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1.
Res Sq ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947038

RESUMO

Background: The invasion of Anopheles stephensi into Africa poses a potential threat to malaria control and elimination on the continent. However, it is not clear if the recent malaria resurgence in Ethiopia has linked to the expansion of An. stephensi. We aimed to summarize the major achievements and lesson learnt in malaria control in Ethiopia from 2001 to 2022, to assess the new challenges and prospects for the control of An. stephensi. Methods and findings: We obtained the clinical malaria case reports, antimalarial drug treatment records, insecticide-treated and long-lasting insecticidal net (ITN/LLIN) distribution and utilization records, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage data from the Ethiopian Ministry of Health (MoH) for the period 2001-2022. We analyzed clinical malaria hotspots using spatially optimized hotspot analysis. We investigated malaria outbreaks in 2022 and examined the potential role of An. stephensi in the outbreaks.Clinical malaria cases in Ethiopia decreased by 80%, from 5.2 million cases (11% confirmed) in 2004 to 1.0 million cases (92% confirmed) in 2018; however, cases increased steadily to 2.6 million confirmed cases (98% confirmed) in 2022. Plasmodium vivax cases and proportion have increased significantly in the past 5 years. Clinical malaria hotspots are concentrated along the western Ethiopian border areas and have grown significantly from 2017 to 2022. Major malaria outbreaks in 2022/23 were detected in multiple sites across Ethiopia, and An. stephensi was the predominant vector in some of these sites, however, it was absence from many of the outbreak sites. Conclusions: The malaria burden has been significantly reduced in Ethiopia in the past two decades, but in recent years it has increased substantially, and the cause of such increase is a subject of further investigation. Major gaps exist in An. stephensi research, including vector ecology, surveillance, and control tools, especially for adult mosquito control.

2.
iScience ; 27(6): 110091, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952684

RESUMO

Air pollution is a challenge for many cities. The digital economy enhances support for environmental pollution management, while the mechanisms and scaling heterogeneity remain unclear. This study explored the contribution of digital economy development to PM2.5 concentrations control in China and driving mechanisms in different economic subregions and urban agglomerations. Results show that the spillover transfer effect on air pollution mitigation far exceeded the direct effect at different scales. At the national scale, the air pollution mitigation effect of digital economy was mainly through empowering industrial structure optimization and green technology innovation, while it also affected economic subregions and urban agglomerations through varying scenario combinations of pathways with structural optimization, green production, resource allocation, and technology innovation. Research findings provide support for cross-regional joint management strategies of digital economy and air quality and designing regionally differentiated pollution control pathways in the digital economy dimension.

3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 693, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963455

RESUMO

Clean air is imperative to the survival of all life forms on the planet. However, recent times have witnessed enormous escalation in urban pollution levels. It is therefore, incumbent upon us to decipher measures to deal with it. In perspective, the present study was carried out to assess PM10 and PM2.5 loading, metallic constituents, gaseous pollutants, source contributions, health impact and noise level of nine-locations, grouped as residential, commercial, and industrial in Lucknow city for 2019-21. Mean concentrations during pre-monsoon for PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were: 138.2 ± 35.2, 69.1 ± 13.6, 8.5 ± 3.3 and 32.3 ± 7.4 µg/m3, respectively, whereas post-monsoon concentrations were 143.0 ± 33.3, 74.6 ± 14.5, 12.5 ± 2.1, and 35.5 ± 6.3 µg/m3, respectively. Exceedance percentage of pre-monsoon PM10 over National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) was 38.2% while that for post-monsoon was 43.0%; whereas corresponding values for PM2.5 were 15.2% and 24.3%. Post-monsoon season showed higher particulate loading owing to wintertime inversion and high humidity conditions. Order of elements associated with PM2.5 is Co < Cd < Cr < Ni < V < Be < Mo < Mn < Ti < Cu < Pb < Se < Sr < Li < B < As < Ba < Mg < Al < Zn < Ca < Fe < K < Na and that with PM10 is Co < Cd < Ni < Cr < V < Ti < Be < Mo < Cu < Pb < Se < Sr < Li < B < As < Mn < Ba < Mg < Al < Fe < Zn < K < Na < Ca. WHO AIRQ + ascertained 1654, 144 and 1100 attributable cases per 0.1 million of population to PM10 exposure in 2019-21. Source apportionment was carried out using USEPA-PMF and resolved 6 sources with highest percent contributions including road dust re-entrainment, biomass burning and vehicular emission. It is observed that residents of Lucknow city regularly face exposure to particulate pollutants and associated constituents making it imperative to develop pollution abetment strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Índia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Emissões de Veículos/análise
4.
Ecol Evol ; 14(7): e11655, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966243

RESUMO

Due to rapid homogenization in habitat types as a result of urbanization, some urban birds adapt their nesting strategies to changes in local habitat characteristics. Bird nesting decisions might have been mainly linked to resource constraints and ensuring reproductive success. In this study, we examined patterns of nesting behavior by spotted doves (Spilopelia chinensis) in a rapidly urbanizing area of Nanchang, China using ArcGIS 10.8, satellite tracking, camera traps, and field survey. To explore the mechanisms underlying nesting behavior in urban habitats, we assessed the correlations between nest reuse and reproductive success, and between nest reuse and nest predation. From December 2018 to December 2021, a total of 302 breeding nests were surveyed. The results revealed that the nest reuse rate was 38.08% (n = 115). Nests closer to trunk, with lower nest position and higher large-scale urbanization score tended to have higher reuse rate. In addition, nests with the higher the nest height and percent of canopy cover, and the lower small-scale urbanization score were more likely to reproduce successfully, and the reused nests also reproduce more successfully. The reproductive success associated with nest reuse was significantly higher than that associated with new nests (χ 2 = 8.461, p = .004). High degree of urbanization promoted nest reuse of spotted doves (large-scale urbanization score, z = 2.094, p = .036), which apparently enhanced their reproductive success (nest reuse, z = 2.737, p = .006). In conclusion, a nest structure with good permeability is the material basis for the nest reuse in spotted dove, while the relatively low risk of predation in urban habitat and the scarcity of nest site resources due to urbanization increase the tendency of birds to reuse old nests, which is associated with their reproductive success and evolutionary fitness.

5.
Data Brief ; 55: 110584, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966667

RESUMO

This paper presents an update to the previously published dataset known as prospective marriage and divorce data on Norwegian cohorts of two-sex marriages from 1886 until 2018. This update adds prospective data from all same-sex marriages formed in Norway between 1993 and 2018, with annual follow-up for 25 years, totaling 26 cohorts and 5,187 marriages. The data list the number of marriages that ended in divorce throughout each year of follow-up. The data contain information about the age of both spouses, the number of divorces from each cohort in the total population of marriages, as well as divorces among marriages formed in urban and rural areas of the country. Marriages formed within a calendar year are pooled into cohorts, and each pair is examined annually to ensure that the same two people remain married. As a result, the method is equivalent to the initial dataset on two-sex marriages presented in the first dataset.

6.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1382143, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966742

RESUMO

Virtual urban green environment images and audio stimuli had been proven to have restorative effects on subjects' physical and mental health. In this area, researchers predominantly focused on visual, auditory and olfactory aspects, while tactile and gustatory senses have been minimally explored. However, the optimal combination of sensory stimuli for promoting physical and mental recovery remains unclear. Therefore, a simulated sensory stimulation approach involving 240 participants was employed, with 30 individuals included in each of the eight experimental groups: the visual-auditory (VA), visual-auditory-olfactory (VAO), visual-auditory-tactile (VAT), visual-auditory-gustatory(VAG), visual-auditory-olfactory-tactile (VAOT), visual-auditory-olfactory-gustatory (VAOG), visual-auditory-tactile-gustatory (VATG), and visual-auditory-olfactory-tactile-gustatory (VAOTG) groups. This study aimed to explore the differences in participants' physiological and psychological health recovery after exposure to different combinations of simulated sensory stimuli in virtual UGSs. The results indicated that the following: (1) In terms of physiological recovery, the blood pressure of the 8 experimental groups decreased significantly after the experiment, indicating that the virtual urban green space environment has a certain recovery effect on physiological state. The combination of VAOTG stimuli in the multisensory group resulted in the best blood pressure recovery (p < 0.05). Tactile is an important sense to enhance the physiological recovery effect. Olfactory-tactile or tactile-gustatory stimuli interactions significantly enhance physiological recovery, emphasizing the importance of tactile stimulation in improving physiological recovery. (2) In terms of psychological recovery, the common trigger of olfactory-gustatory is the most key element to enhance psychological recovery through multi-sensory stimulation of virtual urban green space environment. VAOG stimulation had the best effect on psychological recovery (p < 0.05), followed by VAOTG stimulation (p < 0.05). Gustatory is an important sense to enhance the psychological recovery effect, and both the tactile-gustatory interaction and the olfactory-gustatory interaction significantly enhance the recovery effect. At the same time, the psychological recovery effect obtained by four or more sensory combinations was higher than that obtained by two or three sensory stimulation groups. This study confirms more possibilities for ways to restore physical and mental health through virtual natural environments. It expands the research on the benefits of virtual nature experience and provides theoretical support for the application of this method.

7.
Health Place ; 89: 103305, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968815

RESUMO

This paper analyzes rural-urban disparities in life expectancy with and without pain among upper-middle age and older adults. Data are from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study, 2000-2018, N = 18,160, age 53+. Interpolated Markov Chain software, based on the multistate life tables, is used to calculate absolute and relative pain expectancies by age, sex, rural-suburban-urban residence and U.S. regions. Results show significant rural disadvantages versus those in urban and often suburban areas. Example: males at 55 in rural areas can expect to live 15.1 years, or 65.2 percent pain-free life, while those in suburban areas expect to live 1.7 more years, or 2.6 percentage points more, pain-free life and urban residents expect to live 2.4 more year, or 4.7 percentage points more. The rural disadvantage persists for females, with differences being a little less prominent. At very old age (85+), rural-urban differences diminish or reverse. Rural-urban pain disparities are most pronounced in the Northeast and South regions, and least in the Midwest and West. The findings highlight that rural-urban is an important dimension shaping the geography of pain. More research is needed to disentangle the mechanisms through which residential environments impact people's pain experiences.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969882

RESUMO

The construction of ecological security pattern (ESP) holds paramount importance in ensuring regional environment sustainability. This study introduces an innovative approach to ESP construction grounded in landscape ecological risk (LER) assessment, with Wu-Chang-Shi urban agglomeration in Xinjiang, China, serving as a case study. Initially, LER within the area was evaluated using the LER Index (LERI) method. Subsequently, the Geodetector model was employed to discern the relationship between multi-source data and LER. Furthermore, ecological resistance and corridors were delineated utilizing the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model. Lastly, the corridors were optimized using the gravity model, finalizing the ESP construction. Study results reveal that LER was always fluctuating from 1990 to 2010, and tended to stabilize from 2010 to 2020. Factor detection underscores the predominant influence of land use on LER, followed by elevation and vegetation distribution. The ESP shows the imperative for improving connectivity of the natural areas that are fragmented by urban land, highlighting the great significance of the woodland-originating corridors. Finally, strategies are proposed to enhance woodland and water coverage, boost landscape diversity in nature reserves, and prioritize ecological conservation in corridor regions. In summation, the study furnishes a framework for analyzing arid regions in Eurasia. Furthermore, the research idea of evaluation-analysis-remodeling also offers insights into environmental management in developing areas with more diverse climate types.

9.
Malays J Med Sci ; 31(3): 229-240, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984237

RESUMO

Background: This study sought to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight among ever-married, non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Bangladesh by urban or rural residency status. Methods: This study used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2017 data. Cross-sectional study design with two-stage stratified sampling method was employed. A sample of ever-married non-pregnant women of reproductive age was selected and multinomial logistic regression was utilised in analysis. Results: It was found that around half of rural women (45.0%, N = 4,934) and more than half of urban women (60.3%, n = 3,913) were overweight. Nearly one in seven rural women (14.0%, n = 1,537) and 1 in 12 urban women (9.0%, n = 564) were reported as underweight. Our analyses revealed that being overweight was substantially connected with age, husband's occupation, economic status, television access, and division for both urban and rural areas. Women from poor households were significantly more likely to be underweight than women from middle- income households for both urban (P < 0.05; OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.94) and rural (P < 0.05; OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.46) areas. Interestingly, women without television access both in urban (P < 0.001; OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.91) and rural (P < 0.001; OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.84) areas had an inverse association with overweight/obesity compared to women with television access. In both areas, women in Sylhet and Mymensingh had higher likelihood of being underweight than Barisal division. Additionally, in both residential zones, women in Sylhet had lower likelihood of being overweight than Barisal division. Conclusion: This study reveals that multiple characteristics are linked to both overweight and underweight among ever-married, non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Addressing these variables should be a priority in public health efforts to combat the dual challenge of malnutrition in Bangladesh.

10.
J Environ Manage ; 366: 121767, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986369

RESUMO

Optimizing the layout of urban stormwater management systems is an effective method for mitigating the risk of urban flooding under extreme storms. However, traditional approaches that consider only economic costs or annual runoff control rates cannot dynamically respond to the uncertainties of extreme weather, making it difficult to completely avoid large accumulations of water and flooding in a short period. This study proposes an integrated method combining system layout optimization and Model Predictive Control(MPC)to enhance the system's resilience and effectiveness in flood control. An optimization framework was initially built to identify optimal system layouts, balancing annual average life cycle cost (AALCC) and resilience index. The MPC was then applied to the optimal layout selected using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, aiming to alleviate inundation cost-effectively. The adaptability of MPC to varying sets of control horizons and its efficacy in managing the hydrograph and flood dynamics of urban drainage system were examined. Conducted in Yubei, Chongqing, this study revealed patterns in optimal layout fronts among various extreme design rainfalls, showing that peak position rate and return period significantly influence system resilience. The contribution of MPC to the optimal system layout was particularly notable, resulting in improved instantaneous and overall flood mitigation. The application of MPC increased the resilience index by an average of 0.0485 and offered cost savings of 0.0514 million yuan in AALCC. Besides, our findings highlighted the importance of selecting an optimal set of control horizons for MPC, which could reduce maximum flood depth from 0.43m to 0.19m and decrease conduit peak flow by up to 14% at a flood-prone downstream location.

11.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 47, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980424

RESUMO

Performance in tests of various cognitive abilities has often been compared, both within and between species. In intraspecific comparisons, habitat effects on cognition has been a popular topic, frequently with an underlying assumption that urban animals should perform better than their rural conspecifics. In this study, we tested problem-solving ability in great tits Parus major, in a string-pulling and a plug-opening test. Our aim was to compare performance between urban and rural great tits, and to compare their performance with previously published problem solving studies. Our great tits perfomed better in string-pulling than their conspecifics in previous studies (solving success: 54%), and better than their close relative, the mountain chickadee Poecile gambeli, in the plug-opening test (solving success: 70%). Solving latency became shorter over four repeated sessions, indicating learning abilities, and showed among-individual correlation between the two tests. However, the solving ability did not differ between habitat types in either test. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found marked differences between study years even though we tried to keep conditions identical. These were probably due to small changes to the experimental protocol between years, for example the unavoidable changes of observers and changes in the size and material of test devices. This has an important implication: if small changes in an otherwise identical set-up can have strong effects, meaningful comparisons of cognitive performance between different labs must be extremely hard. In a wider perspective this highlights the replicability problem often present in animal behaviour studies.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ecossistema , Passeriformes/fisiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1833, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India is experiencing a rising burden of chronic disease multimorbidity due to an aging population and epidemiological transition. Older adults residing in urban slums are especially vulnerable due to challenges in managing multimorbidity amid deprived living conditions. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of multimorbidity, associated health literacy, and quality of life impact in this population. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 800 adults aged ≥ 65 years in an urban slum in Gujarat, India. Data on sociodemographics, physical and mental health conditions, health literacy (HLS-SF-47), quality of life (Short Form-12 scale), and social determinants of health were collected. Multimorbidity is ≥ 2 physical or mental health conditions in one person. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 62.5% (500/800). Multimorbidity was significantly associated with lower physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores on the SF-12 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the odds ratio of 0.81 indicates that for every 1 unit increase in the health literacy score, the odds of having multimorbidity decrease by 19%. Older age within the older adult cohort (per year increase) was associated with greater odds of multimorbidity (AOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Physical inactivity (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.027-2.77) and lack of social support (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45) also increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial burden of multimorbidity among urban slum dwellers aged ≥ 65 years in India, strongly linked to modifiable risk factors like poor health literacy and social determinants of health. Targeted interventions are essential to alleviate this disproportionate burden among urban slum older adults.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Multimorbidade , Áreas de Pobreza , Qualidade de Vida , População Urbana , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prevalência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
13.
Heliyon ; 10(12): e33365, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021900

RESUMO

Adopting agroecological approaches to build resilient urban food systems has recently gained traction around the world, but there is little to no reliable literature on the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of urban farmers towards these nature-based solutions in many developing nations, including Malaysia. The present study conducted an online survey to determine the extent to which local urban farmers understand and employ agroecology, as well as to assess their awareness and views on using agroecological practices and sustainable farm management. We found that the majority of respondents are unfamiliar with agroecological principles, with 79 % agreeing or strongly agreeing that implementing sustainable agricultural practices is challenging. However, more than 90 % of respondents are aware of the environmental consequences of excessive input utilisation. Our findings highlight the need for improved initiatives to promote agroecological approaches among farmers by sharing knowledge and best practices. In light of the growing threat posed by urban heat islands and the rapid urbanisation, this study offers novel insights into the knowledge gaps and perceptions about agroecological approaches among urban farmers, challenges that must be addressed to promote sustainable agriculture, and the potential role of farmers in achieving the three fundamental pillars of sustainability-planet, people, and prosperity.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(7): 4052-4062, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39022953

RESUMO

Microplastics are among the most difficult new pollutants to remove in wastewater treatment plants. In order to explore the occurrence form, size distribution, composition, removal efficiency, migration law, and fate behavior characteristics of microplastic particles in sewage plants, taking a sewage treatment plant in Hohhot as an example, a total of 17 sampling sites were set up. The LAS X software counted the shape, abundance, and size of microplastics and conducted a full-process analysis. The results showed that: fibrous microplastics had the highest abundance and widest distribution and were the main form of existence, accounting for 61.8% of the total abundance; the size of microplastics ranged mainly between 0 and 1.00 mm, and among the four sizes, the abundance of microplastics 0.25 to 0.50 mm in China was the highest, accounting for 32.9%. Among the eight types of plastic components detected, polyester substances (PET, PBT), cellulose, and polypropylene (PP) were the main components, accounting for 25%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. The influent abundance of the sewage plant was (73 ±5) n·L-1, the effluent abundance was (14 ±2) n·L-1, and the overall removal rate was (80.8 ±12.1)%. Among the three treatment stages of the sewage plant, only the primary treatment played a role in removal, and the abundance of microplastics surged in the secondary treatment. Different structures playing a major role in the removal of microplastics were fine grids (49.2 ±7.4)% and secondary sedimentation tanks (92.4 ±13.9)%. Microplastics mainly existed in the form of fibers, fragments, and films. The proportion of fibers was approximately 70%, and the size of fragments was mainly concentrated between 0.50 and 5.00 mm. Most fragments were in the range of 5.00 mm, accounting for 50%, making them the main form apart from fibrous. The film-like size was mostly concentrated in the range of less than 0.50 mm, accounting for more than 10%. Therefore, improving the removal of small-sized fibrous and film-like microplastics and large-sized fragmented microplastic particles can effectively reduce the pollution risk of microplastics in the environment caused by sewage plant drainage.


Assuntos
Cidades , Microplásticos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microplásticos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , China , Esgotos/química , Plásticos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polipropilenos , Monitoramento Ambiental
15.
J Urban Health ; 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023683

RESUMO

By providing spaces for recreation, physical activity, social gatherings, and time in nature, urban parks offer physical, mental, and social benefits to users. However, many urban residents face barriers to park use. The COVID-19 pandemic introduced new potential barriers to urban park access and use, including changes to daily life and employment, closure of park amenities and restrictions to public movement, and risk from the coronavirus itself. The mixed-methods PARCS study measured use and perceptions of a large urban park in St. Louis, Missouri before, during, and after local COVID-19 contingency measures and restrictions. We examine data from 1,157 direct observation assessments of park usership, an online survey of park users (n=561), interviews with key stakeholders (n=27), four focus groups (n=30), and a community-based participatory research sub-study (n=66) to comprehensively characterize the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on park use. Park users who felt unsafe from the coronavirus experienced 2.65 higher odds of reducing park use. However, estimated park visits during COVID-19 contingency measures (n=5,023,759) were twice as high as post-contingency (n=2,277,496). Participants reported using the park for physical activity, recreation, time in nature, and socializing during the contingency period. Black, Hispanic/Latino, and young people were less likely to visit the park than others, suggesting an additional, disproportionate impact of the pandemic on minoritized and socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. This study highlights the role of public spaces like parks as resources for health and sites where urban health inequities can be alleviated in times of public crisis.

16.
Prev Sci ; 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023721

RESUMO

Community violence and crime are significant public health problems with serious and lasting effects on young people, families, and communities. This violence and crime have significant ripple effects, affecting not just those who are directly physically injured, but also those who witness violent episodes, those who have friends or loved ones killed or injured, and those who must everyday navigate streets that they know have been frequent sites of serious violence and crime. The current study presents evidence of the impact that a data-driven, collective impact approach - the Communities that Care prevention system - can have on violence and crime outcomes within a large urban, high-burden community. Established as one of the national Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Chicago Center for Youth Violence Prevention is among the first to implement the CTC approach in a large, urban community. The current study's findings show reductions in violence (i.e., aggravated assaults and robberies) in the Bronzeville community, compared to similar communities in Chicago.

17.
Heliyon ; 10(11): e30729, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947425

RESUMO

This is the first study of urban-rural happiness gradient using multi-item Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). A new finding is that urbanites fail especially on "If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing"-urban way of life tends to result in regrets. Effect sizes of urbanicity on subjective wellbeing (SWB) are substantial-about half of health-living in a metro depresses one's happiness as much as going half way from fair health to poor health, for instance.

18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 205: 116656, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950516

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are the pollutants, found widely across various environmental media. However, studies on the MP pollution in urban rivers and the necessary risk assessments remain limited. In this study, the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in a typical urban river were examined to evaluate their distribution, sources, and ecological risks. It was observed that the abundance of MPs in sediments (220-2840 items·kg-1 dry weight (DW)) was much higher than that in surface water (2.9-10.3 items·L-1), indicating that the sediment is the "sink" of river MPs. Surface water and sediment were dominated by small particle size MPs (< 0.5 mm). Fiber and debris were common shapes of MPs in rivers and sediments. The microplastics in river water and sediments were primarily white and transparent, respectively. Polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) were the major polymers found.

19.
Acta Diabetol ; 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951224

RESUMO

AIM: The urban population increases by about 60 million people/year. Urbanization, unhealthy lifestyle and aging of the population are reflected in a constant growth in the prevalence of diabetes. In 2014, Steno Diabetes Centre in Copenhagen, University College London and Novo Nordisk, launched the Cities Changing Diabetes® program with the aim of creating a unified movement that would stimulate policy-makers to prioritize urban diabetes. METHODS: The socio-demographic data derive from (1) ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics of Italy), (2) ATS Metropolitan City of Milan, (3) ATS Val Padana-Cremona, (4) ATS Insubria-Varese, (5) The unemployment rates of the various municipalities have been extrapolated from an ISTAT-MEF elaboration published by Sole 24 Ore journal. RESULTS: In the different sanitary districts of the Metropolitan City of Milan, a strong linear correlation was found between the prevalence of diabetes and the prevalence of heart disease (R = 0.695, p < 0.001), as well as between the prevalence of diabetes and of nephropathies (R = 0.316, p < 0.001). The analysis concerning the province of Cremona showed a fair correlation between the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (R = 0.658, p < 0.001). Even for the municipalities of Varese, the analysis documented a good correlation between the prevalence of diabetes and heart disease (R = 0.419, p < 0.001), but not between diabetes and nephropathies. CONCLUSIONS: Interesting differences in the relationship of diabetes prevalence with several diseases and socio-demographic factors have been found when comparing the metropolitan City of Milan with two smaller size cities as Varese and Cremona. Our present data confirm the hypothesis that urban diabetes will be the challenge for our society during the next decades.

20.
Am J Bot ; : e16364, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946614

RESUMO

PREMISE: Vertical surfaces in urban environments represent a potential expansion of niche space for lithophytic fern species. There are, however, few records of differential success rates of fern species in urban environments. METHODS: The occurrence rates of 16 lithophytic fern species native to the northeastern USA in 14 biomes, including four urban environments differentiated by percentage of impervious surfaces, were evaluated. In addition, the natural macroclimatic ranges of these species were analyzed to test whether significant differences existed in climatic tolerance between species that occur in urban environments and species that do not. RESULTS: Three species appear to preferentially occur in urban environments, two species may facultatively occur in urban environments, and the remaining 11 species preferentially occur in nondeveloped rural environments. The natural range of fern species that occur in urban environments had higher summer temperatures than the range of species that do not, whereas other macroclimatic variables, notably winter temperatures and precipitation, were less important or insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical surfaces in urban environments may represent novel niche space for some native lithophytic fern species in northeastern USA. However, success in this environment depends, in part, on tolerance of the urban heat island effect, especially heating of impervious surfaces in summer.

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