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1.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 95-103, abr.-jun2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232395

RESUMO

Introduction: Evidence about nefroprotective effect with RAAS blockers in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without proteinuria is lacking. The primary outcome of our study is to evaluate the impact of RAAS blockers in CKD progression in elderly patients without proteinuria. Materials and methods: Multicenter open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial including patients over 65 year-old with hypertension and CKD stages 3–4 without proteinuria. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive RAAS blockers or other antihypertensive drugs and were followed up for three years. Primary outcome is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline at 3 years. Secondary outcome measures include BP control, renal and cardiovascular events and mortality. Results: 88 patients were included with a mean age of 77.9±6.1 years and a follow up period of 3 years: 40 were randomized to RAAS group and 48 to standard treatment. Ethiology of CKD was: 53 vascular, 16 interstitial and 19 of unknown ethiology. In the RAAS group eGFR slope during follow up was −4.3±1.1ml/min, whereas in the standard treatment group an increase on eGFR was observed after 3 years (+4.6±0.4ml/min), p=0.024. We found no differences in blood pressure control, number of antihypertensive drugs, albuminuria, potassium serum levels, incidence of cardiovascular events nor mortality during the follow up period. Conclusions: In elderly patients without diabetes nor cardiopathy and with non proteinuric CKD the use of RAAS blockers does not show a reduction in CKD progression. The PROERCAN (PROgresión de Enfermedad Renal Crónica en ANcianos) trial (trial registration: NCT03195023). (AU)


Introducción: Actualmente no existe suficiente evidencia sobre el efecto nefroprotector de los bloqueantes del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (BSRAA) en pacientes añosos con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) sin proteinuria y sin cardiopatía. El objetivo es evaluar el efecto de los BSRAA en la progresión de la ERC en este grupo poblacional. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio prospectivo, aleatorizado, que compara la eficacia de los BSRAA vs. otros tratamientos antihipertensivos en la progresión renal en personas mayores de 65 años con ERC estadios 3 y 4 e índice albúmina/creatinina<30mg/g. Aleatorización 1:1 BSRAA o tratamiento antihipertensivo estándar. Se recogieron cifras tensionales y parámetros analíticos de un año previo a la aleatorización y durante el seguimiento. Resultados: Se incluyeron 88 pacientes seguidos durante tres años con edad media de 77,9±6,1 años. De estos, se aleatorizaron 40 al grupo BSRAA y 48 al estándar. La etiología de ERC fue: 53 vascular, 16 intersticial y 19 no filiada. En el primer grupo se observó una progresión de la ERC con una caída del filtrado glomerular estimado (FGe) de -4,3±1,1mL/min, mientras que en el grupo estándar un aumento del FGe durante el seguimiento de 4,6±0,4mL/min, p=0,024. No se apreciaron diferencias entre ambos en el control tensional, el número de antihipertensivos, la albuminuria, los niveles de potasio, la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares ni la mortalidad durante el seguimiento. Conclusiones: En pacientes añosos no diabéticos con ERC no proteinúrica y sin cardiopatía el uso de BSRAA no añade beneficio en la progresión de la ERC. Ensayo clínico Progresión de Enfermedad Renal Crónica en Ancianos (PROERCAN) (NCT03195023). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Albuminúria , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Hipertensão , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Proteinúria , Cardiopatias , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 41(2): 95-103, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508877

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence about nefroprotective effect with RAAS blockers in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without proteinuria is lacking. The primary outcome of our study is to evaluate the impact of RAAS blockers in CKD progression in elderly patients without proteinuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicenter open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial including patients over 65 year-old with hypertension and CKD stages 3-4 without proteinuria. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive RAAS blockers or other antihypertensive drugs and were followed up for three years. Primary outcome is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline at 3 years. Secondary outcome measures include BP control, renal and cardiovascular events and mortality. RESULTS: 88 patients were included with a mean age of 77.9±6.1 years and a follow up period of 3 years: 40 were randomized to RAAS group and 48 to standard treatment. Ethiology of CKD was: 53 vascular, 16 interstitial and 19 of unknown ethiology. In the RAAS group eGFR slope during follow up was -4.3±1.1ml/min, whereas in the standard treatment group an increase on eGFR was observed after 3 years (+4.6±0.4ml/min), p=0.024. We found no differences in blood pressure control, number of antihypertensive drugs, albuminuria, potassium serum levels, incidence of cardiovascular events nor mortality during the follow up period. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients without diabetes nor cardiopathy and with non proteinuric CKD the use of RAAS blockers does not show a reduction in CKD progression. The PROERCAN (PROgresión de Enfermedad Renal Crónica en ANcianos) trial (trial registration: NCT03195023).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/etiologia
3.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(4): 163-169, Feb. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230572

RESUMO

Objectives: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world since 2019. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to hospitalization and death. Systemic arterial hypertension and other comorbidities are associated with serious COVID-19 infection. Literature is unclear whether antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect COVID-19 outcomes. We aim to assess whether ACEI/ARB therapy is a risk factor for worse respiratory outcomes related to COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Methods: Retrospective study enrolling admitted COVID-19-diagnosed patients by RT-PCR at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil, during 2021. Patient medical records, sociodemographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Chest CT images were analyzed using CAD4COVID-CT/Thirona™ software. Results: A total of 294 patients took part in the study. A cut-off point of 66% of pulmonary involvement was found by ROC curve, with patients having higher risk of death and intubation and lower 60-day survival. Advanced age (RR 1.025, P=0.001) and intubation (RR 16.747, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher risk of death. Advanced age (RR 1.023, P=0.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (RR 1.548, P=0.037) were associated with a higher risk of intubation. Lung involvement (>66%) increased the risk of death by almost 2.5-fold (RR 2.439, P<0.001) and by more than 2.3-fold the risk of intubation (RR 2.317, P<0.001). Conclusions: Altogether, our findings suggest that ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect the risk of death and disease course during hospitalization.(AU)


Objetivos: La COVID-19, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, se ha extendido por todo el mundo desde 2019. En casos graves, la COVID-19 puede provocar hospitalización y muerte. La hipertensión arterial sistémica y otras comorbilidades se asocian con una infección grave por COVID-19. La literatura no está clara si la terapia antihipertensiva con bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina (BRA) e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (ECA) afecta los resultados de la COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la terapia BRA/ECA es un factor de riesgo de peores resultados respiratorios relacionados con COVID-19 en pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 mediante RT-PCR en el Hospital General de Fortaleza, Brasil, durante 2021. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes, datos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Las imágenes de TC de tórax se analizaron utilizando el software CAD4COVID-CT/ThironaTM. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio un total de 294 pacientes. Mediante curva ROC se encontró un punto de corte del 66% de afectación pulmonar, teniendo los pacientes mayor riesgo de muerte e intubación y menor supervivencia a 60 días. La edad avanzada (RR 1,025; P=0,001) y la intubación (RR 16,747; P<0,001) se asociaron significativamente con un mayor riesgo de muerte. La edad avanzada (RR 1,023; P=0,001) y el uso de ventilación no invasiva (RR 1,548; P=0,037) se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de intubación. La afectación pulmonar (>66%) aumentó el riesgo de muerte casi 2,5 veces (RR 2,439; P<0,001) y más de 2,3 veces el riesgo de intubación (RR 2,317, P<0,001). Conclusiones: Se concluyó que el tratamiento con BRA o ECA no afecta el riesgo de muerte y el curso de la enfermedad durante la hospitalización.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , /diagnóstico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Comorbidade , /epidemiologia , Medicina Clínica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Inteligência Artificial
4.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 162(4): 163-169, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world since 2019. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to hospitalization and death. Systemic arterial hypertension and other comorbidities are associated with serious COVID-19 infection. Literature is unclear whether antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect COVID-19 outcomes. We aim to assess whether ACEI/ARB therapy is a risk factor for worse respiratory outcomes related to COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Retrospective study enrolling admitted COVID-19-diagnosed patients by RT-PCR at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil, during 2021. Patient medical records, sociodemographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Chest CT images were analyzed using CAD4COVID-CT/Thirona™ software. RESULTS: A total of 294 patients took part in the study. A cut-off point of 66% of pulmonary involvement was found by ROC curve, with patients having higher risk of death and intubation and lower 60-day survival. Advanced age (RR 1.025, P=0.001) and intubation (RR 16.747, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher risk of death. Advanced age (RR 1.023, P=0.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (RR 1.548, P=0.037) were associated with a higher risk of intubation. Lung involvement (>66%) increased the risk of death by almost 2.5-fold (RR 2.439, P<0.001) and by more than 2.3-fold the risk of intubation (RR 2.317, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our findings suggest that ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect the risk of death and disease course during hospitalization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
5.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 43(6): 721-730, nov.- dec. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-228010

RESUMO

Introducción La hiperpotasemia crónica tiene consecuencias negativas a medio y largo plazo, condicionando generalmente la suspensión de fármacos nefro y cardioprotectores, en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) e insuficiencia cardíaca (IC), como son los inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona. Existe una alternativa a la suspensión o reducción de dosis de estos tratamientos y es la administración de quelantes del potasio. El objetivo de este estudio es estimar el impacto económico que supondría el uso de patiromer en pacientes con ERC o IC e hiperpotasemia en España. Material y métodos Se ha estimado el impacto económico anual del uso de patiromer desde la perspectiva de la sociedad española, comparando 2 escenarios: pacientes con ERC o IC e hiperpotasemia tratada con patiromer y sin patiromer. Los costes se han actualizado a euros de 2020, utilizando el índice de precios de consumo de Sanidad. Se han considerado los costes directos sanitarios relacionados con el uso de recursos (el tratamiento con inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona, la progresión de la ERC, los eventos cardiovasculares y la hospitalización por hiperpotasemia), los costes directos no sanitarios (cuidados informales: costes derivados del tiempo de dedicación por parte de los familiares del paciente), los costes indirectos (pérdidas de productividad laboral), así como un coste intangible (por mortalidad prematura). Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad determinístico para validar la consistencia de los resultados del estudio. Resultados El coste medio anual por paciente en el escenario sin patiromer es de 9.834,09 € y 10.739,37 € en ERC e IC, respectivamente. El uso de patiromer supondría un ahorro de costes superior al 30% en ambas enfermedades. En el caso de la ERC, el mayor ahorro procede del retraso de la progresión de la ERC (AU)


Introduction Chronic hyperkalemia has negative consequences in the medium and long term, and determines the suspension of nephro and cardioprotective drugs, such as renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). There is an alternative to the suspension or dose reduction of these treatments: the administration of potassium chelators. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the use of patiromer in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heart failure (HF) and hyperkalemia in Spain. Materials and method The annual economic impact of the use of patiromer has been estimated from the perspective of the Spanish society. Two scenarios were compared: patients with CKD or HF and hyperkalemia treated with and without patiromer. The costs have been updated to 2020 euros, using the Health Consumer Price Index. Direct healthcare costs related to the use of resources (treatment with RAASi, CKD progression, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to hyperkalemia), direct non-healthcare costs (informal care: costs derived from time dedicated by patient's relatives), the indirect costs (productivity loss), as well as an intangible cost (due to premature mortality) were considered. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the robustness of the study results. Results The mean annual cost per patient in the scenario without patiromer is €9834.09 and €10,739.37 in CKD and HF, respectively. The use of patiromer would lead to cost savings of over 30% in both diseases. The greatest savings in CKD come from the delay in the progression of CKD. While in the case of HF, 80.1% of these savings come from premature mortality reduction. The sensitivity analyses carried out show the robustness of the results, obtaining savings in all cases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/economia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/economia
6.
Semergen ; 49 Suppl 1: 102018, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355297

RESUMO

The role of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathophysiology of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease has been known for years. RAAS inhibitors have been the mainstay of chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment. Studies have shown that therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensinII receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce the excretion of albuminuria and slow the progression of kidney disease in patients with and without diabetes. In clinical practice, RAAS inhibitors are recommended as the antihypertensive of choice in patients with CKD and albuminuria with or without diabetes. In addition, they have demonstrated cardiovascular benefits beyond blood pressure control. The use of RAAS inhibitors in non-proteinuric nephropathy and advanced CKD is not without controversy. Double blockade of the RAAS is contraindicated. On the other hand, it is essential to know how to titrate doses and avoid side effects, mainly hyperkalaemia.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Semergen ; 49 Suppl 1: 102021, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355300

RESUMO

Several risk factors may affect the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Arterial hypertension, proteinuria, obesity, intraglomerular hypertension, smoking and metabolic control in diabetes mellitus are the main modifiable risk factors for progression. The progression of CKD involves many cellular processes that originate in specific compartments of the kidney, the vascular compartment with nephroangiosclerosis and the tubulointerstitial compartment with fibrosis and tubulointerstitial atrophy, and there may be overlap between both mechanisms. Given the involvement of so many risk factors and so many pathogenic pathways in the progression of CKD, the best hope for delaying or preventing the progression of CKD lies in a combined and multidisciplinary therapeutic approach, based on the existing evidence and acting on all these processes and pathways from the mechanistic point of view, and on a global process that is cardiovascular and renal risk to improve the prognosis of patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Progressão da Doença
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 894-900, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514321

RESUMO

SUMMARY: It is known that diabetes mellitus has late complications, including microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Diabetes can affect bones through biochemical markers of bone structure, density, and turnover. This study aimed to biomechanically investigate the bone-protective effects of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), one of the active peptides in the renin-angiotensin system, in rats with diabetes. Thirty male Wistar albino rats, three months old and weighing 250-300 g, were divided into four groups: diabetes, Ang 1- 7, diabetes plus Ang 1-7, and control. One month later, diabetes developed in rats; the rats were sacrificed, and their right femur was removed. Three-point bending biomechanical tests were performed on the femurs. The diabetic group had significantly higher bone fragility than the other groups (Pr >.05). Bone fragility was lower, and bone flexibility was higher in the Ang 1-7 groups (Pr>F value 0.05). As a result of our study, the effect of Ang 1-7 on the bones of rats with diabetes was investigated biomechanically. Ang 1-7 has a protective impact on the bones of rats with diabetes.


Se sabe que la diabetes mellitus tiene complicaciones tardías, incluyendo enfermedades microvasculares y macrovasculares. La diabetes puede afectar los huesos a través de los marcadores bioquímicos de la estructura, la densidad y el recambio óseo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar biomecánicamente los efectos protectores en los huesos de la angiotensina 1-7 (Ang 1-7), uno de los péptidos activos en el sistema renina-angiotensina, en ratas con diabetes. Treinta ratas albinas Wistar macho, de tres meses de edad y con un peso de 250-300 g, se dividieron en cuatro grupos: diabetes, Ang 1-7, diabetes más Ang 1-7 y control. Un mes después, se desarrolló diabetes en ratas; se sacrificaron los animales y se extrajo su fémur derecho. Se realizaron pruebas biomecánicas de flexión de tres puntos en los fémures. El grupo diabéticos tenía una fragilidad ósea significativamente mayor que los otros grupos (Pr > 0,05). La fragilidad ósea fue menor y la flexibilidad ósea fue mayor en los grupos Ang 1-7 (valor Pr>F 0,05). Como resultado de nuestro estudio, se determinó biomecánicamente el efecto de Ang 1-7 en los huesos de ratas con diabetes. Se concluye que Ang 1-7 tiene un impacto protector en los huesos de ratas diabéticas.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Angiotensina I/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 675-685, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440334

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Pulmonary ventilation is a mechanical process in which the respiratory muscles act in coordination to maintain the oxygenation of the organism. Any alteration in the performance of these muscles may reduce the effectiveness of the process. The respiratory muscles differ from the other skeletal muscles in the vital support that they provide through rhythmiccontractions. The structure and energy system of the muscles are specially adapted to perform this function. The composition of the respiratory muscles is exceptional; they are small, and present an abundant capillary network, endowing them with a high aerobic level and resistance to fatigue. Coordinated regulation of the local renin-angiotensin system provides proper blood flow and energy supply in the myofibrils of the skeletal muscle tissue. Specifically, this performance will depend to a large extent on blood flow and glucose consumption, regulated by the renin-angiotensin system. The angiotensin converting enzyme is responsible for degrading kinins, which finally regulate muscle bioenergy and glucose between the blood vessel and the skeletal muscle. The objective of this review is to describe the structure of the respiratory muscles and their association with the angiotensin converting enzyme gene.


La ventilación pulmonar es un proceso mecánico en el que los músculos respiratorios actúan coordinadamente para mantener la oxigenación en el organismo. Así, cualquier alteración en el desempeño de estos músculos puede reducir la efectividad del proceso. Los músculos respiratorios se diferencian de otros músculos esqueléticos, debido al apoyo vital que brindan a través de sus contracciones rítmicas. La estructura y el sistema energético de estos músculos están especialmente adaptados para realizar esta función. La composición de los músculos respiratorios es especial; son pequeñas y presentan una abundante red capilar, lo que les otorga un alto nivel aeróbico y resistencia a la fatiga. La regulación coordinada del sistema renina-angiotensina local, proporciona un adecuado flujo sanguíneo y suministro de energía a las miofibrillas del músculo esquelético. En concreto, este rendimiento dependerá en gran medida del flujo sanguíneo y del consumo de glucosa, regulado por el sistema renina-angiotensina. Aquí, la enzima convertidora de angiotensina es responsable de degradar las kininas, que finalmente regulan la bioenergía muscular y la glucosa entre el vaso sanguíneo y el músculo esquelético. El objetivo de esta breve comunicación es describir la estructura de los músculos respiratorios y su asociación con el gen de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Músculos Respiratórios/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Respiratórios/enzimologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Músculos Respiratórios/embriologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 120(5): e20220756, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429813

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento Embora tenha sido relatado que a dieta de jejum intermitente (JI) tem efeitos positivos na saúde do coração e na melhora da pressão arterial, ainda não foi suficientemente esclarecido como poderia ter esses efeitos positivos.Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos do JI no sistema nervoso autônomo (SNA) e no sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA), que estão intimamente relacionados à pressão arterial. Métodos Setenta e dois pacientes hipertensos foram incluídos no estudo, e os dados de 58 pacientes foram usados. Todos os participantes jejuaram por cerca de 15-16 horas por 30 dias. Os participantes foram avaliados com monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial de 24 horas e eletrocardiograma Holter antes e após o JI; também, amostras de sangue venoso de 5 ml foram coletadas para avaliação dos níveis séricos de angiotensina I (Ang-I) e angiotensina II (Ang-II) e da atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA). Para análise dos dados, o valor de p < 0,05 foi aceito como significativo. Resultados Comparado ao pré-JI, observou-se queda significativa nas pressões arteriais dos pacientes no pós-JI. Um aumento na potência de alta frequência (AF) e na raiz quadrada média da soma dos quadrados das diferenças entre intervalos NN adjacentes (RMSSD) foram observados após o protocolo JI (p=0,039, p=0,043). A Ang-II e a atividade da ECA foram menores em pacientes após JI (p=0,034, p=0,004), e níveis decrescentes de Ang-II foram determinados como fatores preditivos para melhora da pressão arterial, como o aumento da potência de AF e RMSSD. Conclusão Os presentes achados de nosso estudo demonstraram uma melhora na pressão arterial e a relação da pressão arterial com resultados positivos, incluindo VFC, atividade da ECA e níveis de Ang-II após o protocolo JI.


Abstract Background Although it has been reported that the intermittent fasting (IF) diet has positive effects on heart health and improvement in blood pressure, it has not been sufficiently clarified how it could have these positive effects yet. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of IF on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which are closely related to blood pressure. Methods Seventy-two hypertensive patients were included in the study, and the data of 58 patients were used. All the participants fasted for about 15-16 hours for 30 days. Participants were evaluated with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and Holter electrocardiography before and after IF; also, 5 ml venous blood samples were taken for assessment of Serum angiotensin I (Ang-I) and angiotensin II (Ang-II) levels and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. For data analysis, the p-value <0.05 was accepted as significant. Results Compared to pre-IF, a significant decrease was observed in the patients' blood pressures in post-IF. An increase in high-frequency (HF) power and the mean root square of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) were observed after the IF protocol (p=0.039, p=0.043). Ang-II and ACE activity were lower in patients after IF (p=0.034, p=0.004), and decreasing Ang-II levels were determined as predictive factors for improvement of the blood pressure, like the increase in HF power and RMSSD. Conclusion The present findings of our study demonstrated an improvement in blood pressure and the relationship of blood pressure with positive outcomes, including HRV, ACE activity, and Ang-II levels after the IF protocol.

13.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed) ; 43(6): 721-730, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic hyperkalemia has negative consequences in the medium and long term, and determines the suspension of nephro and cardioprotective drugs, such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). There is an alternative to the suspension or dose reduction of these treatments: the administration of potassium chelators. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the use of patiromer in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heart failure (HF) and hyperkalemia in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The annual economic impact of the use of patiromer has been estimated from the perspective of the Spanish society. Two scenarios were compared: patients with CKD or HF and hyperkalemia treated with and without patiromer. The costs have been updated to 2020 euros, using the Health Consumer Price Index. Direct healthcare costs related to the use of resources (treatment with RAASi, CKD progression, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to hyperkalemia), direct non-healthcare costs (informal care: costs derived from time dedicated by patient's relatives), the indirect costs (productivity loss), as well as an intangible cost (due to premature mortality) were considered. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the robustness of the study results. RESULTS: The mean annual cost per patient in the scenario without patiromer is €9,834.09 and €10,739.37 in CKD and HF, respectively. The use of patiromer would lead to cost savings of over 30% in both diseases. The greatest savings in CKD come from the delay in the progression of CKD. While in the case of HF, 80.1% of these savings come from premature mortality reduction. The sensitivity analyses carried out show the robustness of the results, obtaining savings in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of patiromer allows better control of hyperkalemia and, as a consequence, maintain treatment with RAASi in patients with CKD or HF. This would generate a 32% of annual savings in Spain (€3,127 in CKD; €3,466 in HF). The results support the positive contribution of patiromer to health cost in patients with only CKD or in patients with only HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperpotassemia , Polímeros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Espanha , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(7): 710-718, July 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394810

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To describe the effects of combined oral contraceptives (COC) on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Data sourcesThis is a systematic review according to the criteria of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), registered in PROSPERO under the ID: CRD42020200019. Searches were performed between August 2020 and December 2021, in the following databases: Medline via Pubmed, Cochrane Central Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences via Virtual Health Library. The effects of the combined oral contraceptive on plasma renin activity values, plasma renin values, angiotensinogen values— also known as plasma renin substrate— angiotensin, and/or aldosterone values. Study selectionA total of 877 studies were selected and, of these, 10 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Data collectionData were combined through qualitative synthesis and included in a spreadsheet previously prepared by the authors. Data synthesisThe collected samples ranged from 18 to 137 participants, totaling 501 women aged between 18 and 49 years throughout all studies. The studies showed increased activity of plasma renin, plasma renin substrate, angiotensin II, and aldosterone in this population. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the COC promotes greater activation of the RAAS. Supporting the idea that its use is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including systemic arterial hypertension.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever os efeitos do contraceptivo oral combinado (COC) no sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (SRAA). Fontes dos dadosTrata-se de uma revisão sistemática de acordo com os critérios do Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), registrada no PROSPERO sob ID: CRD42020200019. As buscas foram realizadas entre agosto de 2020 e dezembro de 2021 nas bases de dados: Medline via Pubmed, Biblioteca Cochrane Central, Scientific Electronic Library Online, e Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde via Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Consultado os artigos sobre os efeitos do contraceptivo oral combinado nos valores da atividade da renina plasmática, valores plasmáticos da renina, valores do angiotensinogênio - também conhecido como substrato da renina plasmática -, valores da angiotensina e/ou aldosterona. Seleção dos estudosForam selecionados 877 estudos e, destes, 10 artigos preencheram os critérios de elegibilidade e foram incluídos nesta revisão. Coleta de dadosOs dados foram combinados por meio de síntese qualitativa e inclusos em uma planilha elaborada previamente pelos autores. Síntese dos dadosAs amostras coletadas variavam entre 18 e 137 participantes, totalizando 501 mulheres com idade entre 18 e 49 anos em todos os estudos. Os estudos apresentaram aumento da atividade da renina plasmática, do substrato da renina plasmática, da angiotensina II e da aldosterona nessa população. Conclusão Os achados deste estudo sugerem que o COC promove maior ativação do SRAA. Apoiando a ideia de que o seu uso esteja relacionado ao aumento do risco de eventos cardiovasculares, incluindo a hipertensão arterial sistêmica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Anticoncepcionais Femininos
15.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412782

RESUMO

Introducción. El síndrome de Alport es una alteración heterocigótica que afecta las cadenas alfas del colágeno tipo IV, manifestándose clínicamente de forma variable principalmente por hematuria persistente. Existen diferentes manifestaciones clínicas en esta patología, encontrando casos de enfermedad renal crónica. Es crucial establecer medidas que permitan la detección oportuna disminuyendo las complicaciones. Objetivo. Describir la relación e importancia entre el síndrome de Alport y las alteraciones renales, resaltar las manifestaciones clínicas y manejo terapéutico. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en las bases de datos de PubMed y Scielo orientada hacia artículos actualizados y relevantes en inglés o español publicados en los últimos 5 años. Se evaluó a relación entre el síndrome de Alport y la patología renal permitiendo describir importancia clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Resultados. Diferentes estudios evidencian la relación directa entre el síndrome de Alport y la disfunción renal asociado a procesos inflamatorios crónicos. El tratamiento no está estandarizado, pero se encuentra dirigido al bloqueo del sistema renina-angiotensina aldosterona. Se deben continuar los estudios evaluando el desenlace de la afectación renal asociada a esta patología. Conclusiones. El síndrome de Alport es una causa importante de disfunción renal, primordialmente si no se asocia a un tratamiento; por lo cual, es importante realizar un diagnóstico oportuno mediante la sospecha inicial, diagnóstico diferencial y abordaje adecuado partiendo del reconocimiento clínico de esta entidad asociada con el deterioro de la función renal


Introduction. Alport syndrome is a heterozygous alteration that affects the alpha chains of type IV collagen, manifesting itself clinically in a variable manner, mainly by persistent hematuria. There are different clinical manifestations in this pathology, fnding cases of chronic renal disease. It is crucial to establish measures that allow timely detection, thus reducing complications. Objective. To describe the relationship and importance between Alport syndrome and renal alterations, highlight the clinical manifestations and therapeutic management. Methods. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Scielo databases oriented towards updated and relevant articles in English or Spanish published in the last 5 years. The relationship between Alport syndrome and renal pathology was evaluated to describe clinical signifcance, diagnosis and treatment. Results. Different studies show a direct relationship between Alport syndrome and renal dysfunction associated with chronic inflammatory processes. The treatment is not standardized, but is aimed at blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Studies should continue to evaluate the outcome of renal involvement associated with this pathology. Conclusions. Alport syndrome is an important cause of renal dysfunction, especially if it is not associated with treatment; therefore, it is important to make a timely diagnosis through initial suspicion, differential diagnosis and appropriate approach based on the clinical recognition of this entity associated with the deterioration of renal function


Introdução. A síndrome de Alport é uma desordem heterozigótica que afeta as cadeias alfa do colágeno tipo IV. afeta as cadeias alfa do colágeno tipo IV, manifestando-se clinicamente de forma variável, principalmente pela hematúria persistente. Existem diferentes manifestações clínicas desta patologia, incluindo casos de doença renal crônica. É crucial estabelecer medidas que permitam a detecção oportuna e reduzam as complicações. Objetivo. Para descrever a relação e a importância entre a síndrome de Alport e as alterações renais, destacar as manifestações clínicas e o manejo terapêutico. Métodos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados PubMed e Scielo, orientada para artigos atualizados e relevantes em inglês ou espanhol publicados nos últimos 5 anos. A relação entre a síndrome de Alport e a patologia renal foi avaliada para descrever seu significado clínico, diagnóstico e tratamento. Resultados. Diferentes estudos mostram uma relação direta entre a síndrome de Alport e as disfunções renais associadas aos processos inflamatórios crônicos. O tratamento não é padronizado, mas visa bloquear o sistema renina-angiotensina aldosterona. Outros estudos devem continuar a avaliar o resultado do envolvimento renal associado a esta patologia. Conclusões. A síndrome de Alport é uma causa importante de disfunção renal, especialmente se não associada ao tratamento; portanto, é importante fazer um diagnóstico oportuno através da suspeita inicial, diagnóstico diferencial e abordagem apropriada baseada no reconhecimento clínico desta entidade associada à função renal prejudicada

16.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(4): 235-240, abr. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204730

RESUMO

n los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) y fracción de eyección reducida, el uso de los inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (iSRAA) se asocia con una mejoría funcional, incremento de la calidad de vida percibida, reducción de la probabilidad de muerte cardiovascular y disminución del número de hospitalizaciones. Algunos de esos fármacos también resultan eficaces en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica y albuminuria, así como en pacientes con hipertensión arterial resistente. A pesar de sus numerosos beneficios, los iSRAA se asocian a un incremento de la incidencia de hiperpotasemia, sobre todo en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica concomitante. La hiperpotasemia es un trastorno iónico frecuente que se define como la elevación de las concentraciones plasmáticas de potasio por encima de 5 mEq/L, y se ha relacionado con la presencia de rehospitalizaciones, arritmias cardíacas malignas y aumento de la mortalidad. Por otro lado, un tratamiento optimizado con iSRAA requiere de incrementos progresivos de las dosis que pueden suponer a su vez una mayor probabilidad de hiperpotasemia. Por todo ello, es necesario establecer unas directrices para el manejo y tratamiento de estos pacientes. Con este objetivo surge este documento de consenso, cuyas recomendaciones han sido elaboradas por un grupo de 10 expertos y revisado por un panel de otros 10 especialistas en el tratamiento de pacientes con IC (en total 10 cardiólogos y 10 internistas). El documento ha sido avalado por la Sociedad Española de Cardiología (SEC) y la Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI) (AU)


Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction is associated with functional improvement, an increase in perceived quality of life, a reduction in the probability of cardiovascular death, and a decrease in the number of hospitalizations. Some of these drugs are also efficacious in patients with chronic kidney disease and albuminuria as well as in patients with resistant hypertension. Despite their numerous benefits, RAASi are associated with an increase in incidence of hyperkalemia, especially in patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease. Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that is defined as an elevation in plasma concentrations of potassium above 5 mEq/L. It has been related to rehospitalizations, malignant arrhythmias, and an increase in mortality. On the other hand, optimized treatment with RAASi requires progressive dose increases which can in turn entail a greater probability of hyperkalemia. For all of these reasons, it is necessary to establish management and treatment guidelines for these patients. This consensus document arises from this objective. Its recommendations have been developed by a group of ten experts and reviewed by a panel of another ten specialists in the treatment of patients with HF (ten cardiologists and ten internists in total). This document has been endorsed by the Spanish Society of Cardiology (SEC, for its initials in Spanish) and the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI, for its initials in Spanish) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Qualidade de Vida , Consenso
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(1): 19-25, Jan-Mar. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365037

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Studies have shown that the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and inflammation are related to kidney injury progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate RAAS molecules and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in 82 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: patients diagnosed with CKD and patients without a CKD diagnosis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were determined, as well as plasma levels of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)1, ACE2, and plasma and urinary levels of CCL2. Results: CCL2 plasma levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD compared to the control group. Patients with lower GFR had higher plasma levels of ACE2 and CCL2 and lower ratio ACE1/ACE2. Patients with higher ACR values had higher ACE1 plasma levels. Conclusion: Patients with CKD showed greater activity of both RAAS axes, the classic and alternative, and higher plasma levels of CCL2. Therefore, plasma levels of RAAS molecules and CCL2 seem to be promising prognostic markers and even therapeutic targets for CKD.


Resumo Introdução: Estudos têm mostrado que o sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona (SRAA) e a inflamação estão relacionados à progressão da lesão renal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar moléculas do SRAA e o Ligante 2 de Quimiocina com Motivo C-C (CCL2) em 82 pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Métodos: Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: pacientes diagnosticados com DRC e pacientes sem diagnóstico de DRC. Foram determinadas a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) e a relação albumina/creatinina (RAC), assim como os níveis plasmáticos de angiotensina-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA)1, ECA2 e níveis plasmáticos e urinários de CCL2. Resultados: Os níveis plasmáticos de CCL2 foram significativamente mais altos em pacientes com DRC em comparação com o grupo controle. Pacientes com TFG mais baixa apresentaram níveis plasmáticos mais elevados de ECA2 e CCL2 e menor relação ECA1/ECA2. Pacientes com valores de RAC mais altos apresentaram níveis plasmáticos de ECA1 mais elevados. Conclusão: Pacientes com DRC mostraram maior atividade de ambos os eixos do SRAA, o clássico e o alternativo, e níveis plasmáticos mais altos de CCL2. Portanto, os níveis plasmáticos de moléculas do SRAA e CCL2 parecem ser marcadores prognósticos promissores e até mesmo alvos terapêuticos para a DRC.

18.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 222(4): 235-240, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348884

RESUMO

Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction is associated with functional improvement, an increase in perceived quality of life, a reduction in the probability of cardiovascular death, and a decrease in the number of hospitalizations. Some of these drugs are also efficacious in patients with chronic kidney disease and albuminuria as well as in patients with resistant hypertension. Despite their numerous benefits, RAASi are associated with an increase in incidence of hyperkalemia, especially in patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease. Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that is defined as an elevation in plasma concentrations of potassium above 5 mEq/L. It has been related to rehospitalizations, malignant arrhythmias, and an increase in mortality. On the other hand, optimized treatment with RAASi requires progressive dose increases which can in turn entail a greater probability of hyperkalemia. For all of these reasons, it is necessary to establish management and treatment guidelines for these patients. This consensus document arises from this objective. Its recommendations have been developed by a group of ten experts and reviewed by a panel of another ten specialists in the treatment of patients with HF (ten cardiologists and ten internists in total). This document has been endorsed by the Spanish Society of Cardiology (SEC, for its initials in Spanish) and the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI, for its initials in Spanish).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 38(3): 125-132, jul.-sep. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-221308

RESUMO

El sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (SRAA) y sus efectos en el flujo sanguíneo e hidrosalino han sido estudiados a nivel cardiovascular y renal. La activación del SRAA en otros órganos tiene efectos tanto locales como sistémicos, alterando la macro y microvascultura de los órganos periféricos. En el cerebro, el SRAA regula la presión arterial (PA) a través del sistema nervioso simpático. El eje enzima convertidora de angiotensina/angiotensina II/receptor de angiotensina 1 (ECA/Ang II/AT1), vía clásica, y enzima convertidora de angiotensina tipo 2/angiotensina (1-7)/receptor Mas (ECA2/Ang [1-7]/MasR), vía no clásica, modulan la respuesta simpática. Su descompensación y acumulación de Ang II propician la hipertensión neurogénica (HTN) y otras patologías vasculares. El eje aminopeptidasa/angiotensina IV/receptor de angiotensina 4 (AMN/Ang IV/AT4), exclusivo del cerebro, condiciona la microvasculatura cerebral e interviene en la cognición, la memoria y el aprendizaje. Esta revisión propone descifrar los mecanismos de regulación de la PA por el SRAA central, así como revisar sus funciones y su contribución en la neuroprotección y la cognición. (AU)


The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system and its effects on blood pressure and the regulation of water and electrolyte balance have been studied focusing on the cardiovascular and renal system. The activation of RAAS in other organs has local and systemic repercussions by modeling the macro- and microvasculture of peripheral organs. The brain RAAS influence on systemic blood pressure through the sympathetic nervous system. The angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin 1 receptor axis (ACE/AngII/AT1), classical pathway, and angiotensin converting enzyme type 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor (ACE2/Ang (1-7)/MasR), non-classical pathway, are involved in the modulation of the sympathetic response. The imbalance of these two axes with subsequently Ang II accumulation promote neurogenic hypertension and other vascular pathologies. The aminopeptidase/angiotensin IV/angiotensin 4 receptor (AMN/Ang IV/AT4) axis, which is exclusive of the brain, acts on cerebral microvasculature and participates in cognition, memory, and learning. The aim of this review is to decipher the major central RAAS mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation. In addition, paracrine functions of brain RAAS and its role in neuroprotection and cognition are also described in this review. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Cérebro/fisiologia , Cérebro/metabolismo , Pressão Arterial
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 156(11): 561-567, junio 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213576

RESUMO

Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers have shown to be effective in controlling blood pressure and proteinuria, slowing the progression to end stage renal disease and reducing cardiovascular risk, so they are the mainstream treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease. Their beneficial effects have been proven in multiple randomized clinical trials on different study populations, but there has recently been some controversial data on its use in some subgroups of patients, especially those with advanced chronic kidney disease. In some other populations such as patients with non-proteinuric nephropathies or the elderly, who can be more susceptible to its adverse events, their benefits have also been questioned.The aim of the present review is to collect available published data on the effect of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers in some controversial populations and provide perspective on future research areas in this field. (AU)


Los bloqueantes del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona han demostrado ser efectivos en el control de la tensión arterial y la proteinuria, enlenteciendo la progresión a enfermedad renal terminal, y reduciendo el riesgo cardiovascular, por lo que son el tratamiento de primera línea de la hipertensión en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. Sus efectos beneficiosos han sido demostrados en múltiples ensayos clínicos en diferentes poblaciones de estudio, pero recientemente se han publicado datos controvertidos a cerca de su uso en determinados subgrupos de pacientes, especialmente aquellos con enfermedad renal crónica avanzada. En otras poblaciones como los pacientes con nefropatías no proteinúricas o en ancianos, que pueden ser especialmente sensibles a sus efectos secundarios, sus beneficios han sido, así mismo cuestionados.El objetivo de la presente revisión es recoger la evidencia disponible sobre el efecto de los bloqueantes del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona en poblaciones controvertidas y arrojar perspectivas en cuanto a posibles áreas de investigación en este campo. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
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