 °C heating, and malic acid (MA), were utilized against C. sakazakii among planktonic, air-dried (A), and air-dried & washed (AW) state, followed by an exploration of the metabolic responses induced by these treatments via a dual-platform metabolomics analysis with the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. In the planktonic state, MA was the most effective in inhibiting bacterial growth, followed by chlorine, QAC, and 60 °C heating. Under A state, the efficacy of heating improved considerably, compared to that in the planktonic state, and remained unaltered under AW state. Chlorine and QAC were ineffective to control bacterial growth under A state, but their efficacy rose under AW state. Furthermore, the metabolomic analysis revealed chlorine induces amino acids catabolism, membrane lysis, and depression in carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism in both planktonic and AW states, while the initiation of antioxidation mechanism was only found under AW state. Although the metabolic change caused by QAC in the planktonic state was similar to chlorine, the accumulation of osmoprotectant and membrane phospholipids within the AW cells reflected the effort to restore intracellular homeostasis upon QAC. Heating was characterized by considerable amino acid anabolism, along with mildly perturbed carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism for heat shock protein preparation in both states. Lastly, MA promoted amino acid-dependent acid resistance under the planktonic state, and the regulation of antioxidation and osmoprotection under AW state. The metabolomics study elucidated the intracellular perturbation induced by common sanitizing, as well as the bacterial response, which provides insights for novel sanitization development.


Assuntos
Cronobacter sakazakii , Humanos , Lactente , Cloro , Fórmulas Infantis , Metabolômica , Cloretos , Aminoácidos , Antioxidantes , Nucleotídeos
13.
J Pharm Sci ; 112(9): 2389-2392, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37453527

RESUMO

LEDs development has attracted attention over conventional mercury lamps for the tiny size, high efficiency, long lifetime, low operating temperature. The antimicrobial effectiveness of traditional UV-lamps radiation (wavelength of 254 nm) compared to UV-C LEDs (LED1 wavelength range 275-286 nm and LED2 range 260-270 nm) was carried out, for possible applications to automated sterile drug compounding. The UV lamp and the tested UV-LED devices remarkably reduced microbial load, following a time-dose response, but the best performance was evidenced by LED1, which guaranteed the complete inactivation of high concentrations of bacteria, yeasts, and spores at doses between 200 and 2000 J/m2.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Raios Ultravioleta , Viabilidade Microbiana , Composição de Medicamentos , Bactérias
14.
Poult Sci ; 102(10): 102893, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37473520

RESUMO

Eggs in the United States are typically washed using chemical sanitizers such as quaternary ammonia (QA) or chlorine. Such treatments generate wash water, which could be potentially hazardous to the environment. A novel, nonthermal sanitization technique for washing shell eggs using cold plasma-activated water (PAW) was investigated in this study. The inactivation efficacy of PAW on Klebsiella michiganensis and the impact of PAW on the cuticle of the eggshell and shell strength were tested in comparison to QA. Washing inoculated eggs with PAW and QA achieved a similar microbial reduction (>5.28 log CFU/egg). Colorimetric analysis showed that ∆E-value for PAW-treated eggs was significantly lower than QA-treated eggs, suggesting higher cuticle coverage in eggs treated with PAW. The texture analysis to test for shell egg strength indicated that washing eggs with PAW did not affect the structural integrity of the eggshell when compared to eggs washed with QA. According to this study, PAW has the potential as an alternative to commercial sanitizers like QA in the egg-washing industry. PAW does not detrimentally impact shell strength or cuticle coverage and provides similar microbial reduction efficacy.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gases em Plasma , Animais , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Gases em Plasma/análise , Água/análise , Galinhas , Óvulo , Casca de Ovo/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Ovos
15.
Appl Intell (Dordr) ; : 1-19, 2023 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37363385

RESUMO

Sanitizing railway stations is a relevant issue, primarily due to the recent evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic. In this work, we propose a multi-robot approach to sanitize railway stations based on a distributed Deep Q-Learning technique. The proposed framework relies on anonymous data from existing WiFi networks to dynamically estimate crowded areas within the station and to develop a heatmap of prioritized areas to be sanitized. Such heatmap is then provided to a team of cleaning robots - each endowed with a robot-specific convolutional neural network - that learn how to effectively cooperate and sanitize the station's areas according to the associated priorities. The proposed approach is evaluated in a realistic simulation scenario provided by the Italian largest railways station: Roma Termini. In this setting, we consider different case studies to assess how the approach scales with the number of robots and how the trained system performs with a real dataset retrieved from a one-day data recording of the station's WiFi network.

16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(5)2023 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37237774

RESUMO

Combatting the rapidly growing threat of antimicrobial resistance and reducing prevalence and transmission of ESKAPEE pathogens in healthcare settings requires innovative strategies, one of which is displacing these pathogens using beneficial microorganisms. Our review comprehensively examines the evidence of probiotic bacteria displacing ESKAPEE pathogens, with a focus on inanimate surfaces. A systematic search was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases on 21 December 2021, and 143 studies were identified examining the effects of Lactobacillaceae and Bacillus spp. cells and products on the growth, colonization, and survival of ESKAPEE pathogens. While the diversity of study methods limits evidence analysis, results presented by narrative synthesis demonstrate that several species have the potential as cells or their products or supernatants to displace nosocomial infection-causing organisms in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings. Our review aims to aid the development of new promising approaches to control pathogen biofilms in medical settings by informing researchers and policymakers about the potential of probiotics to combat nosocomial infections. More targeted studies are needed to assess safety and efficacy of different probiotic formulations, followed by large-scale studies to assess utility in infection control and medical practice.

17.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 94: 11-20, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211293

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal cellular metabolism, but their elevated levels can result in nucleotide modifications. These modified or noncanonical nucleotides often integrate into nascent DNA during replication, causing lesions that trigger DNA repair mechanisms such as the mismatch repair machinery and base excision repair. Four superfamilies of sanitization enzymes can effectively hydrolyze noncanonical nucleotides from the precursor pool and eliminate their unintended incorporation into DNA. Notably, we focus on the representative MTH1 NUDIX hydrolase, whose enzymatic activity is ostensibly nonessential under normal physiological conditions. Yet, the sanitization attributes of MTH1 are more prevalent when ROS levels are abnormally high in cancer cells, rendering MTH1 an interesting target for developing anticancer treatments. We discuss multiple MTH1 inhibitory strategies that have emerged in recent years, and the potential of NUDIX hydrolases as plausible targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos , Nudix Hidrolases , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA , Nucleotídeos/genética , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo
18.
Food Res Int ; 168: 112748, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37120202

RESUMO

Carvacrol is an antimicrobial agent that shows potential for eliminating microorganisms in vegetables, increasing food safety. However, intense odor and low water solubility of carvacrol are limiting factors for its application for fresh vegetables sanitization, which can be overcome by nanotechnology. Two different nanoemulsions containing carvacrol (11 mg/mL) were developed by probe sonication: carvacrol-saponin nanoemulsion (CNS) and carvacrol-polysorbate 80 nanoemulsion (CNP). Formulations presented appropriate droplet sizes (from 74.7 nm to 168.2 nm) and high carvacrol encapsulation efficiency (EE) (from 89.5 % to 91.5 %). CNS showed adequate droplet size distribution (PDI < 0.22) and high zeta potential values (around -30 mV) compared to CNP, with saponin chosen for the following experiments. Carvacrol nanoemulsions presented Bacterial Inactivation Concentration (BIC) against the Salmonella cocktail from 5.51 to 0.69 mg/mL and for the E. coli cocktail from 1.84 to 0.69 mg/mL. Among all tested nanoemulsions, CNS1 presented the lowest BIC (0.69 mg/mL) against both bacterial cocktails. Damage to bacterial cells in lettuce treated with nanoemulsion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. For lettuce sanitization, CNS1 showed a similar effect to unencapsulated carvacrol, with a high bacterial reduction (>3 log CFU/g) after lettuce immersion for 15 min at 2 × BIC. Using the same immersion time, the CNS1 (2 × BIC) demonstrated equal or better efficacy in reducing both tested bacterial cocktails (>3 log CFU/g) when compared to acetic acid (6.25 mg/mL), citric acid (25 mg/mL), and sodium hypochlorite solution (150 ppm). Lettuce immersed in CNS1 at both concentrations (BIC and 2 × BIC) did not change the color and texture of leaves, while the unencapsulated carvacrol at 2 × BIC darkened them and reduced their firmness. Consequently, carvacrol-saponin nanoemulsion (CNS1) proved to be a potential sanitizer for lettuce.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Lactuca , Lactuca/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Verduras , Emulsificantes
19.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(5)2023 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36899713

RESUMO

Large-scale pig farming is associated with the production of large amounts of animal excrement, which, after processing into the form of, e.g., slurry, are managed on agricultural land as natural fertilizers. The utilization of pig manure on agricultural land in an excessive and uncontrolled manner may pose a threat to zoonoses due to the significant amounts of potentially pathogenic microorganisms within its content. This study aims to determine the impact of the methane fermentation process carried out in two agricultural biogas plants on the efficiency of sanitization of pig slurry, input biomass, and digestate. The biogas plants differed in terms of the substrate used; one used pig slurry from a maternal (breeding) farm (BP-M), and the other utilized pig slurry from a fattening farm (BP-F). The physicochemical analyses showed that the slurry, input biomass, and digestate from the BP-F were characterized by a significantly higher contents of organic dry matter, ash, and ammonium nitrogen than the slurry, input biomass, and digestate from the BP-M. The parameters of the methane fermentation process, including temperature and pH, reached higher values in the BP-F compared to the BP-M. The microbiological analyses led to the conclusion that the efficiency of sanitization of input biomass, including pig slurry, was significantly higher in the BP-F compared to the BP-M. Due to the above findings, locating biogas plants near pig fattening farms should be recommended.

20.
Biomedicines ; 11(3)2023 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36979786

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 was first reported in China in December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and spread primarily via an airborne route. Hand hygiene, surgical masks, vaccinations and boosters, air filtration, environmental sanitization, instrument sterilization, mouth rinses, and social distancing are essential infection control measures against the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This paper aims to provide healthcare professionals with evidence-based protective strategies.

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