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1.
J Mol Histol ; 55(3): 227-240, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696048

RESUMO

Liposarcoma (LPS) is a rare malignancy of adipocytic differentiation. According to World Health Organization classification, LPS comprises of four principle subtypes Atypical lipomatous tumor/Well-differentiated liposarcoma (ATL/WDLPS), Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS), Myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS), and Pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLPS). Each subtype can develop at any location and shows distinct clinical behavior and treatment sensitivity. ATL/ WDLPS subtype has a higher incidence rate, low recurrence, and is insensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. DDLPS is the focal progression of WDLPS, which is aggressive and highly metastasizing. MLPS is sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy, with a higher recurrence rate and metastasis. PLPS subtype is highly metastasizing, has a poor prognosis, and exhibiting higher recurrence rate. Initial histological analysis provides information for the characterization of LPS subtypes', further molecular and genetic analysis provides certain subtype specifications, such as gene amplifications and gene fusions. Such molecular genetic alterations will be useful as therapeutic targets in various cancers, including the LPS subtypes. A wide range of novel therapeutic agents based on genetic alterations that aim to target LPS subtypes specifically are under investigation. This review summarizes the LPS subtype classification, their molecular genetic characteristics, and the implications of genetic alterations in therapeutics.


Assuntos
Lipossarcoma , Humanos , Lipossarcoma/genética , Lipossarcoma/terapia , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico , Lipossarcoma/classificação
2.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2400513, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Catalão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723248

RESUMO

Hydrogels have emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications, especially in the field of antibacterial therapeutics, due to their unique structural properties, highly tunable physicochemical properties, and excellent biocompatibility. The integration of stimuli-responsive functions into antibacterial hydrogels holds the potential to enhance their antibacterial properties and therapeutic efficacy, dynamically responding to different external or internal stimuli, such as pH, temperature, enzymes, and light. Therefore, this review describes the applications of hydrogel dressings responsive to different stimuli in antibacterial therapy. The collaborative interaction between stimuli-responsive hydrogels and antibacterial materials is discussed. This synergistic approach, in contrast to conventional antibacterial materials, not only amplifies the antibacterial effect but also alleviates adverse side effects and diminishes the incidence of multiple infections and drug resistance. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the current challenges and outlines future research directions for stimuli-responsive antibacterial hydrogels. It underscores the imperative for ongoing interdisciplinary research aimed at unraveling the mechanisms of wound healing. This understanding is crucial for optimizing the design and implementation of stimuli-responsive antibacterial hydrogels. Ultimately, this review aims to offer scientific guidance for the development and practical clinical application of stimuli-responsive antibacterial hydrogel dressings.

3.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078369, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Based on the available evidence, cognitive stimulation is recommended as an intervention for people with dementia (PwD). Currently, cognitive stimulation is regularly offered as a group programme in care facilities. However, some residents, such as those who are bedridden, cannot participate. Furthermore, group programmes were not feasible during the pandemic. A concept that accompanies everyday life and enables cognitive stimulation in everyday communication (ie, '24/7') has been missing. Therefore, this feasibility study aims to (1) assess the feasibility of a new continuous 24/7 cognitive stimulation programme (CogStim24) based on a process evaluation and (2) examine the possible effects of CogStim24 on the primary outcome of global cognition in PwD and further PwD-related and staff-related outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The complex CogStim24 programme is developed to be conducted as an everyday intervention during routine care including cognitively stimulating techniques, such as reminiscence therapy, multisensory stimulation and physical activity. In this unblinded single-arm study with pre-assessments and post-assessments, four nursing homes with a total of N=20 nursing and care staff will participate in an 11-week CogStim24 training programme. The intervention will be conducted to N=60 PwD. Neuropsychological assessments will be conducted pre-staff and post-staff training, as well as after a 6-week implementation phase. A process evaluation will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Although cognitive stimulation is known to be effective for enhancing global cognition and quality of life in PwD, it is currently undersupplied to PwD. Therefore, CogStim24 has the potential to reach many more PwD. This study has the potential to serve as a basis for a large multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial. An interdisciplinarity team and mixed-methods approach will help generate information on the practicality and mechanisms of impact of CogStim24. This is important for the further development of the intervention and for facilitating its implementation. The study results will be disseminated via presentations at scientific conferences and meetings for healthcare professionals and PwD and their relatives. Several manuscripts presenting results of the different study parts will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00024381.


Assuntos
Demência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Casas de Saúde , Humanos , Demência/terapia , Cognição , Qualidade de Vida , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , COVID-19 , Idoso , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos
4.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 269, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704602

RESUMO

HHT has emerged as a notable compound in the realm of cancer treatment, particularly for hematological malignancies. Its multifaceted pharmacological properties extend beyond traditional applications, warranting an extensive review of its mechanisms and efficacy. This review aims to synthesize comprehensive insights into the efficacy of HHT in treating hematological malignancies, diverse cancers, and other biomedical applications. It focuses on elucidating the molecular mechanisms, therapeutic potential, and broader applications of HHT. A comprehensive search for peer-reviewed papers was conducted across various academic databases, including ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, American Chemical Society, Google Scholar, PubMed/MedLine, and Wiley. The review highlights HHT's diverse mechanisms of action, ranging from its role in leukemia treatment to its emerging applications in managing other cancers and various biomedical conditions. It underscores HHT's influence on cellular processes, its efficacy in clinical settings, and its potential to alter pathological pathways. HHT demonstrates significant promise in treating various hematological malignancies and cancers, offering a multifaceted approach to disease management. Its ability to impact various physiological pathways opens new avenues for therapeutic applications. This review provides a consolidated foundation for future research and clinical applications of HHT in diverse medical fields.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina , Humanos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/uso terapêutico , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais
5.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2304496, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716543

RESUMO

The multifaceted biological defense system modulating complex immune responses against pathogens and foreign materials plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and disease progression. Recently developed biomaterials that can specifically regulate immune responses, nanoparticles, graphene, and functional hydrogels have contributed to the advancement of tissue engineering as well as disease treatment. The interaction between innate and adaptive immunity, collectively determining immune responses, can be regulated by mechanobiological recognition and adaptation of immune cells to the extracellular microenvironment. Therefore, applying immunomodulation to tissue regeneration and cancer therapy involves manipulating the properties of biomaterials by tailoring their composition in the context of the immune system. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how the physicochemical attributes of biomaterials determine immune responses, focusing on the physical properties that influence innate and adaptive immunity. This review also underscores the critical aspect of biomaterial-based immune engineering for the development of novel therapeutics and emphasizes the importance of understanding the biomaterials-mediated immunological mechanisms and their role in modulating the immune system.

6.
Front Genet ; 15: 1356611, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774283

RESUMO

The current median survival for glioblastoma (GBM) patients is only about 16 months, with many patients succumbing to the disease in just a matter of months, making it the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer in adults. This poor outcome is, in part, due to the lack of new treatment options with only one FDA-approved treatment in the last decade. Advances in sequencing techniques and transcriptomic analyses have revealed a vast degree of heterogeneity in GBM, from inter-patient diversity to intra-tumoral cellular variability. These cutting-edge approaches are providing new molecular insights highlighting a critical role for the tumor microenvironment (TME) as a driver of cellular plasticity and phenotypic heterogeneity. With this expanded molecular toolbox, the influence of TME factors, including endogenous (e.g., oxygen and nutrient availability and interactions with non-malignant cells) and iatrogenically induced (e.g., post-therapeutic intervention) stimuli, on tumor cell states can be explored to a greater depth. There exists a critical need for interrogating the temporal and spatial aspects of patient tumors at a high, cell-level resolution to identify therapeutically targetable states, interactions and mechanisms. In this review, we discuss advancements in our understanding of spatiotemporal diversity in GBM with an emphasis on the influence of hypoxia and immune cell interactions on tumor cell heterogeneity. Additionally, we describe specific high-resolution spatially resolved methodologies and their potential to expand the impact of pre-clinical GBM studies. Finally, we highlight clinical attempts at targeting hypoxia- and immune-related mechanisms of malignancy and the potential therapeutic opportunities afforded by single-cell and spatial exploration of GBM patient specimens.

7.
JCI Insight ; 9(10)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775150

RESUMO

This study lays the groundwork for future lentivirus-mediated gene therapy in patients with Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) caused by mutations in ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), showing evidence of a new safe and effective therapy. The data show that, unlike patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reservoir of patients with DBA was not significantly reduced, suggesting that collection of these cells should not constitute a remarkable restriction for DBA gene therapy. Subsequently, 2 clinically applicable lentiviral vectors were developed. In the former lentiviral vector, PGK.CoRPS19 LV, a codon-optimized version of RPS19 was driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) already used in different gene therapy trials, including FA gene therapy. In the latter one, EF1α.CoRPS19 LV, RPS19 expression was driven by the elongation factor alpha short promoter, EF1α(s). Preclinical experiments showed that transduction of DBA patient CD34+ cells with the PGK.CoRPS19 LV restored erythroid differentiation, and demonstrated the long-term repopulating properties of corrected DBA CD34+ cells, providing evidence of improved erythroid maturation. Concomitantly, long-term restoration of ribosomal biogenesis was verified using a potentially novel method applicable to patients' blood cells, based on ribosomal RNA methylation analyses. Finally, in vivo safety studies and proviral insertion site analyses showed that lentivirus-mediated gene therapy was nontoxic.


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lentivirus , Proteínas Ribossômicas , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/terapia , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/genética , Humanos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Lentivirus/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mutação , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos
8.
Gastroenterology ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754739

RESUMO

There has been an increased ability to investigate human microbiota through next generation sequencing and functional assessment. This advancement has rapidly expanded our ability to study and manipulate the gastrointestinal microbiome to mitigate disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a therapy which broadly transfers the entire intestinal ecosystem, has been explored as a potential therapeutic in a variety of gastrointestinal, hepatic and extraintestinal conditions. The field however continues to evolve with a movement towards precision microbiome therapeutics individualizing care for various disorders. This review will describe the use of FMT, microbiota restoration and precision microbiome therapeutics focusing in gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases.

9.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 71(3): 481-498, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754937

RESUMO

Children have unique physiologic, developmental, and psychosocial needs and unique vulnerabilities, making them a challenging population for which to develop therapeutics. This is particularly apparent in the urgent and chaotic environment of a pandemic or outbreak. Advances in the development of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for pediatric populations have grown substantially over the last decade, and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic forced advancements in how we approach pediatric MCM development. Consequently, a MCMs pipeline targeting the pediatric population is essential. This article addresses the challenges inherent in these differences that must be taken into account.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Pandemias
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) affects many survivors of COVID-19. Prior studies have investigated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for OD. We describe the first randomized controlled trial investigating topical PRP for OD treatment and contribute to existing literature illustrating PRP as an emerging therapeutic. METHODS: This is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted from July 2022 to December 2023. Adult patients with OD ≥6 months secondary to COVID-19 with Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) scores of ≤8/12 or SCENTinel odor intensity of ≤40/100 were included. Patients were randomized to three, monthly PRP or placebo-impregnated Surgifoam treatments into bilateral olfactory clefts. The BSIT, SCENTinel, and Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (QOD-NS) were completed monthly through month 12. RESULTS: Of 104 patients screened, 83 participated. No significant differences in age, OD duration, BSIT, SCENTinel, or QOD-NS scores were found between PRP (n = 42) and placebo (n = 41) patients at baseline. PRP patients experienced a statistically significant increase in BSIT scores from baseline at months 5‒9, 11, and 12, while placebo patients did not (p < 0.05). However, total BSIT scores were similar between the two groups throughout the study. Neither the SCENTinel odor intensity scores nor the change from baseline were significantly different between the treatment groups. At month 12, PRP patients experienced minor improvement in OD-related quality-of-life compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to describe topical PRP as a safe, experimental treatment for OD in humans. PRP may impact odor identification in post-COVID-19 OD patients, although the lack of difference in total BSIT scores highlights the need for further study.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722683

RESUMO

This study reports that targeting intrinsically disordered regions of NaV1.7 protein facilitates discovery of sodium channel inhibitory peptide aptamers (NaViPA) for adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated, sensory neuron-specific analgesia. A multipronged inhibition of INa1.7, INa1.6, INa1.3, and INa1.1. but not INa1.5 and INa1.8 was found for a prototype, named NaViPA1, which was derived from the NaV1.7 intracellular loop 1 and is conserved among the TTXs NaV subtypes. NaViPA1 expression in primary sensory neurons (PSNs) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) produced significant inhibition of TTXs INa but not TTXr INa. DRG injection of AAV6-encoded NaViPA1 significantly attenuated evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in both male and female rats with neuropathic pain induced by tibial nerve injury (TNI). Whole-cell current clamp of the PSNs showed that NaViPA1 expression normalized PSN excitability in TNI rats, suggesting that NaViPA1 attenuated pain by reversal of injury-induced neuronal hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry revealed efficient NaViPA1 expression restricted in PSNs and their central and peripheral terminals, indicating PSN-restricted AAV biodistribution. Inhibition of sodium channels by NaViPA1 was replicated in the human iPSC-derived sensory neurons. These results summate that NaViPA1 is a promising analgesic lead that, combined with AAV-mediated PSN-specific block of multiple TTXs NaVs, has potential as peripheral nerve-restricted analgesic therapeutics.

13.
Gut Liver ; 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712394

RESUMO

Background/Aims: : Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of emergency hospitalization. We present the current diagnostic and therapeutic status of AP as revealed by analysis of a large multicenter dataset. Methods: : The medical records of patients diagnosed with AP between 2018 and 2019 in 12 tertiary medical centers in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. Results: : In total, 676 patients were included; of these, were 388 (57.4%) males, and the mean age of all patients was 58.6 years. There were 355 (52.5%), 301 (44.5%), and 20 (3.0%) patients with mild, moderate, and severe AP, respectively, as assessed by the revised Atlanta classification. The most common etiologies of AP were biliary issues (41.6%) and alcohol consumption (24.6%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (6.8%). The etiology was not identified in 111 (16.4%) patients at the time of initial admission. The overall mortality rate was 3.3%, increasing up to 45.0% among patients with severe AP. Notably, 70.0% (14/20) of patients with severe AP and 81.5% (154/189) of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome had received <4 L per day during the initial 24 hours of admission. Only 23.8% (67/281) of acute biliary pancreatitis patients underwent cholecystectomy during their initial admission. In total, 17.8% of patients experienced recurrent attacks during follow-up. However, none of the patients with acute biliary pancreatitis experienced recurrent attacks if they had undergone cholecystectomy during their initial admission. Conclusions: : This study provides insights into the current status of AP in Korea, including its etiology, severity, and management. Results: reveal disparities between clinical guidelines and their practical implementation for AP treatment.

14.
Health Expect ; 27(3): e14063, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced therapies offer unprecedented opportunities for treating rare neurological disorders (RNDs) in children. However, health literacy, perceptions and understanding of novel therapies need elucidation across the RND community. This study explored healthcare professionals' and carers' perspectives of advanced therapies in childhood-onset RNDs. METHODS: In this mixed-methodology cross-sectional study, 20 healthcare professionals (clinicians, genetic counsellors and scientists) and 20 carers completed qualitative semistructured interviews and custom-designed surveys. Carers undertook validated psychosocial questionnaires. Thematic and quantitative data analysis followed. RESULTS: Participants described high positive interest in advanced therapies, but low knowledge of, and access to, reliable information. The substantial 'therapeutic gap' and 'therapeutic odyssey' common to RNDs were recognised in five key themes: (i) unmet need and urgency for access; (ii) seeking information; (iii) access, equity and sustainability; (iv) a multidisciplinary and integrated approach to care and support and (v) difficult decision-making. Participants were motivated to intensify RND clinical trial activity and access to advanced therapies; however, concerns around informed consent, first-in-human trials and clinical trial procedures were evident. There was high-risk tolerance despite substantial uncertainties and knowledge gaps. RNDs with high mortality, increased functional burdens and no alternative therapies were consistently prioritised for the development of advanced therapies. However, little consensus existed on prioritisation to treatment access. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need to increase clinician and health system readiness for the clinical translation of advanced therapeutics for RNDs. Co-development and use of educational and psychosocial resources to support clinical decision-making, set therapeutic expectations and promotion of equitable, effective and safe delivery of advanced therapies are essential. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Participant insights into the psychosocial burden and information need to enhance the delivery of care in this formative study are informing ongoing partnerships with families, including co-production and dissemination of psychoeducational resources featuring their voices hosted on the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network website SCHN Brain-Aid Resources.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças Raras , Humanos , Doenças Raras/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Feminino , Masculino , Austrália , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Entrevistas como Assunto , Participação dos Interessados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717801

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) senses and adapts to host environmental cues as part of its pathogenesis. One important cue sensed by Mtb is the acidic pH of its host niche - the macrophage. Acidic pH induces widespread transcriptional and metabolic remodelling in Mtb. These adaptations to acidic pH can lead Mtb to slow its growth and promote pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance. Mutants defective in pH-dependent adaptations exhibit reduced virulence in macrophages and animal infection models, suggesting that chemically targeting these pH-dependent pathways may have therapeutic potential. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which Mtb regulates its growth and metabolism at acidic pH. Additionally, we consider the therapeutic potential of disrupting pH-driven adaptations in Mtb and review the growing class of compounds that exhibit pH-dependent activity or target pathways important for adaptation to acidic pH.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Animais , Humanos , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Virulência , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Antituberculosos/farmacologia
16.
Curr Probl Cancer ; 50: 101101, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718711

RESUMO

Genetic testing is an integral part of the workup of metastatic prostate cancer, in part, because the results can have a profound impact on the subsequent management of this disease. There are now several Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapeutics available for patients with prostate cancer and certain genetic abnormalities - most notably, mutations in DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways such mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination repair (HRR). In this review of the current literature, we discuss the indications for somatic and germline testing, the genetic changes of particular clinical relevance, the associated therapeutic options, and the clinical data supporting their use. We also highlight select trials-in-progress and future directions for the field.

17.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720437

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are pivotal for various pathological processes, impacting disease progression. The potential for leveraging ncRNAs to prevent or treat atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases is of great significance, especially given the increasing prevalence of atherosclerosis in an ageing and sedentary population. Together, these diseases impose a substantial socio-economic burden, demanding innovative therapeutic solutions. This review explores the potential of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis treatment. We commence by examining approaches for identifying and characterizing atherosclerosis-associated ncRNAs. We then delve into the functional aspects of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis development and progression. Additionally, we review current RNA and RNA-targeting molecules in development or under approval for clinical use, offering insights into their pharmacological potential. The importance of improved ncRNA delivery strategies is highlighted. Finally, we suggest avenues for advanced research to accelerate the use of ncRNAs in treating atherosclerosis and mitigating its societal impact.

18.
Front Genet ; 15: 1309175, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725484

RESUMO

The discovery of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology has revolutionized field of cancer treatment. This review explores usage of CRISPR/Cas9 for editing and investigating genes involved in human carcinogenesis. It provides insights into the development of CRISPR as a genetic tool. Also, it explores recent developments and tools available in designing CRISPR/Cas9 systems for targeting oncogenic genes for cancer treatment. Further, we delve into an overview of cancer biology, highlighting key genetic alterations and signaling pathways whose deletion prevents malignancies. This fundamental knowledge enables a deeper understanding of how CRISPR/Cas9 can be tailored to address specific genetic aberrations and offer personalized therapeutic approaches. In this review, we showcase studies and preclinical trials that show the utility of CRISPR/Cas9 in disrupting oncogenic targets, modulating tumor microenvironment and increasing the efficiency of available anti treatments. It also provides insight into the use of CRISPR high throughput screens for cancer biomarker identifications and CRISPR based screening for drug discovery. In conclusion, this review offers an overview of exciting developments in engineering CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics for cancer treatment and highlights the transformative potential of CRISPR for innovation and effective cancer treatments.

19.
Clin Perinatol ; 51(2): 497-510, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705654

RESUMO

This review examines the complexities of preterm birth (PTB), emphasizes the pivotal role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of preterm labor, and assesses current available interventions. Antibiotics, progesterone analogs, mechanical approaches, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and nutritional supplementation demonstrate a limited efficacy. Tocolytic agents, targeting uterine activity and contractility, inadequately prevent PTB by neglecting to act on uteroplacental inflammation. Emerging therapies targeting toll-like receptors, chemokines, and interleukin receptors exhibit promise in mitigating inflammation and preventing PTB.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Tocolíticos , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle
20.
BMC Nutr ; 10(1): 70, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705977

RESUMO

People with substance use disorders often have unhealthy diets, high in sweets and processed foods but low in nutritious items like fruits and vegetables, increasing noncommunicable disease risks. This study investigates healthy eating perceptions and barriers among individuals with opioid use disorder undergoing opioid agonist therapy. Interviews with 14 participants at opioid agonist therapy clinics in Western Norway, using a semi-structured guide and systematic text condensation for analysis, reveal that most participants view their diet as inadequate and express a desire to improve for better health. Barriers to healthy eating included oral health problems, smoking habits, and limited social relations, while economic factors were less of a concern for the participants. Participants did find healthy eating easier when they were in social settings. This study underscores the importance of understanding and addressing these barriers and facilitators to foster healthier eating patterns in this population, potentially enhancing overall health and well-being.

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