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1.
Addict Behav ; 156: 108069, 2024 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Devaluation of alcohol leads to reductions in alcohol choice and consumption; however, the cognitive mechanisms that underpin this relationship are not well-understood. In this study we applied a computational model of value-based decision-making (VBDM) to decisions made about alcohol and alcohol-unrelated cues following experimental manipulation of alcohol value. METHOD: Using a pre-registered within-subject design, thirty-six regular alcohol consumers (≥14 UK units per week) completed a two-alternative forced choice task where they chose between two alcohol images (in one block) or two soft drink images (in a different block) after watching videos that emphasised the positive (alcohol value), and separately, the negative (alcohol devalue) consequences of alcohol. On each block, participants pressed a key to select the image depicting the drink they would rather consume. A drift-diffusion model (DDM) was fitted to reaction time and choice data to estimate evidence accumulation (EA) processes and response thresholds during the different blocks in each experimental condition. FINDINGS: In the alcohol devalue condition, soft drink EA rates were significantly higher compared to alcohol EA rates (p = 0.04, d = 0.31), and compared to soft drink EA rates in the alcohol value condition (p = 0.01, d = 0.38). However, EA rates for alcoholic drinks and response thresholds (for either drink type) were unaffected by the experimental manipulation. CONCLUSIONS: In line with behavioural economic models of addiction that emphasise the important role of alternative reinforcement, experimentally manipulating alcohol value is associated with changes in the internal cognitive processes that precede soft drink choice.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121143, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772240

RESUMO

Drawing upon an extensive body of valuation literature focused on water quality, this paper performs a meta-analysis benefit transfer exercise aimed at quantifying willingness to pay (WTP) for an enhancement in drinking water quality for households that have been directly exposed to Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) over recent decades in Italy. The analysis compiles metadata of 72 WTP estimates extracted from 40 previous valuation studies conducted in advanced economies. The benefit transfer is realized estimating a meta regression model (MRM) which includes both study design and socio-economic explanatory variables, according to the Weak Structural Utility Theoretic approach. To determine the most suitable MRM specification, a comparative evaluation of various model configurations is developed exploiting the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) selection criterion, and assessing their predictive performances in terms of transfer error and explanatory power. The mean transfer error (MTE) and the adjusted R-squared of the preferred MRM are in line with past published meta-analyses (0.665 and 0.607, respectively). The parameters estimated in the model align with both economic theory and intuition. The benefit transfer process results in an estimated annual WTP of € 250.80 per household for improved drinking water quality in the PFAS-affected area and an aggregated value of social benefits from PFAS decontamination of around € 12 million.

3.
Ambio ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727941

RESUMO

Considering both ecological and social dimensions in the assessment of ecosystem services (ESs) can facilitate acceptable and inclusive management strategies, especially in peri-urban areas characterized by intricate human-ecosystem interactions. A limited body of research, however, has mapped the plural values of ESs and their different types of trade-offs in such areas. This research aimed to execute an interdisciplinary analysis of the biophysical and social values of ESs in peri-urban Shanghai, China, through a social-ecological approach that integrates spatial biophysical assessment with participatory mapping. Trade-off analysis in both ES types and ES valuations were then conducted, and multicriteria decision-making was applied for conservation. Our results reveal that trade-off intensities were lower within the social values compared to the biophysical values. Within both value dimensions, relatively stronger trade-offs were found between food production and other ESs. Areas with both high biophysical and social values were infrequently observed across ESs. Based on the characteristics of diverse values, our study identified priority conservation areas and provided management implications. We argue that adopting the integrated social-ecological perspective in sustainable environmental management contributes to the realization of harmonious coexistence between people and nature in peri-urban areas.

4.
Med Decis Making ; : 272989X241249654, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates are useful to policy makers only if they are generalizable beyond the moment when they are collected. To understand the "shelf life" of preference estimates, preference stability needs be tested over substantial periods of time. METHODS: We tested the stability of WTP for preventative dental care (scale and polish) using a payment-card contingent valuation question administered to 909 randomized controlled trial participants at 4 time points: baseline (prerandomization) and at annual intervals for 3 years. Trial participants were regular attenders at National Health Service dental practices. Participants were randomly offered different frequencies (intensities) of scale polish (no scale and polish, 1 scale and polish per year, 2 scale and polishes per year). We also examined whether treatment allocation to these different treatment intensities influenced the stability of WTP. Interval regression methods were used to test for changes in WTP over time while controlling for changes in 2 determinants of WTP. Individual-level changes were also examined as well as the WTP function over time. RESULTS: We found that at the aggregate level, mean WTP values were stable over time. The results were similar by trial arm. Individuals allocated to the arm with the highest scale and polish intensity (2 per year) had a slight increase in WTP toward the latter part of the trial. There was considerable variation at the individual level. The WTP function was stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: The payment-card contingent valuation method can produce stable WTP values in health over time. Future research should explore the generalizability of these results in other populations, for less familiar health care services, and using alternative elicitation methods. HIGHLIGHTS: Stated preferences are commonly used to value health care.Willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates are useful only if they have a "shelf life."Little is known about the stability of WTP for health care.We test the stability of WTP for dental care over 3 y.Our results show that the contingent valuation method can produce stable WTP values.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(22): 32111-32125, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649604

RESUMO

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have interacted with humans during their common history. We used a contingent valuation method to assess the economic value of the management of this mesocarnivore's negative impacts. We carried out face-to-face interviews with 746 Greek residents, using a multiple-bounded discrete choice approach to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for red fox management under three impact situations: attack domestic animals, reduce game, carry disease. About 51.9%, 33.0%, and 81.1% of the respondents stated a mean WTP of €34.1, €44.9, and €72.1 for each situation, respectively. The total annual amounts of €18.7 million, €15.7 million, and €61.7 million could be collected from the target population for red fox management when they attack domestic animals, reduce game, and carry disease, respectively. Attitudes and likeability toward foxes were negatively associated while knowledge about foxes and fear of them were positively associated with WTP. The younger, richer, less educated, rural, farmers, hunters, and pet owners were generally more willing to pay for red fox management across situations. Females were more willing to pay for managing predation on domestic animals, while males were more willing to pay for managing predation on game. Our findings showed that the Greek residents highly value the management of red foxes in all impact situations and would be valuable for further advising the management process.


Assuntos
Raposas , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Grécia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
6.
Neuron ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640933

RESUMO

Individual preferences for the flavor of different foods and fluids exert a strong influence on behavior. Most current theories posit that preferences are integrated with other state variables in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which is thought to derive the relative subjective value of available options to guide choice behavior. Here, we report that instead of a single integrated valuation system in the OFC, another complementary one is centered in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) in macaques. Specifically, we found that the OFC and vlPFC preferentially represent outcome flavor and outcome probability, respectively, and that preferences are separately integrated into value representations in these areas. In addition, the vlPFC, but not the OFC, represented the probability of receiving the available outcome flavors separately, with the difference between these representations reflecting the degree of preference for each flavor. Thus, both the vlPFC and OFC exhibit dissociable but complementary representations of subjective value, both of which are necessary for decision-making.

7.
Environ Manage ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578325

RESUMO

This study designs a double-bounded dichotomous questionnaire, and uses the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to estimate residents' willingness to pay(WTP) for water pollution control along the Taihu Lake Basin. The results of the returned questionnaire show that 82.76% of the residents are willing to pay. CVM estimation results show that the average WTP of residents for water pollution control is 138.86 yuan/year. In addition, the influencing factors of WTP are explored using a Logistic regression model, and the heterogeneity of WTP among residents of different genders is analyzed. The study found that: (1) The younger the residents, the higher their WTP; (2) The higher the income, the higher the residents' WTP for water pollution control; (3) Residents with higher educational level are more willing to pay; (4) The higher the degree of residents' understanding of water pollution control policies, the higher the WTP; (5) The higher the degree of residents' recognition of pro-environmental behavior, the higher the WTP; (6) Male residents' WTP is mainly affected by cognitive factors such as their understanding of governance policies and their approval of pro-environmental behaviors, while female residents' WTP is mainly affected by personal attributes, such as age, income, and the number of household laborers. Furthermore, this study proposes targeted measures to improve residents' WTP from three aspects: the government enriches the channels for residents to participate in water pollution control, the social media enriches the popularization of water environment knowledge, and the school strengthens the education of environmental protection knowledge, considering the differences in residents' characteristics. Therefore, this study can provide a theoretical reference and decision-making basis for encouraging residents to participate in water pollution control, promote the construction of a beautiful watershed, and provide a reference for other basins.

8.
Soc Stud Sci ; : 3063127241241032, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584390

RESUMO

This article examines the value of medical technology through the case of electroencephalograms (EEGs), devices used to visualize brain activity and diagnose seizures. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, the article shows that EEGs are valued differently by patients and medical practitioners. While practitioners value EEGs for their clinical utility, i.e., ability to inform clinical decisions, patients value EEGs even in the absence of clinical utility. Indeed, patients derive long-lasting therapeutic effects from this diagnostic technology. These findings intervene in the utilitarian calculus of therapeutic value-a mode of reasoning that equates value with clinical utility-commonly deployed in biomedicine and engineering and call for a recognition of alternative notions such as the therapeutic value of being witnessed and cared for by medical experts via EEGs and other technologies that require time to work. Expansive notions of therapeutic value are imperative for including marginalized patients-especially low-income, disabled, and women patients-in debates on automation and the future of healthcare. Studying how multiple stakeholders value a medical technology provides insight into valuation, objectification, expertise, and other concerns central to science and technology studies.

9.
Insects ; 15(4)2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38667397

RESUMO

The management of Lepidopteran pests with light traps (LTs) is often achieved by luring adults to death at light sources (light trap-based mass trapping, or LTmt). Large-scale LTmt programs against agricultural pests initiated in the late 1920s in the United States were phased out in the 1970s, coinciding with the rise of pheromone-based management research. The interest in LTmt has surged in recent years with the advent of light emitting diodes, solar power sources, and intelligent design. The first step in implementing LTmt is to identify a trapping design that maximizes the capture of target pests and minimizes the capture of non-target beneficial insects-with a cautionary note that high captures in LTs are not equivalent to the feasibility of mass trapping: the ultimate objective of LTmt is to protect crop plants from pest damage, not to trap adults. The captures of egg-carrying females in light traps have a greater impact on the efficiency of LTmt than the captures of males. When LTmt is defined as a harvesting procedure, the biomass of females in LTs may be viewed as the best estimator of the mass trapping yield; biomass proxy has universal application in LTmt as every living organism can be defined on a per weight basis. While research has largely focused on agricultural pests, an attempt is made here to conceptualize LTmt as a pest management strategy in forest ecosystems, using spruce budworm as a case study. The mass trapping of female budworms is impossible to achieve in endemic populations due to the large spatial scale of forest landscapes (implying the deployment of a prohibitively large number of LTs); in addition, ovipositing female budworms do not respond to light sources at a low density of conspecifics. The light-based mass trapping of female budworms may provide a realistic management option for geographically isolated forest stands heavily infested with budworms, as a tool to prevent tree mortality. Somehow unexpectedly, however, one factor obscuring the feasibility of LTmt is as follows: the complex ('unknowable') economic valuation of forest stands as opposed to agricultural landscapes.

10.
Dialogues Hum Geogr ; 14(1): 47-50, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560289

RESUMO

In this response, we address criticisms of our definition of assetization from an accounting perspective, its overlap with financialization, and the relationship between value and valuation it posits. We reflect on a future agenda around assetization emphasizing the political dimensions of externalizing future costs and the implications of rising inflation.

11.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559221

RESUMO

Ventral frontal cortex (VFC) in macaques is involved in many affective and cognitive processes and has a key role in flexibly guiding reward-based decision-making. VFC is composed of a set of anatomically distinct subdivisions that are within the orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior insula. In part, because prior studies have lacked the resolution to test for differences, it is unclear if neural representations related to decision-making are dissociable across these subdivisions. Here we recorded the activity of thousands of neurons within eight anatomically defined subregions of VFC in macaque monkeys performing a two-choice probabilistic task for different fruit juices outcomes. We found substantial variation in the encoding of decision variables across these eight subdivisions. Notably, ventrolateral subdivision 12l was unique relative to the other areas that we recorded from as the activity of single neurons integrated multiple attributes when monkeys evaluated the different choice options. Activity within 12o, by contrast, more closely represented reward probability and whether reward was received on a given trial. Orbitofrontal area 11m/l contained more specific representations of the quality of the outcome that could be earned later on. We also found that reward delivery encoding was highly distributed across all VFC subregions, while the properties of the reward, such as its flavor, were more strongly represented in areas 11m/l and 13m. Taken together, our work reveals the diversity of encoding within the various anatomically distinct subdivisions of VFC in primates.

12.
Qual Life Res ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The second version of the Short-Form 6-Dimension (SF-6Dv2) classification system has recently been developed. The objective of this study was to develop a value set for SF-6Dv2 based on the societal preferences of a general population in the capital of Iran. METHODS: A representative sample of the capital of Iran (n = 3061) was recruited using a stratified multistage quota sampling technique. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using binary choice sets from the international valuation protocol of the discrete choice experiment with duration. The conditional logit was used to estimate the final value set, and a latent class model was employed to assess heterogeneity of preferences. RESULTS: Coefficients generated from the models were logically consistent and significant. The best model was the one that included an additional interaction term for cases where one or more dimensions reached their most severe levels. It provides a value set with logical consistent coefficients and the lowest percentage of worse than death health states. Predicted values for the SF-6Dv2 were within the range of - 0.796-1. Pain dimension had the largest impact on utility decrement, whereas vitality had the least impact. The presence of preference heterogeneity was evident, and the Bayesian Information Criterion indicated the optimal fit for a latent class model with two classes. CONCLUSION: This study provided the SF-6Dv2 value set for application in the context of Iran. This value set will facilitate the use of the SF-6Dv2 instrument in health economic evaluations and clinical settings.

13.
Heliyon ; 10(8): e29211, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38681546

RESUMO

This study presents a willingness-to-pay (WtP) questionnaire that was designed, validated, and applied to assess perceptions of air quality and self-reported health in two middle-income South American cities: Barcelona and its neighboring cities (Venezuela) and Guayaquil (Ecuador). These cities lack air quality monitoring and control measures. The questionnaire is a reliable tool to assess air quality based on citizens' perceptions, and the results reveal that both populations perceive low air quality and accurately identify emission sources and air pollutants (industrial emissions and particulate matter in Barcelona and vehicular emissions and carbon monoxide in Guayaquil). The study also evaluated the efforts made by both cities to improve air quality using the United Nations Environment Programme to strengthen air quality in South America. Based on this evaluation, strengths were identified for enhancing air quality in both cities. The study finds that in Barcelona and its surroundings, investment is needed to improve urban transport, waste management, and update the environmental legislation regarding air quality at the national level. In contrast, Guayaquil has already taken some measures to improve air quality, but more investment in public transport and measures to lower vehicle emissions are needed.

14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1903): 20220327, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643789

RESUMO

By embedding a spatially explicit ecosystem services modelling tool within a policy simulator we examine the insights that natural capital analysis can bring to the design of policies for nature recovery. Our study is illustrated through a case example of policies incentivising the establishment of new natural habitat in England. We find that a policy mirroring the current practice of offering payments per hectare of habitat creation fails to break even, delivering less value in improved flows of ecosystem services than public money spent and only 26% of that which is theoretically achievable. Using optimization methods, we discover that progressively more efficient outcomes are delivered by policies that optimally price activities (34%), quantities of environmental change (55%) and ecosystem service value flows (81%). Further, we show that additionally attaining targets for unmonetized ecosystem services (in our case, biodiversity) demands trade-offs in delivery of monetized services. For some policy instruments it is not even possible to achieve the targets. Finally, we establish that extending policy instruments to offer payments for unmonetized services delivers target-achieving and value-maximizing policy designs. Our findings reveal that policy design is of first-order importance in determining the efficiency and efficacy of programmes pursuing nature recovery. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bringing nature into decision-making'.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental , Recursos Naturais , Modelos Teóricos , Inglaterra , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Biodiversidade
16.
Front Reprod Health ; 6: 1278764, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463424

RESUMO

Background: Kenya included oral PrEP in the national guidelines as part of combination HIV prevention, and subsequently began providing PrEP to individuals who are at elevated risk of HIV infection in 2017. However, as scale-up continued, there was a recognized gap in knowledge on the cost of delivering oral PrEP. This gap limited the ability of the Government of Kenya to budget for its PrEP scale-up and to evaluate PrEP relative to other HIV prevention strategies. The following study calculated the actual costs of oral PrEP scale-up as it was being delivered in ten counties in Kenya. This costing also allowed for a comparison of various models of service delivery in different geographic regions from the perspective of service providers in Kenya. In addition, the analysis was also conducted to understand factors that indicate why some individuals place a greater value on PrEP than others, using a contingent valuation technique. Methods: Data collection was completed between November 2017 and September 2018. Costing data was collected from 44 Kenyan health facilities, consisting of 23 public facilities, 5 private facilities and 16 drop-in centers (DICEs) through a cross-sectional survey in ten counties. Financial and programmatic data were collected from financial and asset records and through interviewer administered questionnaires. The costs associated with PrEP provision were calculated using an ingredients-based costing approach which involved identification and costing of all the economic inputs (both direct and indirect) used in PrEP service delivery. In addition, a contingent valuation study was conducted at the same 44 facilities to understand factors that reveal why some individuals place a greater value on PrEP than others. Interviews were conducted with 2,258 individuals (1,940 current PrEP clients and 318 non-PrEP clients). A contingent valuation method using a "payment card approach" was used to determine the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) of respondents regarding obtaining access to oral PrEP services. Results: The weighted cost of providing PrEP was $253 per person year, ranging from $217 at health centers to $283 at dispensaries. Drop-in centers (DICEs), which served about two-thirds of the client volume at surveyed facilities, had a unit cost of $276. The unit cost was highest for facilities targeting MSM ($355), while it was lowest for those targeting FSW ($248). The unit cost for facilities targeting AGYW was $323 per person year. The largest percentage of costs were attributable to personnel (58.5%), followed by the cost of drugs, which represented 25% of all costs. The median WTP for PrEP was $2 per month (mean was $4.07 per month). This covers only one-third of the monthly cost of the medication (approximately $6 per month) and less than 10% of the full cost of delivering PrEP ($21 per month). A sizable proportion of current clients (27%) were unwilling to pay anything for PrEP. Certain populations put a higher value on PrEP services, including: FSW and MSM, Muslims, individuals with higher education, persons between the ages of 20 and 35, and households with a higher income and expenditures. Discussion: This is the most recent and comprehensive study on the cost of PrEP delivery in Kenya. These results will be used in determining resource requirements and for resource mobilization to facilitate sustainable PrEP scale-up in Kenya and beyond. This contingent valuation study does have important implications for Kenya's PrEP program. First, it indicates that some populations are more motivated to adopt oral PrEP, as indicated by their higher WTP for the service. MSM and FSW, for example, placed a higher value on PrEP than AGYW. Higher educated individuals, in turn, put a much higher value on PrEP than those with less education (which may also reflect the higher "ability to pay" among those with more education). This suggests that any attempt to increase demand or improve PrEP continuation should consider these differences in client populations. Cost recovery from existing PrEP clients would have potentially negative consequences for uptake and continuation.

17.
Malays J Med Sci ; 31(1): 91-102, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456119

RESUMO

Background: Re-envisioning healthcare in technology tools includes robust utilisation of telehealth, improvement in access, quality, care efficiencies and cost-effectiveness of healthcare services. In reality, the technology's potential to transform healthcare may be limited by the ability to pay for it. This study aims to estimate Malaysian citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) for telehealth consultations and determine the factors contributing to it. This is vital to inform decision-making about expansion, preferences and deployment of a pricing strategy for telehealth services. Methods: A random sample of 220 adult Malaysians was surveyed using social network services (SNS). Three different WTP bid arrays were identified and each respondent received a randomly drawn bid price. The WTP fee for using the telehealth consultation for 30 min was measured and estimated using a Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice (DBDC) and the Random Utility Logit Model. Result: The median WTP was estimated to be RM58 (JPY2,198), RM78 (JPY2,956) for 132 respondents' willingness to use telehealth consultation and RM26 (JPY985) for 51 respondents who were unwilling. Further analysis found that WTP is correlated with the perception and willingness of the respondents to use it. Conclusion: Despite most respondents being willing to pay for telehealth consultations, sociodemographic characteristics and affordability influenced the process of making decisions about WTP for telehealth consultation. This finding suggests that the private sector can play a crucial role in the deployment of telehealth. However, there may be a need to consider affordability and how to increase access and use of telehealth services.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491871

RESUMO

Older adults report higher marital satisfaction than younger adults even after negative interactions. The current study examined affect valuation as a potential moderator to explain age-related differences in the relationship between negative interactions and marital satisfaction. We conducted a 14-day daily diary study among 66 heterosexual couples (132 participants) aged from 21 to 80 years. At both person and daily levels, we found that valuing negative affect weakened the negative association between negative interactions and marital satisfaction in husbands. The moderating effect of negative affect valuation was stronger in older than younger husbands at the person but not daily level. Valuing positive affect more was associated with a stronger negative association between negative interactions and marital satisfaction in husbands at the person but not daily level. Such effect was again stronger in older than younger husbands. No significant results were found in wives. These findings shed light on the importance of affect valuation in understanding age-related differences in marital dynamics.

19.
Qual Life Res ; 33(5): 1415-1422, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Valuing child health is critical to assessing the value of healthcare interventions for children. However, there remain important methodological and normative issues. This qualitative study aimed to understand the views of Canadian stakeholders on these issues. METHODS: Stakeholders from health technology assessment (HTA) agencies, pharmaceutical industry representatives, healthcare providers, and academic researchers/scholars were invited to attend an online interview. Semi-structured interviews were designed to focus on: (1) comparing the 3-level and 5-level versions of the EQ-5D-Y; (2) source of preferences for valuation (adults vs. children); (3) perspective of valuation tasks; and (4) methods for valuation (discrete choice experiment [DCE] and its variants versus time trade-off [TTO]). Participants were probed to consider HTA guidelines, cognitive capacity, and potential ethical concerns. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis with the incidence density method was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Fifteen interviews were conducted between May and September 2022. 66.7% (N = 10) of participants had experience with economic evaluations, and 86.7% (N = 13) were parents. Eleven participants preferred the EQ-5D-Y-5L. 12 participants suggested that adolescents should be directly involved in child health valuation from their own perspective. The participants were split on the ethical concerns. Eight participants did not think that there was ethical concern. 11 participants preferred DCE to TTO. Among the DCE variants, 6 participants preferred the DCE with duration to the DCE with death. CONCLUSIONS: Most Canadian stakeholders supported eliciting the preferences of adolescents directly from their own perspective for child health valuation. DCE was preferred if adolescents are directly involved.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados , Humanos , Canadá , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde da Criança , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Real Estate Financ Econ (Dordr) ; 68(3): 355-393, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482270

RESUMO

Accurate and efficient valuation of property is of utmost importance in a variety of settings, such as when securing mortgage finance to purchase a property, or where residential property taxes are set as a percentage of a property's resale value. Internationally, resale based property taxes are most common due to ease of implementation and the difficulty of establishing site values. In an Irish context, property valuations are currently based on comparison to recently sold neighbouring properties, however, this approach is limited by low property turnover. National property taxes based on property value, as opposed to site value, also act as a disincentive to improvement works due to the ensuing increased tax burden. In this article we develop a spatial hedonic regression model to separate the spatial and non-spatial contributions of property features to resale value. We mitigate the issue of low property turnover through geographic correlation, borrowing information across multiple property types and finishes. We investigate the impact of address mislabelling on predictive performance, where vendors erroneously supply a more affluent postcode, and evaluate the contribution of improvement works to increased values. Our flexible geo-spatial model outperforms all competitors across a number of different evaluation metrics, including the accuracy of both price prediction and associated uncertainty intervals. While our models are applied in an Irish context, the ability to accurately value properties in markets with low property turnover and to quantify the value contributions of specific property features has widespread application. The ability to separate spatial and non-spatial contributions to a property's value also provides an avenue to site-value based property taxes.

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