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1.
Ecol Evol ; 14(4): e11273, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601853

RESUMO

Many tropical species show declining populations. The pantropical order Trogoniformes has 76% of its species ranked as declining, reflecting a worldwide problem. Here, we report on the reproductive ecology and life history traits of the declining and near-threatened old world Whitehead's Trogon (Harpactes whiteheadi), the declining new world Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris), and the stable Masked Trogon (T. personatus). We also reviewed the literature on reproductive ecology and life history traits of trogons to assess possible commonalities that might help explain population declines. We found that the declining Whitehead's and Collared Trogons had reasonable nest success (32% and 25%, respectively), while the stable Masked Trogon had poor reproductive success (9%), all contrary to population trends. However, the limited literature data suggested that poor reproductive success may be common among trogons, which may contribute to population declines. Parents fed young at a low rate and had long on-bouts for incubation and nestling warming that reduced activity at the nest, as favored by high nest predation risk over evolutionary time. We found that young fledged from the nest with poorly developed wings, as also favored by high nest predation risk. Evolved nestling periods among trogon species suggests that poor wing development is likely common. Wing development has been shown to affect juvenile survival after leaving the nest. The poor wing development may be an important contributor to population declines that deserves more attention. Evolved life history traits are important to recognize as creating population vulnerabilities in a changing world.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 30: 100669, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298201

RESUMO

Background: Population-based estimates of syphilis prevalence are critical to informing public health response. We aimed to measure syphilis prevalence among Venezuelan refugees and migrants in Colombia to inform public health programming. Methods: Between July 2021 and February 2022, we surveyed 6221 adult Venezuelan refugees and migrants in four cities in Colombia using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants completed a survey and dual-rapid HIV/treponemal syphilis screening. Confirmatory laboratory-based rapid plasma reagin testing was conducted on whole blood samples. Active syphilis infection was defined as RPR titer ≥ 1:8 and no self-reported syphilis treatment. We used multivariable regression models to identify associations with active syphilis infection among subgroups by gender and history of pregnancy (cisgender men n = 2123, cisgender women n = 4044, transgender/nonbinary people n = 47, pregnant women n = 150). Findings: Population (RDS-weighted) prevalence of laboratory-confirmed syphilis was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.6-5.6). Syphilis prevalence was 5.8% (weighted) among men; lifetime sexually transmitted infections (STI) diagnosis, same-sex relationships, HIV infection, and partner number were independently associated with syphilis infection. Syphilis prevalence was 4.6% (weighted) in women; correlates of infection included: lifetime STI diagnosis, food insecurity, current engagement in sex work, current pregnancy, any unsafe night in Colombia, irregular migration status, and no healthcare utilization in Colombia. 14.9% (unweighted) of transgender participants had syphilis infection; correlates of infection included partner number and HIV infection. The prevalence of syphilis was 9.0% (weighted) among pregnant women, which was associated with lifetime STI diagnosis. Interpretation: Syphilis among Venezuelans in Colombia is high. Correlates of infection are distinct among demographic groups, spanning sexual and social vulnerabilities, suggesting tailored public health strategies. Funding: US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 87, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted multiple health services, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, care, and treatment services, jeopardizing the achievement of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 global target. While there are limited studies assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Latin America, there are none, to our knowledge, in Venezuela. This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among PLHIV seen at the outpatient clinic of a reference hospital in Venezuela. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among PLHIV aged 18 years and over seen at the Infectious Diseases Department of the University Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela between March 2021 and February 2022. RESULTS: A total of 238 PLHIV were included in the study. The median age was 43 (IQR 31-55) years, and the majority were male (68.9%). Most patients (88.2%, n = 210) came for routine check-ups, while 28 (11.3%) were newly diagnosed. The majority of patients (96.1%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only 67.8% had a viral load test, with almost all (95.6%) being undetectable. Among those who attended regular appointments, 11.9% reported missing at least one medical consultation, and 3.3% reported an interruption in their ART refill. More than half of the patients (55.5%) had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, while the rest expressed hesitancy to get vaccinated. Most patients with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were male (65.1%), younger than 44 years (57.5%), employed (47.2%), and had been diagnosed with HIV for less than one year (33%). However, no statistically significant differences were found between vaccinated patients and those with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Older age was a risk factor for missing consultations, while not having an alcoholic habit was identified as a protective factor against missing consultations. CONCLUSION: This study found that the COVID-19 pandemic had a limited impact on adherence to medical consultations and interruptions in ART among PLHIV seen at the University Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , HIV , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193824

RESUMO

The migration of health workforces tends to be economically based benefiting high-income countries, while draining lower-income countries of workers and skills However, national instability or civil conflict may also have the effect of forcing out health workers. However, few articles focus on the experiences of these types of migrants. Peru has become the second largest Latin American destination for Venezuelan forced displaced migrants, a number of which are health workers. While the exact numbers of these workers is unknown, it is estimated that 4000 and 3000 doctors and about 2500 nurses and health technicians from Venezuela reside in Peru. These workers find entry into the heath system difficult due to bureaucratic and costly registration and qualification validation procedures. However, during Covid-19 these conditions were relaxed, and a large number of these heath workers entered the heath workforce. These workers were primarily doctors and worked in urban medical facilities, though there was some distribution across the country's departments. This avenue to the health workforce allowed the mobilisation of dormant health skills and lifted workforce density numbers. Nonetheless, it is too early to see if there have been sustainable improvements, and it remains uncertain how these policies have contributed to the country's UHC goals. Peru's experiences raise the issue of how to mobilise dormant displaced health worker migrants.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 210, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major global public health issues. Migrants represent a vulnerable group that faces multiple barriers to access to healthcare services, including HIV/STI testing. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with access to HIV/STI testing in male and female Venezuelan migrants in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving secondary data analysis of the 2022 Venezuelan Population Residing in Peru Survey. The study was conducted in the eight most populated cities inhabited by Venezuelan migrants and refugees. For each city, the sampling design was probabilistic, stratified, and independent. The outcome variable was whether participants had access to HIV or other STI testing during their stay in Peru. Statistical analysis was stratified by sex owing to potential effect modification. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized linear models Poisson family with log link function. Confidence intervals were calculated to 95%. RESULTS: A total of 3,723 male and 3,984 female migrants were included. Access to HIV/STI testing among male and female migrants was 19.85% and 25.16%, respectively. Among male migrants, being LGBTI, health insured, and married or cohabiting were associated with increased access to HIV/STI testing. Among females, those aged 18-44 years, those who were married or cohabiting and were health insured, and those residing for more than 1 year in Peru were significantly more likely to have access to HIV/STI testing. Moreover, physical/mental disability and unemployed status were associated with a lower probability of HIV/STI testing in females. CONCLUSIONS: Only two in ten Venezuelan migrants and refugees in Peru were screened for HIV/STI, with fewer males than females. Sex-specific sociodemographic, health-related, and migration-related variables were independently associated with access to HIV/STI testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Migrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Peru/epidemiologia
6.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 61(1): 95-106, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37964582

RESUMO

It cannot be assumed that the experience of having an autistic child is the same across countries since demographic and systemic factors are as diverse as the manifestation of ASD symptomatology. This study explores the lived experiences of 20 Venezuelan parents after receiving an autism diagnosis for their child. Applied thematic analysis was used to analyze parental attitudes, challenges in identifying their child's delay, access to diagnostic services, beliefs towards autism, professional evaluations, family support, and perceptions toward health and educational services for autistic children. Venezuelan parents reported a generalized lack of autism awareness, an unsupportive school system, and judgment from their extended family. Despite the universal health coverage in the country, Venezuelan parents commented on the scarcity of services, as well as the lengthy and costly processes to receive an ASD diagnosis. The results support previous research findings showing that socioeconomic factors influence how parents experience the process of obtaining an autism diagnosis for their children. For most Venezuelan parents, it might imply a long journey in which limited resources and knowledge about autism will determine its route and length. For parents, cultural values and spiritual and religious beliefs will serve as both coping mechanisms and barriers to accessing services.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Pais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
J Fish Biol ; 104(1): 335-340, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874544

RESUMO

Documentation of Echinorhinus brucus, (Bonnaterre, 1788) in the western Atlantic primarily relies on chance observations. Georeferenced records in this area remain notably scarce. This study contributes the second Venezuelan and seventh Caribbean Sea specimens, increasing the western Atlantic count to 15 individuals. All specimens gathered here were sexually mature, with a slight dominance of females. Our bramble shark record appears to be driven more by the interplay of its biology and environmental factors than being a deliberate deep-sea fishery activity, which likely occurs in the Southern Caribbean area.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Tubarões , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Região do Caribe , Venezuela
8.
Parasitol Res ; 123(1): 17, 2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060033

RESUMO

It is estimated that 6-7 million people worldwide are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. In Venezuela, Chagas disease remains a public health problem. In this work, T. cruzi isolates from six species of triatomines and mammals of the orders Didelphimorphia and Xenarthra, captured in rural communities of Monagas, underwent parasitological and molecular characterization. A total of 471 triatomines and 17 mammals were captured, with a natural infection rate of 41.4% and 70.6%, respectively. In the male NMRI mouse model used for parasitological characterization (prepatent period, parasitemia curve, mouse mortality, and tissular parasitism), T. cruzi isolates exhibited high lethality due to their pronounced virulence, irrespective of the parasite load in each mouse, resulting in a mortality rate of 75%. Among the vector isolates, in the mouse model, only 2 out of 6 remained alive, while the rest perished during the evaluation. Conversely, the isolates from mammals proved fatal for all the inoculated mice. All isolates were identified as belonging to DTU TcI, based on the molecular markers such as the intergenic region of the miniexon, D7 divergent domain of the 24Sα rDNA, size-variable domain of the 18S rDNA, and hsp60-PCR-RFLP-EcoRV. This study demonstrates the presence of vectors and mammalian reservoirs naturally infected with T. cruzi in communities of Monagas, the 9th largest and 9th most populous state in Venezuela. This situation represents a neglected epidemiological problem demanding urgent attention and imperative health care intervention.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Marsupiais , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Camundongos , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Mamíferos/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico
9.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 25(3)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528636

RESUMO

Fundamento: La labor docente en la Misión Médica Cubana en Venezuela está encaminada a garantizar el cumplimiento de las exigencias y necesidades sociales en la formación de profesionales en pre y posgrado, orientada a la preparación de los profesores y a la ejecución del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje con bases sólidas. Objetivo: Identificar los conocimientos que poseen los coordinadores docentes relacionados con los procedimientos metodológicos de la superación profesional en el Estado Táchira de Venezuela, en el I Trimestre de 2020. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal sobre superación profesional durante el primer trimestre de 2022 que incluyó los 25 vicecoordinadores docentes nombrados en las Áreas de Salud Integral Comunitaria de la Misión Barrio Adentro del Estado Táchira. Se diseñó y aplicó un cuestionario encaminado a medir conocimientos sobre procedimientos metodológicos de superación profesional. Resultados: Se observaron dificultades en la identificación de las necesidades de aprendizaje, con relación a otras formas organizativas de superación, modalidades de las actividades de posgrado, comparecencia del cuerpo docente y de evaluación final. Conclusiones: La caracterización realizada permitió determinar las necesidades de aprendizaje, principalmente en el área de la didáctica general y fundamenta la necesidad de elaborar para su ejecución un programa de superación profesional dirigido a los docentes noveles.


Background: The teaching labor for the Cuban Medical Mission in Venezuela is aimed to guarantee the accomplishment of the demands and social needs for professionals in undergraduate and postgraduate preparation, oriented to the preparation of teachers and to the execution with solid foundations of the teaching and learning process. Objective: To identify the knowledge possessed by the teaching coordinators related to the methodological procedures in professional upgrading in Táchira State, Venezuela, during the first quarter in 2020. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted about professional upgrading, and included the 25 teaching vice coordinators named in the Integral Community Health Areas of the Barrio Adentro Mission in the Táchira State. A questionnaire was designed and applied in order to measure knowledge on professional upgrading methodological procedures. Results: Difficulties were observed in the learning needs identification, in relation to other organizational forms of improvement, modalities of postgraduate activities, teaching staff appearance and final evaluation. Conclusions: The conducted characterization made it possible to determine the learning needs, mainly in the general didactic area and substantiates the necessity to elaborate for its execution, a professional upgrading program for novice teachers.

10.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 378, dic. 2023. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1526934

RESUMO

Introducción: El tema del cambio climático y sus efectos, en la salud, educación y transporte, es un tema emergente, que pretende la optimización del consumo y la eficiencia energética. Esta investigación se plantea como objetivo,la caracterización del uso y aprovechamiento de energías, en establecimientos de atención médica de la región capital durante el año 2022, considerando la distribución energética, eficiencia y fuentes primarias de energía utilizadas en este país. Métodos: Se trata de una investigación descriptiva, transversal y prospectiva,a través del análisis cuali-cuantitativo, con el uso de informantes clave quienes consideran importante la iluminación natural en los espacios y el mayor aprovechamiento energético en áreas como la quirúrgica y consulta externa. Resultados: Surge el uso de la energía solar, eólica e hidráulica como recursos energéticos aprovechables, así como la sostenibilidad y la mantenibilidad en el diseño y rediseño de infraestructuras hospitalarias. Los tipos de energías utilizados en Venezuela, siguen correspondiendo ala hidráulica y combustibles fósiles, se conoce la tecnología e implementación de paneles solares para la mejoría del cambio climático, la huella del carbono, el uso de energías verdes y reducción de combustibles fósiles. Su aceptación depende de regulaciones y la concientización energética como elementos fundamentales para el cambio.


Introduction: The issue of climate change and itseffects, in health, education and transportation, is an emergingissue, which aims at the optimization of energy consumption andefficiency. e objective of this research is to characterize the useand exploitation of energy in health care facilities in the capitalregion during the year 2022, considering the energy distribution,efficiency and primary energy sources used in this country.Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and prospectiveresearch, through qualitative-quantitative analysis, with the useof key informants who consider important the natural lightingin the spaces and the greater use of energy in areas such assurgery and outpatient care. Results: The use of solar, windand hydraulic energy emerged as usable energy resources, aswell as sustainability and maintainability in the design andredesign of hospital infrastructures. The types of energy used inVenezuela continue to correspond to hydraulics and fossil fuels; the technology and implementation of solar panels is known forthe improvement of climate change, the carbon footprint, theuse of green energy and reduction of fossil fuels. Their acceptancedepends on regulations and energy awareness as fundamental elements for change.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Consumo de Energia , Energia Solar , Cuidados Médicos , Política de Saúde
11.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 377, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1531130

RESUMO

El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizarla relación entre los indicadores de seguridad alimentaria,subalimentación y costo de la canasta alimentaria en el contextode las políticas públicas en materia alimentaria en Venezuela,durante el periodo comprendido entre 2017 y 2022. Para ello, sellevó a cabo un análisis exhaustivo de los datos disponibles sobrela seguridad alimentaria en Venezuela, incluyendo informaciónsobre la subalimentación, y el costo de la canasta alimentaria.Asimismo, se analizaron las políticas públicas implementadas enel país en materia alimentaria durante el periodo de estudio, conel fin de entender su impacto en los indicadores de seguridadalimentaria. Ninguna de las asociaciones estudiadas resultó sersignificativa a nivel estadístico (p>0,05), por lo que, aunqueteóricamente existe una relación entre estos indicadores en elperíodo estudiado, el carácter multidimensional prevalece y hacecompleja la posibilidad de comparaciones. Se identificaron laspolíticas públicas que requieren mejoras o ajustes para proteger laseguridad alimentaria del venezolano. Estos resultados obtenidospodrán ser de utilidad para los responsables de la toma dedecisiones en el país, así como para los investigadores yprofesionales interesados en el tema de la seguridad alimentariay la nutrición


EL objective of this study is to analyzethe relationship between the indicators of food security,undernourishment and the cost of the food basket in thecontext of public policies on food in Venezuela, during theperiod between 2017 and 2022. For this, an exhaustive analysisof the available data on food security in Venezuela wascarried out, including information on undernourishment, andthe cost of the food basket. Likewise, the public policiesimplemented in the country regarding food during the studyperiod were analyzed, in order to understand their impacton food security indicators. None of the associations studiedturned out to be statistically significant (p>0.05), therefore,although theoretically there is a relationship between theseindicators in the period studied, the multidimensional natureprevails and makes comparability complex. Public policies that require improvements or adjustments to protect Venezuelanfood security were identified. These results obtained may beuseful for those responsible for decision-making in the country,as well as for researchers and professionals interested in thesubject of food security and nutrition.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Política Pública , Desnutrição , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Básicos de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Valor Nutritivo
12.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 376, dic. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1531171

RESUMO

Los accidentes de tránsito son un problema de salud pública de gran magnitud y gravedad, en las Américas; Venezuela ocupa un lugar destacado por su alta incidencia. El objetivo de la investigación es establecer la relación entre las políticas públicas para la prevención de los accidentes de motocicletas, y las tasas de mortalidad. Metodología: Estudio documental retrospectivo de las políticas viales y las tasas de mortalidad específicas de lesionados por accidentes de motocicletas en Venezuela durante el período 1996-2018. Resultados: como causa de muerte en Venezuela (2000-2018), representa casi 7% del total, entre 6 a 50% del total de las muertes por accidentes de tránsito terrestre y se mantiene muy alta al final del período, con fallecidos por motocicletas sobre 25%. La elevación de la curva endémica de mortalidad ocurrió simultáneamente al aumento en la producción e importación de motocicletas, y cayó durante la crisis económica, en el año 2014. La legislación actualizada mas no acatada en esta materia, es notoria Conclusiones: Los accidentes de motocicleta son un problema de salud pública de primer orden en Venezuela asociadas al clima económico y social, las tasas de mortalidad tuvieron su máxima meseta de elevación durante la bonanza petrolera 2005-2013. Las políticas asociadas a la prevención de accidentes viales en moto están fragmentadas, son ineficientes y reactivas a situaciones complejas, deficientemente aplicadas por los organismos de tránsito responsables a escala nacional, regional y municipal.


Introduction. Traffic accidents are a public health problem of great magnitude and gravity in the Americas; Venezuela occupies a prominent place for its high incidence. The objective of the research is to establish the relationship between public policies for the prevention of motorcycle accidents, and mortality rates. Methodology: Retrospective documentary study of road policies and specific mortality rates of those injured by motorcycle accidents in Venezuela during the period 1996-2018. Descriptive statistical analysis with trend lines, frequency distributions and annual average rates. Results: cause of death in Venezuela (2000-2018), represents almost 7% of the total. The burden of motorcycle injury deaths represents between 6 to 50% of total road traffic fatalities and remains very high at the end of the period, with motorcycle fatalities over 25%. The elevation of the endemic mortality curve occurred simultaneously with the increase in the production and import of motorcycles, and fell concomitantly with the economic crisis in 2014. Conclusions: Motorcycle accidents are a public health problem of the first order in Venezuela associated with the economic and social climate, mortality rates had their maximum plateau of elevation during the oil economic boom 2005-2013. The policies associated with the prevention of road accidents by motorcycle are fragmented, inefficient and reactive to complex situations and poorly applied by the responsible traffic agencies at national, regional and municipal level.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Pública , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança Viária , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Causas de Morte , Prevenção de Acidentes
13.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 373, dic. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1531731

RESUMO

La Canasta Alimentaria Normativa (CAN) es un instrumento estratégico de planificación y seguimiento, que impacta el ámbito económico (fijación del salario mínimo SM y del umbral de la pobreza relativa), la seguridad alimentaria y la salud pública. El objetivo fue describir la evolución histórica de la CAN en Venezuela, contrastando su valoración económica respecto al SM durante el período 1990 ­ 2023. Tipo de estudio: Descriptivo. Se empleó la CAN del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas/Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (INE/INN) y su comparación con la canasta del Centro de Documentación y Análisis Social de la Federación Venezolana de Maestros(CENDAS ­ FVM). Los valores mensuales de la CAN y del SM se recalcularon a dólares USA, de acuerdo a la tasa de cambio oficial. No se incluyó evaluación de la estructura interna, ni sus expresiones en términos de aporte de energía y nutrientes. Resultados: Desde 1990 hasta el año 2015, se requirieron entre1,0 y 1,8 SM y entre 0,6 y 1,7 Ingresos Mínimos Legales (IML)para acceder a la CAN. Para el año 2023 se requirieron hasta 78,3SM y 51,6 IML. El valor promedio de la canasta del CENDAS-FVM fue superior al valor de la CAN INE/INN, en una proporción de 1,7: 1. Conclusiones: la CAN resultó sensible en identificar los cambios y tendencias de su estimación económica, en el ambiente inflacionario venezolano. El uso de sus resultados está sujeta a cierto grado de discrecionalidad política. El costo de la CAN, expresa una contracción del poder de compra de los hogares venezolanos con potenciales impactos sobre la nutrición y la salud física y mental a corto y largo plazo.


The Normative Food Basket (NFB) represents astrategic planning and monitoring instrument, which impactsthe economic sphere (setting of the minimum wage (MW) andthe relative poverty threshold), food security and public health.The objective was to describe the historical evolution of the NFB in Venezuela, contrasting its economic valuation with respect to the MW during the period 1990 ­ 2023. Type of study: Descriptive. The NFB of the National Institute of Statistics/National Institute of Nutrition (NIS/NIN) was used and itscomparison with the basket of the Center for Documentationand Social Analysis of the Venezuelan Federation of Teachers (CENDAS ­ FVM). The monthly values of the NFB and theMW were recalculated into dollars (US$), according to theofficial exchange rate. No evaluation of the internal structurewas included, nor its expressions in terms of energy and nutrientcontribution. Results: From 1990 to 2015, between 1.0 and1.8 MW and between 0.6 and 1.7 Minimum Legal Income(MLI) were required to access the NFB. By 2023, up to 78.3MW and 51.6 MLI were required. The average value of the CENDAS-FVM basket was higher than the value of the NFBNIS/NIN, in a proportion of 1.7: 1. Conclusions: As a statistical operation, the NFB was sensitive in identifying changes andtrends in its estimate economic, in the Venezuelan inflationaryenvironment. The use of its results is subject to a certain degree ofpolitical discretion. The cost of CAN expresses a contraction inthe purchasing power of Venezuelan households with potentialimpacts on nutrition and physical/mental health in the shortand long term.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Pública , Desnutrição/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Básicos de Saúde , Comportamento Alimentar , Inflação
14.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 374, dic. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1531761

RESUMO

El objetivo fue describir el estado actual del marco normativo de migración, y la tendencia de indicadores de población y migración en Venezuela en el periodo 2000-2022.Métodos: Estudio descriptivo del marco normativo de migración y la tendencia de indicadores de población y migración en Venezuela. Indicadores: población total, tasa de dependencia demográfica (total, niñez, adulto mayor) y tasa de migración. Fuentes de datos: plataforma informativa salud y migración(marco normativo), Anuario estadístico de América Latina y el Caribe año 2000 al 2022 (indicadores de población).Resultados: El marco normativo de la migración en Venezuela está contenido en escasas leyes y Convenios Internacionales y regionales. La variación porcentual en la población venezolana fue descendente durante casi todo el periodo, donde se presentan incluso valores negativos para 2018-2021. La tasa anual decrecimiento poblacional, demostró un descenso constante y marcado desde el año 2000 hasta el año 2018, con altos valores negativos, luego asciende mostrando valores positivos a partir del año 2022, con un valor equivalente al año 2000. Conclusiones: El marco legal migratorio en Venezuela, es deficitario y no acorde a las necesidades de los migrantes. Los cambios ocurridos en la población venezolana de 2000 a 2022 fue debido a varios factores, siendo de gran impacto el fenómeno migratorio. La tasa de migración en Venezuela muestra tendencia negativa lo que indica que el país pierde población.


Objective Describe the current state of the regulatory framework for migration and the trend of populationand migration indicators in Venezuela for the period2000-2022. Methods: Descriptive study of the regulatory framework for migration and the trend of population andmigration indicators in Venezuela. Sample of national and international documents (regulatory framework). Indicators: total population, demographic dependency rate (total,childhood, elderly) and migration rate. Data sources: health andmigration information platform (regulatory framework) LatinAmerica and the Caribbean Statistical Yearbook 2000 to 2022(population indicators) Results: The regulatory framework formigration in Venezuela is contained in few international andregional laws and agreements. The percentage variation in the Venezuelan population was downward during almost the entireperiod, where even negative values are presented for 2018-2021.The annual rate of population growth showed a constant andmarked decrease from the year 2000 to the year 2018 with highnegative values, then it ascends showing positive values from theyear 2022 with a value equivalent to the year 2000. Conclusions:The migratory legal framework in Venezuela is deficient anddoes not meet the needs of migrants. The changes that haveoccurred in the Venezuelan population from 2000 to 2022 wasdue to several factors, the migratory phenomenon being of greatimpact. the migration rate in Venezuela shows a negative trend,which indicates that the country is losing population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Populacionais em Saúde Pública , Jurisprudência
15.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 372, dic. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1531773

RESUMO

La presente revisión surge dada la importancia otorgada a la Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Vida (ENCOVI) de Venezuela, la edición de dicha encuesta proporciona información representativa de la situacióneconómica, social y de salud de los hogares del país. Los resultados de la encuesta permiten a investigadores y expertos analizar y comprender la magnitud de la crisis en sus diversos aspectos y sus efectos sobre la población y las condiciones de vida, lo que la convierte en una herramienta esencial para entender los problemas que enfrenta la población de Venezuela y la forma de abordarlos de manera efectiva. La ENCOVI proporciona información útil, no solo, a la sociedad civil y Organizaciones No Gubernamentales (ONGs), también a instituciones gubernamentales, al ser divulgada a través de medios de comunicación, aportando importantes insumos para el abordaje de los problemas públicos y los desafíos encada sector, permitiendo comprender las condiciones de vida en los hogares venezolanos. La investigación se basa en un diseño bibliográfico-documental, efectuando para ello 6 fases constituidas por: búsqueda, compilación, revisión, selección,organización y examen sistemático. El objetivo es describir aspectos metodológicos utilizados en la encuesta nacional de condiciones de vida desde el 2014 hasta el 2022.


The present review arises given the importance givento the National Survey of Living Conditions (ENCOVI) of Venezuela, the edition of said survey provides representative information on the economic, social and health situation ofhouseholds in the country. The results of the survey allowresearchers and experts to analyze and understand the magnitudeof the crisis in its various aspects and its effects on the populationand living conditions, which makes it an essential tool tounderstand the problems faced by the population. of Venezuelaand how to address them effectively. The ENCOVI providesuseful information, not only to civil society and NGOs, butalso to government institutions when disseminated throughthe media, providing important inputs for addressing publicproblems and challenges in each sector, allowing understandingof the conditions of life in Venezuelan homes. The research is based on a bibliographic-documentary design, carrying out6 phases consisting of: search, compilation, review, selection,organization and systematic review. The objective is to describemethodological aspects used in the national survey of livingconditions from 2014 to 2022.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Condições Sociais/economia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Demografia , Estado Nutricional , Governo
16.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 379, dic. 2023. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1531863

RESUMO

los modelos público-sanitarios de caráctermonopólico como el venezolano, suelen asociarse a tendencias al racionamiento de los bienes y servicios que proveen a sus usuarios, así como a la merma de la calidad de estos. Por otro lado, la provisión de dichos bienes y servicios por la vía de mecanismos de mercado, tiene ante sí, el inconveniente que supone el ambiente inflacionario de su economía, cuyo impacto en los precios limita el acceso del paciente a su consumo. El caso de la enfermedad cardiovascular ofrece algunas claves para la comprensión de este fenómeno en el medio venezolano.


Public-health models of a monopolistic nature, suchas the Venezuelan, bring with them trends in the rationing ofthe goods and services they provide to their users, as well as inthe reduction of their quality. On the other hand, the provisionof these goods and services by means of market mechanisms hasbefore it, in our environment, the enormous impediment posedby the inflationary environment of its economy, whose impacton prices limits the patient's access to consumption. The case of cardiovascular disease offers some keys to understanding thisphenomenon in the Venezuelan environment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Iniquidades em Saúde , Inflação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Médicos , Serviços de Saúde
17.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 375, dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532384

RESUMO

En la actualidad Venezuela se encuentra en una crisis social y económica sin precedentes. La mortalidad materna(MM) es un indicador en salud importante, debido a que permite tener idea de la atención médica de un país; se mide a través de dos indicadores: Razón de Mortalidad Materna (RMM) y Tasa de Mortalidad Materna (TMM). Objetivo: Revisar y compararla evolución de ambos indicadores de MM desde la década de 1930 hasta la década 2000. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura y de informes técnicos de organismos gubernamentales y no gubernamentales para el análisis de la situación previa y reciente de esta situación en Venezuela. Los resultados señalan que existe una notable disminución de las cifras de MM como ha de esperarse con el mejoramiento de la tecnología desde la década de 1930 hasta el año 2000; posteriormente ocurre un retroceso de la sanidad pública con cifras comparables a la década de 1960. Concluimos que la MM ha sido desde tiempos pasados un problema constante en la salud pública; al pasar los años y gobiernos, se han implementado numerosas políticas públicas para mejorar esta situación, muchas de estas estrategias han sido fallidas debido a la falta de su continuidad y de su cumplimiento pleno.


Venezuela is currently in an unprecedented socialand economic crisis. Maternal mortality is an important health indicator because it provides an idea of a country's medical care. Maternal mortality is usually measured through two indicators: Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate. Objective: Review and compare the evolution of both healthindicators from the 1930s to 2016. Methods: A review of the literature and technical reports from governmental andnon-governmental organizations was carried out to analyze theprevious and recent situation. of this situation in Venezuela. Theresults indicate that there is a notable decrease in the figures ofmaternal mortality, as should be expected with the improvementof technology from the 1930s to the year 2000. Subsequently, there is a decline in public health with figures comparable to the1960s. We conclude that maternal mortality has been a constant problem in public health since ancient times. Over the years and governments, numerous public policies have been implementedto improve this situation. Many of these strategies have beenfailed due to lack of continuity and in the absence of its full compliance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Mortalidade Materna , Morte Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Atenção à Saúde
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(4): 255-264, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537468

RESUMO

Introducción. La circunferencia de cuello es una medida de fácil acceso y bajo costo, que podría ayudar a la identificación del sobrepeso u obesidad. Objetivo. Determinar la precisión diagnóstica de la circunferencia de cuello para la predicción de sobrepeso y obesidad en estudiantes universitarios mexicanos y analizar la correlación entre la circunferencia de cuello con otros indicadores antropométricos y la presión arterial como factor de riesgo cardiovascular. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, analítico en 236 universitarios. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas y presión arterial. Se realizaron análisis de las curvas ROC para obtener la sensibilidad y especificidad de los puntos de corte para la predicción de sobrepeso u obesidad y correlaciones de Pearson de circunferencia de cuello vs variables antropométricas. Resultados. Se observó, en hombres y mujeres, una correlación fuerte entre circunferencia de cuello y peso [r= 0,74 y r= 0,82 (p<0,01), respectivamente], seguida por IMC [r= 0,77 y r= 0,75 (p<0,01), respectivamente], circunferencia de cintura [r= 0,73 y r= 0,77 (p<0,01), respectivamente] e ICT [r= 0,71 y r= 0,73 (p<0,01), respectivamente]; se encontraron correlaciones moderadas para porcentaje de masa grasa y tensión arterial. La circunferencia de cuello vs circunferencia de cintura fue la mejor prueba de predicción para asociar el sobrepeso u obesidad tanto en hombres (AUC= 0,93; 89,3% sensibilidad y 82,3% especificidad) como mujeres (AUC= 0,95: 94,3% sensibilidad y 82,3% especificidad). Conclusiones. Los puntos de corte de la circunferencia de cuello presentan una adecuada capacidad para predecir el sobrepeso y obesidad en jóvenes adultos mexicanos(AU)


Introduction. Neck circumference is an easily accessible and low-cost measure, which could help in the identification of overweight or obesity. Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of neck circumference for the prediction of overweight and obesity in Mexican university students and to analyze the correlation between neck circumference and other anthropometric indicators and blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional, analytical study in 236 university students. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. ROC curve analysis was performed to obtain the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off points for the prediction of overweight or obesity and Pearson correlations of neck circumference vs anthropometric variables. Results. A strong correlation was observed, in men and women, between neck circumference and weight [r= 0.74 and r= 0.82 (p<0.01), respectively], followed by BMI [r= 0.77 and r= 0.75 (p<0.01), respectively], waist circumference [r= 0.73 and r= 0.77 (p<0.01), respectively] and ICT [r= 0.71 and r= 0.73 (p<0.01), respectively]; moderate correlations were found for percent fat mass and blood pressure. Neck circumference vs waist circumference was the best predictive test for associating overweight or obesity in both men (AUC= 0.93; 89.3% sensitivity and 82.3% specificity) and women (AUC= 0.95: 94.3% sensitivity and 82.3% specificity). Conclusions. Neck circumference cut-off points present adequate ability to predict overweight and obesity in Mexican young adults(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropometria , Circunferência da Cintura , Pressão Atrial
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(4): 265-275, dic. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537472

RESUMO

Introducción. El brote de COVID-19 generó cambios significativos en los hábitos alimentarios asociados a las medidas de confinamiento y distanciamiento social. Objetivo. Evaluar los hábitos alimentarios asociados a la emergencia sanitaria COVID-19 en adultos chilenos durante el año 2020. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en adultos chilenos seleccionados mediante muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se utilizó una encuesta validada por juicio de expertos, que incluyó preguntas sobre características sociodemográficas, ingesta habitual de alimentos y percepción de cambios de hábitos alimentarios durante el confinamiento. Resultados. Participaron 4.346 adultos chilenos con una edad promedio de 35,8 ± 13,9 años, predominantemente residentes urbanos (94,3%) y mujeres (75,1%). Se observó un aumento en el abastecimiento de alimentos en los hogares durante el confinamiento. La mayoría de los participantes manifestó que mantuvo o aumentó el consumo de verduras, frutas, lácteos, pescado y legumbres. Sin embargo, la ingesta de alimentos saludables no alcanzó las recomendaciones nutricionales establecidas. Adicionalmente, se encontró un aumento en el consumo de dulces. Conclusiones. Este estudio revela los efectos del confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19 en los hábitos alimentarios de los adultos chilenos, donde un porcentaje considerable de la población no cumplió con las recomendaciones de una dieta equilibrada según las guías alimentarias chilenas. El aumento en el consumo de algunos alimentos poco saludables puede tener implicaciones en la salud y el estado nutricional. Es necesario fomentar una alimentación equilibrada durante situaciones de crisis como esta pandemia(AU)


Introduction. The COVID-19 outbreak has led to significant changes in dietary habits due to confinement and social distancing measures. Objective. To assess the dietary habits associated with the COVID-19 health emergency among Chilean adults during the year 2020. Materials and methods. An observational, descriptive, and cross- sectional study was conducted on Chilean adults selected through non-probabilistic convenience sampling. A survey validated by expert judgment was used, including questions on sociodemographic characteristics, usual food intake, and perceived changes in dietary habits during confinement. Results. A total of 4,346 Chilean adults participated in the study, with an average age of 35.8 ± 13.9 years, predominantly urban residents (94.3%), and female (75.1%). An increase in household food supplies during confinement was observed. Most participants reported maintaining or increasing their consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy, fish, and legumes. However, the intake of healthy foods did not meet the established nutritional recommendations. Additionally, there was an increase in the consumption of sweets. Conclusions. This study reveals the effects of COVID-19 confinement on the dietary habits of Chilean adults, where a considerable percentage of the population did not comply with the recommended balanced diet according to Chilean dietary guidelines. The increased consumption of some unhealthy foods may have implications for health and nutritional status. It is essential to promote balanced eating during crisis situations like this pandemic(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Quarentena , Comportamento Alimentar , COVID-19 , Fatores Sociodemográficos
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(4): 276-286, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537477

RESUMO

Introducción. La investigación sobre la pandemia de COVID-19, se ha estudiado en tiempo real, ha sido y sigue siendo reveladora. Objetivo. Analizar la morbilidad y la mortalidad por COVID-19, asociadas a factores de riesgo metabólicos en población no indígena e indígena de México. Materiales y métodos. Utilizamos la Base Nacional de Datos COVID-19, durante los años críticos 2020-2021- 2022. Se trabajó con 5.380.247 casos que representaron la población total de positivos al SARS-CoV-2. Se analizaron las discrepancias entre las prevalencias de población no indígena, población indígena, defunción y no defunción. Se definió población indígena, con la clasificación oficial de auto-identificación. Se aplicó el modelo de regresión logística para determinar el riesgo de morir para cada variable: enfermedades cardiovasculares, hipertensión, diabetes, obesidad, sexo, edad y condición indígena. El análisis de multicolinealidad se analizó a través de la prueba de asociación Phi para variables dicotómicas y a través del ajuste de Nagelkerke. Resultados. En los positivos totales 99,2% fue población no indígena y 0,8% indígenas, mientras su porcentaje de letalidad fue de 5,8% y 11,1% respectivamente. En ambos grupos, murieron más hombres (61,5%) que mujeres (38,5%) y las edades de mayor defunción fueron 60 a 79 años. La mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares fue la de mayor incidencia, 26,6% en población general y 32,3% en indígena; por diabetes 22,1% y 27,9%; hipertensión 20,0% y 26,7%y la obesidad 11, 3% y 17,4% respectivamente. Los análisis de regresión logística se ajustaron por sexo, edad y condición indígena. El condicionante de mayor riesgo de muerte, fueron las comorbilidades metabólicas y el de menor riesgo, la condición indígena. Conclusiones. El impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 fue más grave cuando hubo padecimientos metabólicos tanto en la población no indígena como en la indígena(AU)


Introduction. Research on the COVID-19 pandemic, studied in real time, has been and continues to be revealing. Objective. To analyze morbidity and mortality from COVID-19, associated with metabolic risk factors in non-indigenous and indigenous populations of Mexico. Materials and methods. We use the National COVID-19 Database, during the critical years 2020-2021-2022. We worked with 5,380,247 cases that represented the total population of SARS-CoV-2 positives. The discrepancies between the prevalence of non-indigenous population, indigenous population, death and non-death were analyzed. The indigenous population was defined, with the official self-identification classification. The logistic regression model was applied to determine the risk of dying for each variable: cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, sex, age and indigenous status. The multicollinearity analysis was analyzed through the Phi association test for dichotomous variables and through the Nagelkerke adjustment. Results. Of the total positives, 99.2% were non-indigenous people and 0.8% were indigenous, while their fatality percentage was 5.8% and 11.1% respectively. In both groups, more men (61.5%) than women (38.5%) died and the ages of greatest death were 60 to 79 years. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was the one with the highest incidence, 26.6% in the general population and 32.3% in the indigenous population; due to diabetes 22.1% and 27.9%; hypertension 20.0% and 26.7% and obesity 11.3% and 17.4% respectively. Logistic regression analyzes were adjusted for sex, age, and indigenous status. The condition with the highest risk of death was metabolic comorbidities and the lowest risk was indigenous status. Conclusions. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was more serious when there were metabolic disorders in both the non-indigenous and indigenous populations(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Povos Indígenas , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Metabólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Hipertensão , Obesidade
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